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The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...


What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon 2018 The University of San Francisco

What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon

Master's Theses

This thesis analyzes the international discourse of greenhouse gas emissions in relation to livestock production. Specific government ministries, research institutes, and multilateral organizations are framing a new strategy to mitigate emissions by using emissions intensity metrics. Emissions intensity is a ratio comparing emissions produced per unit of animal product as oppose to measuring absolute emissions. This research is acknowledged as a win-win scenario which allows for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while continuing production more efficiently. This thesis outlines the emergence of this metric in international discourse and the implications this shift has on the livestock sector globally. Ultimately ...


Africa's Urban Adaptation Transition Under A 1.5° Climate, Mark Pelling, Hayley Leck, Lorena Pasquini, Idowu Ajibade, Emanuel Osuteye, Susan Parnell, Shuaib Lwasa, Cassidy Johnson, Arabella Fraser, Alejandro Barcena, Soumana Boubacar 2018 King's College London

Africa's Urban Adaptation Transition Under A 1.5° Climate, Mark Pelling, Hayley Leck, Lorena Pasquini, Idowu Ajibade, Emanuel Osuteye, Susan Parnell, Shuaib Lwasa, Cassidy Johnson, Arabella Fraser, Alejandro Barcena, Soumana Boubacar

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Highlights

• Everyday risk associated with inadequate basic infrastructure and poverty make even small natural hazards impactful in African cities.

• Enhanced development opportunity is the best for of risk reduction.

• Integrating risk reduction into development is constrained by donor priorities, fragmented city governance and data and monitoring gaps.

• Integrating risk reduction into development is enabled through community networks collaborating with city authorities, locally accountable leadership and improved risk data and forecasting.


Temporal Statistical Analysis Of Urban Heat Islands At The Microclimate Level, Pui Yun, Paulina WONG, Poh Chin LAI, Melissa HART 2018 University of Hong Kong

Temporal Statistical Analysis Of Urban Heat Islands At The Microclimate Level, Pui Yun, Paulina Wong, Poh Chin Lai, Melissa Hart

Prof. WONG, Pui Yun, Paulina

Urban Heat Islands (UHI) represent the air temperature difference between urban and rural areas. This study deployed a network of miniature sensors to capture road-side microclimate data in both summer and winter. Temporal variations indicated UHI were evident for all time scales, with daily highest and lowest UHI at around midnight and noon/early afternoon respectively. Meteorological and environmental factors influencing UHI were also statistically analyzed by automatic linear regression models. Regression results suggested solar radiation and greenery density were the most important factors with a negative association with UHI intensities in both seasons.


Modeling Mayfly Nymph Length Distribution And Population Dynamics Across A Gradient Of Stream Temperatures And Stream Types, Jeremy Anthony, Jennifer Baccam, Imanuel Bier, Emily Gregg, Leif Halverson, Ryan Mulcahy, Emmanuel Okanla, Samira A. Osman, Adam R. Pancoast, Kevin C. Schultz, Alex Sushko, Jennifer Vorarath, Yia Vue, Austin Wagner, Emily Gaenzle Schilling, John M. Zobitz 2018 Augsburg College

Modeling Mayfly Nymph Length Distribution And Population Dynamics Across A Gradient Of Stream Temperatures And Stream Types, Jeremy Anthony, Jennifer Baccam, Imanuel Bier, Emily Gregg, Leif Halverson, Ryan Mulcahy, Emmanuel Okanla, Samira A. Osman, Adam R. Pancoast, Kevin C. Schultz, Alex Sushko, Jennifer Vorarath, Yia Vue, Austin Wagner, Emily Gaenzle Schilling, John M. Zobitz

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

We analyze a process-based temperature model for the length distribution and population over time of mayfly nymphs. Model parameters are estimated using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation method utilizing length distribution data at five different stream sites. Two different models (a standard exponential model and a modified Weibull model) of mayfly mortality are evaluated, where in both cases mayfly length growth is a function of stream temperature. Based on model-data comparisons to the modeled length distribution and the Bayesian Information Criterion, we found that approaches that length distribution data can reliably estimate 2–3 model parameters. Future model ...


Re-Entrained Road Dust Pm10 Emission From Selected Streets Of Krakow And Its Impact On Air Quality, Marek Bogacki, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Adriana Szulecka 2018 AGH University o Science and Technology

Re-Entrained Road Dust Pm10 Emission From Selected Streets Of Krakow And Its Impact On Air Quality, Marek Bogacki, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Adriana Szulecka

Robert Oleniacz

Scientific research studies conducted in various parts of the world confirm that PM10 concentrations in urban air depend to a great extent on the resuspension processes of the dust deposited on the road surface. The paper presents the results of the study related to the determination of the re-entrained PM10 emissions from four selected streets of Krakow (Southern Poland) together with the assessment of its impact on air quality. Examined streets are characterised by different traffic intensity (from 500 to over 20 000 vehicles per day) and individual vehicle structure. Dust material sampling and estimation of the PM10 emission were ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Biofuel Production From Macroalgae (Seaweed), Mohsen Soleymani, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Biofuel Production From Macroalgae (Seaweed), Mohsen Soleymani, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD). By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production ...


Nest Survival Of Tricolored Blackbirds In California's Central Valley, Kelly Weintraub, T. Luke George, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2018 Humboldt State University

Nest Survival Of Tricolored Blackbirds In California's Central Valley, Kelly Weintraub, T. Luke George, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor), almost entirely restricted to California, USA, has recently been proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Tricolored Blackbirds historically nested in wetlands, but a large proportion of the population now nests in agricultural grain fields where the crop is ready to harvest before the young have fledged. Since 1991, federal agencies have paid farmers to delay harvesting in an effort to increase nesting productivity. However, the relative nesting success of Tricolored Blackbirds breeding in agricultural fields versus wetlands is unknown. Our objectives were to estimate daily survival rate (DSR) of nests, identify ...


Occupancy Dynamics In Human-Modified Landscapes In A Tropical Island: Implications For Conservation Design, Julissa I. Irizarry, Jamie A. Collazo, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2018 North Carolina State University

Occupancy Dynamics In Human-Modified Landscapes In A Tropical Island: Implications For Conservation Design, Julissa I. Irizarry, Jamie A. Collazo, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Aim Avian communities in human-modified landscapes exhibit varying patterns of local colonization and extinction rates, determinants of species occurrence. Our objective was to model these processes to identify habitat features that might enable movements and account for occupancy patterns in habitat matrices between the Guanica and Susua forest reserves. This knowledge is central to conservation design, particularly in ever changing insular landscapes. Location South-western Puerto Rico. Methods We used a multiseason occupancy modelling approach to quantify seasonal estimates of occupancy, and colonization and extinction rates of seven resident avian species surveyed over five seasons from January 2010 to June 2011 ...


Spatial Scale Matters When Modeling Avian Co-Occurrence, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2018 Iowa State University

Spatial Scale Matters When Modeling Avian Co-Occurrence, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

The spatial scale at which competition alters the spatial distribution of a species is important to consider when evaluating competitive interactions between species. The two-species occupancy model was developed to evaluate competitive interactions between two species while accounting for imperfect detection. However, no studies have incorporated spatial scale into such models. We developed an approach to incorporate spatial scale when evaluating species co-occurrence using the two-species occupancy model and tested our approach on two wetland passerines: the Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) and the Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris). We surveyed for Yellow-headed Blackbirds and Marsh Wrens using point counts at wetlands ...


Factors Affecting Snowy Plover Chick Survival In A Managed Population, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Eleanore P. Gaines, Scott F. Pearson, David J. Lauten, Kathleen A. Castelein 2018 Iowa State University

Factors Affecting Snowy Plover Chick Survival In A Managed Population, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Eleanore P. Gaines, Scott F. Pearson, David J. Lauten, Kathleen A. Castelein

Stephen J Dinsmore

Understanding survival of precocial chicks in the period immediately following hatching has important conservation implications because population growth is often sensitive to post-hatching survival. We studied federally threatened Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) broods at the northern limit of their range in coastal Oregon (n = 1,157) and Washington (n = 84) from 1991 to 2011 in an attempt to understand seasonal, annual, and spatial patterns of chick survival. In Oregon, plover chick survival increased with age, varied between sites, and was greater at sites with predator management. The mean probability of surviving from hatch to fledging at 28 days ...


Using Landscape Habitat Associations To Prioritize Areas Of Conservation Action For Terrestrial Birds, Tyler M. Harms, Kevin T. Murphy, Xiaodan Lyu, Shane S. Patterson, Karen E. Kinkead, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese 2018 Iowa State University

Using Landscape Habitat Associations To Prioritize Areas Of Conservation Action For Terrestrial Birds, Tyler M. Harms, Kevin T. Murphy, Xiaodan Lyu, Shane S. Patterson, Karen E. Kinkead, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese

Stephen J Dinsmore

Predicting species distributions has long been a valuable tool to plan and focus efforts for biodiversity conservation, particularly because such an approach allows researchers and managers to evaluate species distribution changes in response to various threats. Utilizing data from a long-term monitoring program and land cover data sets, we modeled the probability of occupancy and colonization for 38 bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the robust design occupancy modeling framework, and used results from the best models to predict occupancy and colonization on the Iowa landscape. Bird surveys were conducted at 292 properties from April to October, 2006 ...


An Assessment Of Factors Affecting Population Growth Of The Mountain Plover, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael B. Wunder, Victoria J. Dreitz, Fritz L. Knopf 2018 Iowa State University

An Assessment Of Factors Affecting Population Growth Of The Mountain Plover, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael B. Wunder, Victoria J. Dreitz, Fritz L. Knopf

Stephen J Dinsmore

Effective conservation measures should target the most sensitive life history attributes of a species, assuming they are responsive to potential management actions. The Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus) is a species of conservation concern with a patchy breeding distribution in western North America. Plovers prefer areas with short vegetation, bare ground, and disturbance for nesting. Current management tools, including grazing and burning, have been used to attract plovers and enhance nesting success. We used a stage-specific matrix model to study the influence of vital rates, e.g., juvenile and adult annual survival, on population growth rate in the Mountain Plover at ...


Characterizing The Scent And Chemical Composition Of Panthera Leo Marking Fluid Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel 2018 Iowa State University

Characterizing The Scent And Chemical Composition Of Panthera Leo Marking Fluid Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

Lions (Panthera leo) use chemical signaling to indicate health, reproductive status, and territorial ownership. To date, no study has reported on both scent and composition of marking fluid (MF) from P. leo. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a novel method for simultaneous chemical and scent identification of lion MF in its totality (urine + MF), 2) identify characteristic odorants responsible for the overall scent of MF as perceived by human panelists, and 3) compare the existing library of known odorous compounds characterized as eliciting behaviors in animals in order to understand potential functionality in lion behavior. Solid-phase ...


Characterization And Biodegradation Behavior Of Bio-Based Poly(Lactic Acid) And Soy Protein Blends For Sustainable Horticultural Applications, Shengzhe Yang, Samy A. Madbouly, James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David A. Grewell, Kenneth McCabe, Michael R. Kessler, William R. Graves 2018 Iowa State University

Characterization And Biodegradation Behavior Of Bio-Based Poly(Lactic Acid) And Soy Protein Blends For Sustainable Horticultural Applications, Shengzhe Yang, Samy A. Madbouly, James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David A. Grewell, Kenneth Mccabe, Michael R. Kessler, William R. Graves

David A. Grewell

Adipic anhydride-plasticized soy protein (SP.A) was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at two concentrations (50/50 and 33/67) and was evaluated for use as a sustainable replacement for petroleum plastic in horticulture crop containers. Following the discovery that SP.A/PLA blends provide additional functions above that of petroleum plastic for this application, the present study evaluates the biodegradation behavior of these materials in soil and describes the substantial improvements in sustainability that result from the additional functions (intrinsic fertilizer and root improvement of plants) and the end-of-life option of biodegradation. After being buried in soil for ...


Evapotranspiration Estimates Derived Using Multi-Platform Remote Sensing In A Semiarid Region, Kyle Knipper, Terri Hogue, Russell Scott, Kristie J. Franz 2018 Colorado School of Mines

Evapotranspiration Estimates Derived Using Multi-Platform Remote Sensing In A Semiarid Region, Kyle Knipper, Terri Hogue, Russell Scott, Kristie J. Franz

Kristie Franz

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the water balance, especially in arid and semiarid regions. The current study takes advantage of spatially-distributed, near real-time information provided by satellite remote sensing to develop a regional scale ET product derived from remotely-sensed observations. ET is calculated by scaling PET estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products with downscaled soil moisture derived using the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and a second order polynomial regression formula. The MODis-Soil Moisture ET (MOD-SMET) estimates are validated using four flux tower sites in southern Arizona USA, a calibrated empirical ET model, and model ...


Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon? Evidence From The Nepal Community Forestry Program, Randall Bluffstone, Eswaran Somanathan, Prakash Jha, Harisharan Luintel, Rajesh Bista, Mike Toman, Naya Paudel, Bhim Adhikari 2018 Portland State University

Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon? Evidence From The Nepal Community Forestry Program, Randall Bluffstone, Eswaran Somanathan, Prakash Jha, Harisharan Luintel, Rajesh Bista, Mike Toman, Naya Paudel, Bhim Adhikari

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Highlights

• Presumed open access forests have as little as 34% of those under collective action.

• No evidence that Community Forestry Programme forests store more carbon

.• Carbon from collective action not conditional on Community Forestry Programme.


Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor de Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli de Oliveira, Cilene do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha 2018 São Paulo State University

Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor De Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela Da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli De Oliveira, Cilene Do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro De Magalhães Padilha

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

This paper presents a slurry sampling method for total mercury determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) in tissue of fish from the Amazon. The tissue samples were lyophilized and macerated, and then the slurry samples were prepared by putting 20 mg of tissue, added to a solution containing Triton X-100, Suprapur HNO3, and zirconium nitrate directly in sampling vials of a spectrometer. Mercury standard solutions were prepared under the same conditions as the slurry samples. The slurry samples and the mercury standard solutions were sonicated for 20 s. Twenty microliters of slurry samples were injected into the ...


Ecosystem Services As Boundary Objects For Transdisciplinary Collaboration, Cara Steger, Shana Hirsch, Cody Evers, Benjamin Branoff, Maria Petrova, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Chloe Wardropper, Carena J. van Riper 2018 Colorado State University

Ecosystem Services As Boundary Objects For Transdisciplinary Collaboration, Cara Steger, Shana Hirsch, Cody Evers, Benjamin Branoff, Maria Petrova, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Chloe Wardropper, Carena J. Van Riper

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

The ecosystem services (ES) framework has potential to bring transdisciplinary teams together to achieve societal goals. Some label ES as “boundary objects” that help integrate diverse forms of knowledge across social groups and organizational scales. However, this classification masks complexities that arise from unique characteristics of ES types (i.e., provisioning, regulating, and cultural), which influence their ability to function as boundary objects. We argue that interpretive flexibility and material structures interact in distinct ways across ES types throughout a boundary object “life cycle.” Viewing a 2015 U.S. federal memorandum as a catalyst, we critically evaluate the evolution of ...


The Role Of Environmental Filtering In Structuring Appalachian Tree Communities: Topographic Influences On Functional Diversity Are Mediated Through Soil Characteristics, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. McEwan 2018 University of Dayton

The Role Of Environmental Filtering In Structuring Appalachian Tree Communities: Topographic Influences On Functional Diversity Are Mediated Through Soil Characteristics, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Identifying the drivers of community assembly has long been a central goal in ecology, and the development of functional diversity indices has provided a new way of detecting the influence of environmental gradients on biotic communities. For an old-growth Appalachian forest, we used path analysis to understand how patterns of tree functional diversity relate to topography and soil gradients and to determine whether topographic effects are mediated through soil chemistry. All of our path models supported the idea of environmental filtering: stressful areas (high elevation, low soil moisture, low soil nutrients) were occupied by communities of low functional diversity, which ...


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