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Investigation Of Cryptotephra In Polar Ice Cores, Meredith Helmick 2022 University of Maine

Investigation Of Cryptotephra In Polar Ice Cores, Meredith Helmick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Volcanic ash (tephra) present within polar ice cores greatly supplements our understanding of past volcanism and its impacts on society and the state of the climate system. This thesis investigates the utility and limitations of ice core tephrochronology in answering questions related to volcanic source identification of ice core glaciochemical signals, tephrostratigraphy of an Antarctic ice core, and the timing of major and climate forcing eruptions. This thesis explores the efficacy of SEM-EDS measurements on ultra-fine (µm) volcanic particles for the purpose of geochemically characterizing a non-visible ice-embedded tephra and the subsequent identification of the volcanic source. In combination with …


Surficial Geologic Mapping Of The Starkville 7.5-Minute United States Geological Survey Quadrangle 33088d-7 In Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, Jonathan Leard 2022 Mississippi State University

Surficial Geologic Mapping Of The Starkville 7.5-Minute United States Geological Survey Quadrangle 33088d-7 In Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, Jonathan Leard

Theses and Dissertations

The Starkville Quadrangle is a hotspot for geological research. The Late Cretaceous is represented by the Demopolis Formation in the northeast corner of the quadrangle, followed by the Ripley Formation, and the Prairie Bluff Formation. The K-Pg boundary is exposed in the quadrangle, and the remarkable paleontology is of global importance. The Clayton Formation is the first Paleocene unit. Where the Clayton Formation channel sands are in contact with the underlying Prairie Bluff Formation, springs occur. Springs were a rare source of water in the Black Prairie and spurred the settlement of the area over 10,000 years ago. The Paleocene …


Inverting Passive Margin Stratigraphy For Marine Sediment Transport Dynamics Over Geologic Time, Charles Shobe, Jean Braun, Xiaoping Yuan, Benjamin Campforts, Boris Gailleton, Guillaume Baby, François Guillocheau, Cécile Robin 2022 West Virginia University

Inverting Passive Margin Stratigraphy For Marine Sediment Transport Dynamics Over Geologic Time, Charles Shobe, Jean Braun, Xiaoping Yuan, Benjamin Campforts, Boris Gailleton, Guillaume Baby, François Guillocheau, Cécile Robin

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Passive margin stratigraphy contains time-integrated records of landscapes that have long since vanished. Quantitatively reading the stratigraphic record using coupled landscape evolution and stratigraphic forward models (SFMs) is a promising approach to extracting information about landscape history. However, there is no consensus about the optimal form of simple SFMs because there has been a lack of direct tests against observed stratigraphy in well-constrained test cases. Specifically, the extent to which SFM behaviour over geologic space and timescales should be governed by local (downslope sediment flux depends only on local slope) versus nonlocal (sediment flux depends on factors other than local …


Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky

Doctoral Dissertations

Molar-tooth structure (MTS) is an enigmatic carbonate fabric that occurs mainly within Proterozoic carbonate host rocks. It is composed of two distinct features: cracks of various morphologies and crack-filling calcite microspar. Although the origins of MTS remain unknown, most previous investigation has focused on the formation of the cracks and mechanisms involved in the void space generation, with less emphasis on the intriguing carbonate fill. In this study I have investigated molar-tooth bearing carbonates from regions that span both paleogeography and geologic time. Analysis at the microscopic scale, including traditional petrography, cathodoluminescence petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and micrometer-scale geochemical analyses …


Fossils On The Floor Mosaics In The Rotunda Of The Nebraska State Capitol Second Edition, Robert F. Diffendal 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fossils On The Floor Mosaics In The Rotunda Of The Nebraska State Capitol Second Edition, Robert F. Diffendal

Robert F. Diffendal, Jr., Publications

The idea for this project arose during a field trip to the Nebraska State Capitol led by my long-time friend and colleague, Joe Hannibal, of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, during the Geological Society of America’s North-Central Section Meeting in Lincoln, Nebraska, on Saturday, April 26, 2014. One of Joe’s interests is historical buildings and their building stones. He put together a very useful guidebook to the building and its decorative stones (Hannibal, 2014) that we used on our tour.

One of the many places that we visited was the State Capitol Archives, located in the basement, where the …


Mid To Late Neogene (5.9-3.7 Ma) Epeirogenic Uplift And Associated Ultramafic Volcanism, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand, Katherine Anne Dvorak 2022 Western Michigan University

Mid To Late Neogene (5.9-3.7 Ma) Epeirogenic Uplift And Associated Ultramafic Volcanism, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand, Katherine Anne Dvorak

Dissertations

Cored marine sediments from Canterbury Basin Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 shelf sites U1351, U1353, and upper slope Site U1352 have been resampled with emphasis on benthic foraminifera from the Late Eocene to Late Pliocene. These new data coupled with paleo water-depth and age data from the nearby Clipper-1 petroleum exploration well, are used to develop a 1-dimensional basin subsidence model for the Canterbury Basin. Our model indicates there was widespread epeirogenic uplift of 890  350m, in the mid-Neogene (5.9-3.7 million years ago), which took place during concomitant ultramafic volcanism. Close association of uplift and volcanism could …


Characterization Of Quaternary Stratigraphy In The Mississippi Sound To Evaluate The Influence Of Geologic Heterogeneity On Submarine Groundwater Transport And Discharge, Zachary Peoples 2022 Mississippi State University

Characterization Of Quaternary Stratigraphy In The Mississippi Sound To Evaluate The Influence Of Geologic Heterogeneity On Submarine Groundwater Transport And Discharge, Zachary Peoples

Theses and Dissertations

Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) through seafloor sediments is gaining recognition as an important component of coastal water quality. Stratigraphic features creating geologic heterogeneity, such as incised paleochannels, may influence preferential pathways for SGD. The central Mississippi Sound is underlain by paleochannels that were incised into Pleistocene sediments while the area was subaerially exposed during the last glacial maximum and are now buried by transgressive Holocene deposits. In this thesis, newly collected chirp, previously published seismic reflection, and sediment core data are used to characterize the three-dimensional structure of the Holocene-Pleistocene contact. Results indicate that Pleistocene paleochannels cross-cut the study area, …


Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon

LSU Master's Theses

The Upper Pennsylvanian (323.2–289.9 Ma) and Lower Permian (289.9-251 Ma), (Wolfcamp and Spraberry formations) interval of the Midland Basin, West Texas, contains a mixed succession of shale, carbonate, and siltstone/sandstone lithofacies that accumulated in a deep-water marine environment under variable hydrographic restrictions. The heterogenous stratigraphy found in the Wolfcamp and Spraberry formation was formed in response to variations in sea level and a transition from a glacial to an interglacial climate during the Early Permian. These fluctuations left behind alternating beds of mudstone and carbonate, interwoven with thin sandstone beds. Because the Wolfcamp and Spraberry formations are highly heterolithic, it …


Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon

LSU Master's Theses

The Upper Pennsylvanian (323.2–289.9 Ma) and Lower Permian (289.9-251 Ma), (Wolfcamp and Spraberry formations) interval of the Midland Basin, West Texas, contains a mixed succession of shale, carbonate, and siltstone/sandstone lithofacies that accumulated in a deep-water marine environment under variable hydrographic restrictions. The heterogenous stratigraphy found in the Wolfcamp and Spraberry formation was formed in response to variations in sea level and a transition from a glacial to an interglacial climate during the Early Permian. These fluctuations left behind alternating beds of mudstone and carbonate, interwoven with thin sandstone beds. Because the Wolfcamp and Spraberry formations are highly heterolithic, it …


Conflicting Narratives In Geology: The Current Debate Surrounding The Beginning Of The Anthropocene Epoch, Carter Mitchell 2022 Germanna Community College

Conflicting Narratives In Geology: The Current Debate Surrounding The Beginning Of The Anthropocene Epoch, Carter Mitchell

Student Writing

Geologists currently debate the addition a new Epoch of geologic time called the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene is characterized by changes in the lithosphere resulting directly from human activity. This paper analyses the arguments in favor of and against the Anthropocene as well as the conflicting narratives concerning the beginning and scope of the Anthropocene.


The Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of Illinois Basin Paleosols: Recognizing Detrital, Pedogenic, And Diagenetic Minerals, Julia A. McIntosh 2022 Southern Methodist University

The Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of Illinois Basin Paleosols: Recognizing Detrital, Pedogenic, And Diagenetic Minerals, Julia A. Mcintosh

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The geochemical compositions of minerals in paleosols are assumed to be homogenous and attained through chemical weathering processes during episodes of pedogenesis in the geologic past. As such, the geochemical composition of minerals from paleosols may be used to reconstruct ancient climates and environments. One problem with this assumption is that paleosols were initially clastic sedimentary rocks or substrate prior to pedogenesis, thus it is likely that some portion of the paleosol is still composed of detrital minerals. Secondly, conditions may change in a sedimentary basin as the basin is buried and later uplifted, potentially triggering new mineralization or transformation …


Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2021, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel 2022 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2021, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel

Conservation and Survey Division

This report is a synthesis of groundwater-level monitoring programs in Nebraska. It is a continuation of the series of annual reports and maps produced by the Conservation and Survey Division (CSD) of the University of Nebraska in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the 1950s. Groundwater-level monitoring began in Nebraska in 1930 in an effort to survey the state’s groundwater resources and to observe changes in its availability on a continuing basis. The CSD and USGS cooperatively developed, maintained, and operated an observation-well network throughout the state. These two agencies were responsible for collecting and archiving this information, …


Baseflow And Water Resilience Variability In Two Water Management Units In Southeastern Brazil, Lucas Vituri Santarosa, Didier Gastmans, Troy E. Gilmore, Jan Boll, Sebastian Balbin Betancur, Vitor Fidelis Monteiro Gonçalves 2022 São Paulo State University

Baseflow And Water Resilience Variability In Two Water Management Units In Southeastern Brazil, Lucas Vituri Santarosa, Didier Gastmans, Troy E. Gilmore, Jan Boll, Sebastian Balbin Betancur, Vitor Fidelis Monteiro Gonçalves

Conservation and Survey Division

Changes in climate and water demand in densely populated regions increasingly affect hydrological systems, and, in turn, impact socioeconomic conditions. In this case study, we identify how the hydrogeological frameworks of two water resource management units, Tietê-Jacaré (TJ) and Piracicaba-Capivari-Jundiaí (PCJ) in Sao Paulo state (Brazil), control the baseflow processes and resilience in the face of streamflow fluctuations in response to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. The results reveal between 40% and 75% contributions of baseflow to total streamflow in basins overlying crystalline and sedimentary aquifers. The basins in PCJ which mostly overly crystalline aquifers, have shorter water residence times …


Regional Correlation And Depositional History Using Well Log And Core Data Of The Geneseo-Burket From The Poseidon 8m Well, Westmoreland County Pa, Usa, Spencer Leonard Williams Jr. 2022 West Virginia University

Regional Correlation And Depositional History Using Well Log And Core Data Of The Geneseo-Burket From The Poseidon 8m Well, Westmoreland County Pa, Usa, Spencer Leonard Williams Jr.

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Abstract

Regional Correlation and Depositional History using Well Log and Core Data of the Geneseo-Burket from the Poseidon 8M Well, Westmoreland County PA, USA



Spencer Williams

Natural gas producers have invested billions of dollars in Pennsylvania and West Virginia to establish significant gas production from the Devonian Marcellus Shale and the deeper Ordovician Utica-Point Pleasant interval. In addition, commercial gas production has been reported from several other Devonian shale units in the Appalachian region, including the Rhinestreet, Levanna, and Geneseo-Burket. The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas play in the United States. The Marcellus is located directly under the …


Using Geochemical Composition To Determine Paleo Environmental Conditions And Source Inputs In Paleozoic Rocks Within The Central Kansas Uplift Usa, Christiana Fumnanya Eziashi 2022 Fort Hays State University

Using Geochemical Composition To Determine Paleo Environmental Conditions And Source Inputs In Paleozoic Rocks Within The Central Kansas Uplift Usa, Christiana Fumnanya Eziashi

Master's Theses

Paleoenvironmental conditions, sediment characteristics and lateral continuity using chemostratigraphy are not well established for stratigraphic units associated with some small fields within the Central Kansas Uplift (CKU). Samples of drill cuttings recovered from six wells (Hottman #1, and Hottman-Furthmeyer#1, Yocemento #1, Mong Benno #2, Rhian #3 and Worcester #1) at 10 ft intervals between 3150 ft and 3900 ft below ground level, were processed and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The XRF technique was used to determine elemental compositions, and XRD was used to determine mineral content. The composition of the rock cuttings was used to …


The Impact Of Sampling Methodology On Soil Bulk Density Measurement By The Clod Method, Aldi J. Airori, Trinity Baker, Judith Turk 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Sampling Methodology On Soil Bulk Density Measurement By The Clod Method, Aldi J. Airori, Trinity Baker, Judith Turk

Conservation and Survey Division

The clod method is a widely used and accurate bulk density method. However, its use is limited to sampling from soil pits. This study was conducted to: 1) determine whether clods collected from cores provide similar bulk density measurements to those collected from soil pits and 2) evaluate the impact of various clod bulk density methods on carbon stock calculation. Clods were collected from soil pits, 5.1 cm soil cores, and 8.9 cm soil cores. Three-dimensional laser scanning was used to measure the volume of the soil clods before and after oven-drying and bulk density was calculated as the dry …


Strange Stones Of Skull Creek: Basalt Glacial Erratics And Omars In Eastern Nebraska, Robert M. Joeckel, Jesse T. Korus, Judith Turk, C. C. Arps, N. V. Arps, Leslie M. Howard 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Strange Stones Of Skull Creek: Basalt Glacial Erratics And Omars In Eastern Nebraska, Robert M. Joeckel, Jesse T. Korus, Judith Turk, C. C. Arps, N. V. Arps, Leslie M. Howard

Conservation and Survey Division

We describe unusual stream- reworked glacially transported rocks (erratics) from a locality 50 km east of the limit of all pre- Illinoian (pre- 190 ka) Pleistocene glaciations in the central USA. Almost all these erratics consist of the igneous rock basalt, and of those, the vast majority have at least one fl at, smooth face. Some have two or more such faces that meet at obtuse angles along one or more well- defi ned, straight edges. We attribute these features, as well as laminations, plumose marks, and other features, to columnar jointing in ancient lava fl ows and shallow intrusions. …


Geomorphic History And Preservation Of Archaeologically Significant Areas In The Hanford Reach Of The Columbia River, Washington State, Benjamin Deans 2022 Central Washington University

Geomorphic History And Preservation Of Archaeologically Significant Areas In The Hanford Reach Of The Columbia River, Washington State, Benjamin Deans

All Master's Theses

Archaeological sites near rivers may be preserved through burial, altered by exposure, or destroyed through erosion. Preserved because of the unusual needs of the Manhattan Project, the Hanford Reach is the only remaining free-flowing reach of the Columbia River and ideal for research into the geomorphic settings of archaeological sites along this river. The 1894 (742,000 cfs [20,900 m3/s]) and 1948 (690,000 cfs [19,000 m3/s]) floods were the largest in the historical record through the reach, but their relationship with geomorphic change and site preservation are less understood. To understand how floods have preserved and destroyed …


Colonial Markets, Consumers, And Trade: A Comparative Analysis Of Historic Ceramics From The Bluefields Bay Area, Westmoreland, Jamaica, Lacy Risner 2022 Murray State University

Colonial Markets, Consumers, And Trade: A Comparative Analysis Of Historic Ceramics From The Bluefields Bay Area, Westmoreland, Jamaica, Lacy Risner

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

The ceramic assemblages from a British colonial settlement in Bluefields Bay, Jamaica, provide a unique window into the market availability, exchange routes, and consumption patterns of the eighteenth century. This study compares the historic ceramics collected from two sites in Bluefields Bay to one another and to other intra-island (Jamaica), intraregional (Lesser Antilles), and international (North America) colonial and postcolonial sites to reveal patterns of individual and global ceramic consumption and distribution in the emergent capitalist networks and markets of the colonial era. Integrating small British colonial sites into the networks of other more extensive studies focusing primarily on plantations …


The Effects Of Channel Incision And Land Use On Surface-Water/Groundwater Interactions In The Teanaway River Basin, Washington, Usa, Joseph Petralia 2022 Central Washington University

The Effects Of Channel Incision And Land Use On Surface-Water/Groundwater Interactions In The Teanaway River Basin, Washington, Usa, Joseph Petralia

All Master's Theses

The Teanaway River basin, a major tributary to the Yakima River, is host to several restoration projects with the intention of returning the river channel to a more natural state and improving riparian habitat. These projects may also increase aquifer storage and potentially increase summertime streamflows. This study of the Teanaway Valley Family Farm, an 88-hectare parcel on the main-stem Teanaway River that was recently purchased by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, provides hydrogeologic data that will inform these restoration projects. Following the purchase of this land, ten wells were installed within and slightly above the floodplain in order …


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