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Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau 2017 The University of San Francisco

Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau

Master's Projects and Capstones

There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...


Road Salt Use And Groundwater Quality: Cedar Falls, Ia, Brian Gedlinske 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Road Salt Use And Groundwater Quality: Cedar Falls, Ia, Brian Gedlinske

Brian Gedlinske

Since 1940, road salt use in the United States has escalated from roughly 0.28 to over 16 million metric tons annually. This long-term, intense deicing use has created environmental concerns – typically over surface water quality, aquatic life, and vegetation. Recent work, however, also ties road salt use to rising chloride (Cl-) concentrations in groundwater supplies.


Green Church Case Study: Implementing Incremental Improvements In Sustainability, Brian Gedlinske, Bryant Campbell 2017 University of Northern Iowa. Iowa Waste Reduction Center.

Green Church Case Study: Implementing Incremental Improvements In Sustainability, Brian Gedlinske, Bryant Campbell

Brian Gedlinske

Orchard Hill Church (OHC), a project of the Reformed Church in America denomination, is located in Cedar Falls, Iowa. Since gaining approval for establishment in 1961 and its initial groundbreaking in 1962, OHC has grown dramatically in attendance, staffing, and building additions. During a time when a vast majority of churches are seeing declining numbers and donations, OHC has been expanding by catering to people wanting to experience worship in an informal, contemporary style with relevant teachings targeted to growing Christians and their families. Sunday service attendees are greeted at the door, frequent OHC’s coffee shops, and enjoy contemporary ...


Lake Water Quality, Recreation, & Restoration: The Importance Of Stakeholder Involvement, Biran Gedlinske, Wade Kooiman, Katie Olsen 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Lake Water Quality, Recreation, & Restoration: The Importance Of Stakeholder Involvement, Biran Gedlinske, Wade Kooiman, Katie Olsen

Brian Gedlinske

Historically, Iowa’s lakes have been plagued with numerous water quality problems including excessive siltation, nutrients, pesticides, and bacterial contamination. Iowa places a heavy reliance on voluntary efforts to address these problems, largely in the form of best management practices (BMPs). Studies have shown that BMPs can improve lake water quality and, in turn, increase recreational activity and visitor spending. In recognition of the potential economic, recreational, and social benefits of improved lake water quality, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) secured significant legislative funding in 2006 to initiate a state-wide lake restoration program (LRP).

LRP case studies are ...


Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, R. K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart 2017 Iowa State University

Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, R. K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart

Timothy W. Stewart

Streams are natural features in urban landscapes that can provide ecosystem services for urban residents. However, urban streams are under increasing pressure caused by multiple anthropogenic impacts, including increases in human population and associated impervious surface area, and accelerated climate change. The ability to anticipate these changes and better understand their effects on streams is important for developing and implementing strategies to mitigate potentially negative effects. In this study, stream flow was monitored during April-November (2011 and 2012), and the data were used to apply the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for five urban watersheds in central Iowa, USA, representing ...


Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz 2017 Iowa State University

Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz

Timothy W. Stewart

Urban stream condition is often degraded by human activities in the surrounding watershed. Given the complexity of urban areas, relationships among variables that cause stream degradation can be difficult to isolate. We examined factors affecting stream condition by evaluating social, terrestrial, stream hydrology and water quality variables from 20 urban stream watersheds in central Iowa, U.S.A. We used path analysis to examine and quantify social and ecological factors related to variation in stream conditions. Path models supported hypotheses that stream water quality was influenced by variables in each category. Specifically, one path model indicated that increased stream water ...


Quantifying The Role Of Riparian Management To Control Non-Point Source Pollution Of Pasture And Cropland Streams, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, John Kovar, Daryl R. Strohbehn, John D. Lawrence, Mathew M. Haan, Shelly Lee Nellesen, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard Schultz 2017 Iowa State University

Quantifying The Role Of Riparian Management To Control Non-Point Source Pollution Of Pasture And Cropland Streams, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, John Kovar, Daryl R. Strohbehn, John D. Lawrence, Mathew M. Haan, Shelly Lee Nellesen, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard Schultz

Thomas M. Isenhart

Grazing management practices have the potential to mitigate some problems with sediment and phosphorus loading in pasture streams. The project demonstrated possible strategies to lessen grazing impacts on streams.


Reconnecting Iowa Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (1), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa State University

Reconnecting Iowa Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (1), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Changing the configuration of tile drainage structures to allow subsurface flow through a riparian buffer could offer farmers another option for nitrate removal. This project examined the effects of using tiling and buffers to enhance the denitrification process.


Riparian Buffer Systems In Crop And Rangelands, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas M. Isenhart, Joseph P. Colletti 2017 Iowa State University

Riparian Buffer Systems In Crop And Rangelands, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas M. Isenhart, Joseph P. Colletti

Thomas M. Isenhart

Riparian ecosystems occupy a narrow belt of land along streams and around lakes and wetlands and are characterized by plant and animal communities that are dependent on close proximity to water. These ecotones function as buffer zones for materials moving from the uplands toward the surface water. They control stream morphology and ecology and also maintain landscape biodiversity by providing diverse habitats and corridors for animals and plants. Most of the riparian zones in the Midwestern agroecosystems and arid and semiarid western rangelands have been extensively impacted by agricultural cropping and grazing activities. These impacts have generally decreased water quality ...


Hydrologic Changes In Iowa's River Systems / Flood Resilience, Keith E. Schilling, Mark Ackelson, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa Geological and Water Survey

Hydrologic Changes In Iowa's River Systems / Flood Resilience, Keith E. Schilling, Mark Ackelson, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

No abstract provided.


Reconnecting Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (2), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin 2017 Iowa State University

Reconnecting Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (2), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin

Thomas M. Isenhart

This is a continuation of an earlier pilot project (E2010-01) where tile discharge was rerouted to allow subsurface flow through an established riparian buffer. This third year of observations allowed researchers to gather more data on nitrate removal using this system.


Pce Groundwater Quality Assessment Of The University Of Northern Iowa Campus Area, Brian Gedlinske 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Pce Groundwater Quality Assessment Of The University Of Northern Iowa Campus Area, Brian Gedlinske

Brian Gedlinske

Perchloroethylene (PCE), is a colorless, nonflammable, and relatively insoluble chlorinated solvent once widely used for dry cleaning and metal degreasing operations. Because of its past widespread use, poor solvent management practices, and environmental persistence, PCE is a common contaminant found in groundwater supplies. Potential health concerns include liver problems and increased cancer risk. This research paper presents the findings of an effort to better characterize the spatial, temporal, and transport attributes of a PCE groundwater plume that exists within the Devonian aquifer underlying the University of Northern Iowa campus and the surrounding area in Cedar Falls, Iowa. Findings reveal the ...


Assessing Surface Flowpaths And Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Spatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, M. Bansal, S. K. Mickelson, M. J. Helmers, K. Arora, D. Webber, B. K. Gelder, M. Shrivastav, C. J. Judge 2017 Infospace, Inc.

Assessing Surface Flowpaths And Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Spatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, M. Bansal, S. K. Mickelson, M. J. Helmers, K. Arora, D. Webber, B. K. Gelder, M. Shrivastav, C. J. Judge

Steven K. Mickelson

Non point-source (NPS) pollution is a major cause of surface water quality degradation due to the transport of chemicals, nutrients, and sediments into lakes and streams. Vegetative buffers comprise several effective landscape Best Management Practices (BMPs) that include Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS) buffers, grassed waterways, terraces, and wetlands. However, some BMPs are ineffective due to concentrated surface flow, improper cropland/contributing area to VFS buffer area ratios, and flowpaths that completely bypass vegetative buffers. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of VFS buffers and other vegetative BMPs to intercept surface runoff by quantifying the accuracy ...


Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. DeVault, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. Devault, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant) has been observed with increasing frequency in the alluvial plain (Delta region) of Mississippi. In the past 6 years, 22 individuals have been observed in 20 separate sightings during spring and summer. These sightings have occurred at breeding colonies of other colonial waterbirds and commercial aquaculture facilities of Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh). Two sexually mature Neotropic Cormorants have been collected at a colonial waterbird breeding colony near the Mississippi River in the western Delta region among fl ocks of Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorants). Twice during the summer of 2008, confi rmed nesting of Neotropic Cormorants ...


Using Variance Components To Estimate Power In A Hierarchically Nested Sampling Design, Maria Dzul, Philip M. Dixon, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines 2017 Iowa State University

Using Variance Components To Estimate Power In A Hierarchically Nested Sampling Design, Maria Dzul, Philip M. Dixon, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines

Stephen J Dinsmore

We used variance components to assess allocation of sampling effort in a hierarchically nested sampling design for ongoing monitoring of early life history stages of the federally endangered Devils Hole pupfish (DHP) (Cyprinodon diabolis). Sampling design for larval DHP included surveys (5 days each spring 2007–2009), events, and plots. Each survey was comprised of three counting events, where DHP larvae on nine plots were counted plot by plot. Statistical analysis of larval abundance included three components: (1) evaluation of power from various sample size combinations, (2) comparison of power in fixed and random plot designs, and (3) assessment of ...


Identifying Sources Of Error In Surveys Of Devils Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon Diabolis), Maria Dzul, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Philip M. Dixon, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines 2017 Iowa State University

Identifying Sources Of Error In Surveys Of Devils Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon Diabolis), Maria Dzul, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Philip M. Dixon, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines

Stephen J Dinsmore

We assessed four potential sources of error in estimating size of the population of Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis): net, time of day, diver, and order of diver. Experimental dives (3/day) were conducted during 4 days in July 2009. Effects of the four sources of error on estimates from dive surveys were analyzed using a split-split plot ANOVA. Diver and order of diver had no significant influence on estimates, whereas the effect of presence or absence of a net was significant. Effects of time of day and presence or absence of a net showed a significant interaction with depth ...


Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Drastic losses of wetland habitats across North America over the past century have resulted in population declines of many marsh birds therefore emphasizing the need for proper management of remaining wetlands for the conservation of marsh birds. Our objective was to evaluate the probability of site occupancy of secretive marsh birds in Iowa in response to habitat variables at multiple scales. We conducted call-broadcast surveys for eight species of marsh birds at wetlands in Iowa from 16 May–15 July 2009 and from 20 April–10 July 2010. We utilized occupancy models in Program MARK to estimate site occupancy probability ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Landscape Configuration On Site Occupancy And Movement Dynamics Of Odonates In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Karen Kinkhead, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluating The Effects Of Landscape Configuration On Site Occupancy And Movement Dynamics Of Odonates In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Karen Kinkhead, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Odonates contribute highly to global biodiversity and are considered good indicators of environmental quality, but they are under-studied and quantitative information on their habitat associations is lacking. Our objective was to examine the effects of landscape configuration on site occupancy and movement dynamics of four odonate species in Iowa: Tramea onusta, Epitheca princeps, Pantala flavescens, and Calopteryx maculata. We conducted standardized visual encounter surveys for odonates at 233 public properties in Iowa from 2007 to 2011 and computed landscape variables within a 200, 600 m, and 1 km radius of each surveyed site. Using a robust design occupancy model in ...


Comparison Of Sampling Strategies To Estimate Abundance Of Double-Crested Cormorants In Western Mississippi, Aaron T. Pearse, Brian S. Dorr, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Richard M. Kaminski 2017 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS

Comparison Of Sampling Strategies To Estimate Abundance Of Double-Crested Cormorants In Western Mississippi, Aaron T. Pearse, Brian S. Dorr, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Richard M. Kaminski

Stephen J Dinsmore

We compared 2 sampling strategies designed to estimate abundance of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, hereafter cormorants) on aquaculture ponds in western Mississippi. Cormorants are a major predator of cultured channel catfish (lctalurus punctatus) in this region; thus, estimating cormorant abundance is needed to better determine their economic impact We independently designed a species-specific survey (i.e., cluster sampling) and a general survey (i.e., transect sampling) based on robust probability sampling theory to estimate abundance of this target population. During winters 2002-2003 and 2003-2004, we conducted 8 pairs of surveys and compared estimates of cormorant abundance and associated precision using ...


Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Wetlands continue to decline throughout North America and the Prairie Pothole Region, thus emphasizing the importance of understanding population trends and habitat associations of wetland species to ensure effective conservation and habitat management of those species. We estimated density and abundance and evaluated habitat associations of the Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana georgiana) in Iowa. We conducted standardized distance sampling surveys for Swamp Sparrows and measured habitat characteristics at 307 wetlands in two regions of Iowa in 2009 and 2010. We used Program Distance to model detection probability and estimate region-specific breeding densities of Swamp Sparrows at Iowa wetlands. We ...


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