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Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways

Zea E-Books

A survey of the archeological and paleontological literature allowed a compilation of Holocene records of mammals in Nebraska. This survey identified Holocene records from 338 sites in 62 of the 93 Nebraska counties. These counties were located throughout state, but there was a concentration of sites in southwestern Nebraska where there were 27 fossil sites in Frontier County and 22 in Harlan County. Fossils sites were underrepresented in the Sand Hills region. Records of fossil mammals covered the entire Holocene period from 13,000 years ago until AD 1850. A minimum of 57 species (with eight additional species potentially present ...


The Influence Of Juvenile Dinosaurs On Community Structure And Diversity, Katlin Schroeder, S. Kathleen Lyons, Felisa A. Smith 2021 University of New Mexico

The Influence Of Juvenile Dinosaurs On Community Structure And Diversity, Katlin Schroeder, S. Kathleen Lyons, Felisa A. Smith

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Despite dominating biodiversity in the Mesozoic, dinosaurs were not speciose. Oviparity constrained even gigantic dinosaurs to less than 15 kg at birth; growth through multiple morphologies led to the consumption of different resources at each stage. Such disparity between neonates and adults could have influenced the structure and diversity of dinosaur communities. Here, we quantified this effect for 43 communities across 136 million years and seven continents. We found that megatheropods (more than 1000 kg) such as tyrannosaurs had specific effects on dinosaur community structure. Although herbivores spanned the body size range, communities with megatheropods lacked carnivores weighing 100 to ...


Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2020, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel 2021 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2020, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel

Conservation and Survey Division

The term “groundwater” has come to be all but synonymous with Nebraska. Nearly three-quarters of the total volume of the High Plains Aquifer lies beneath the state. Groundwater maintains our streams, our ecosystems, our people, and our vitally important agricultural economy. Nebraska’s total groundwater resource is vast, yet it is also vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic changes, necessitating a long-term commitment to wise management through informed decision-making. Monitoring, studying, and reporting form the essential basis for such management and, ultimately, for meeting the myriad challenges presented by change.


Annual Report 2020 Conservation And Survey Division, Robert Matthew Joeckel 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Annual Report 2020 Conservation And Survey Division, Robert Matthew Joeckel

Conservation and Survey Division

The Conservation and Survey Division (Nebraska Geological Survey), the natural resource survey component of the School of Natural Resources, is a unique, multi-disciplinary research, service and data-collection organization established by state statute in 1921.

The Division's mission is to investigate and record information about Nebraska's geologic history, its rock and mineral resources, the quantity and quality of its water resources, land cover and other aspects of its geography, as well as the nature, distribution and uses of its soils.


Founding Monsters, Maggie Colangelo, Bernard Means 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Founding Monsters, Maggie Colangelo, Bernard Means

Founding Monsters

The Founding Monsters comic book was created as a science-friendly graphical storytelling framework that tells the story of the Founding Fathers and their obsession with prehistoric megafauna, especially mastodons and giant ground sloths. Founding Monsters combines sequential art (e.g. comic book style) with historical and scientific data. The first mastodon (Mammut americanum) fossils were found in New York in the early 18th century. Later in the 18th century, Thomas Jefferson was sent fossils from what is now West Virginia for what were eventually identified as bones from a giant ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersoni). The founding fathers, including not only ...


African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson 2020 American Museum of Natural History

African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

We define 17 African land mammal ages, or AFLMAs, covering the Cenozoic record of the Afro-arabian continent, the planet’s second largest land mass. While fossiliferous deposits are absent on the eroded plateau of the continent’s interior, almost 800 fossil genera from over 350 locations have now been identified in coastal deposits, karst caves, and in the Neogene rift valleys. Given a well-developed geochronologic framework, together with continuing revision to the fossil record—both stimulated by the story of human evolution in Africa—and also to compensate for the variation in fossil ecosystems across such great distances, the AFLMAs ...


Constraining Respired Carbon Storage In The Eastern Tropical Pacific Over The Last 25 Thousand Years Using Benthic Foraminiferal Boron/Calcium Ratios, Brian James Close 2020 Old Dominion University

Constraining Respired Carbon Storage In The Eastern Tropical Pacific Over The Last 25 Thousand Years Using Benthic Foraminiferal Boron/Calcium Ratios, Brian James Close

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

The storage of inorganic carbon in the deep Pacific Ocean is thought to play an important role in regulating both glacial-interglacial and millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Broecker and Barker 2007; Sigman et al., 2010). A recent study by Loveley et al. (2017) showed that sedimentary authigenic uranium (aU) concentrations, a proxy for suboxic bottom-water conditions, increased significantly in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18 kyr – 23 kyr). If this is correct, the low-oxygen, CO2-rich waters would also have a lower pH and a lower carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]). Yu ...


Molecular Tests Support The Viability Of Rare Earth Elements As Proxies For Fossil Biomolecule Preservation, Paul V. Ullmann, Kristyn K. Voegele, David E. Grandstaff, Richard D. Ash, Wenxia Zheng, Elena R. Schroeter, Mary H. Schweitzer, Kenneth J. Lacovara 2020 Rowan University

Molecular Tests Support The Viability Of Rare Earth Elements As Proxies For Fossil Biomolecule Preservation, Paul V. Ullmann, Kristyn K. Voegele, David E. Grandstaff, Richard D. Ash, Wenxia Zheng, Elena R. Schroeter, Mary H. Schweitzer, Kenneth J. Lacovara

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

The rare earth element (REE) composition of a fossil bone reflects its chemical alteration during diagenesis. Consequently, fossils presenting low REE concentrations and/or REE profiles indicative of simple diffusion, signifying minimal alteration, have been proposed as ideal candidates for paleomolecular investigation. We directly tested this prediction by conducting multiple biomolecular assays on a well-preserved fibula of the dinosaur Edmontosaurus from the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation previously found to exhibit low REE concentrations and steeply-declining REE profiles. Gel electrophoresis identified the presence of organic material in this specimen, and subsequent immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays identified preservation of epitopes of ...


Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


Preservation Of Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) - Paleocene Frogs (Eorubeta Nevadensis) Of The Sheep Pass Formation Of East-Central Nevada And Implications For Paleogeography Of The Nevadaplano, Joshua W. Bonde, Peter A. Druschke, Richard P. Hilton, Amy C. Henrici, Stephen M. Rowland 2020 Las Vegas Natural History Museum

Preservation Of Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) - Paleocene Frogs (Eorubeta Nevadensis) Of The Sheep Pass Formation Of East-Central Nevada And Implications For Paleogeography Of The Nevadaplano, Joshua W. Bonde, Peter A. Druschke, Richard P. Hilton, Amy C. Henrici, Stephen M. Rowland

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Here we report on exceptional preservation of remains of the frog Eorubeta nevadensis in deposits of the Sheep Pass Formation, ranging from Late Cretaceous to Eocene, in the south Egan Range, Nevada. This formation represents a lacustrine basin within the Sevier retroarc hinterland. The formation is subdivided into six members (A–F); of interest here are members B and C. The base of member B is ?uppermost Cretaceous-Paleocene, while member C is Paleocene. Member B frogs are preserved in three taphonomic modes. Mode 1 frogs are nearly complete and accumulated under attritional processes, with frogs settling on microbial mats, as ...


Fayetteville And Imo Shales: Punctuated Upper Mississippian Shallowing Upward Sequence, Southern Ozark Region, Northern Arkansas, Joshua Stevens 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fayetteville And Imo Shales: Punctuated Upper Mississippian Shallowing Upward Sequence, Southern Ozark Region, Northern Arkansas, Joshua Stevens

Theses and Dissertations

The late Mississippian lithostratigraphic succession in the southern Ozark region, northern Arkansas, include, in ascending order, the Meramecan Moorefield Shale, Batesville Sandstone (with Hindsville Member); Chesterian Fayetteville Shale and Pitkin Limestone (with Imo Member). This interval is now interpreted as a single transgressive-regressive, unconformity-bounded, eustatic, third order cycle (Stevens and Manger, 2018). The Moorefield lowstand wedge is bound by a basal unconformity and succeeded by the transgressive Batesville Sandstone with its Hindsville Member. This succession reflects accretionary deposition along strike of the rising strand line, likely as a barrier island system, as its equivalents are shale (basinward) and limestone (laterally ...


High Frequencies Of Theropod Bite Marks Provide Evidence For Feeding, Scavenging, And Possible Cannibalism In A Stressed Late Jurassic Ecosystem, Stephanie K. Drumheller, Julia B. McHugh, Miriam Kane, Anja Riedel, Domenic D'Amore 2020 Daemen College

High Frequencies Of Theropod Bite Marks Provide Evidence For Feeding, Scavenging, And Possible Cannibalism In A Stressed Late Jurassic Ecosystem, Stephanie K. Drumheller, Julia B. Mchugh, Miriam Kane, Anja Riedel, Domenic D'Amore

Articles & Book Chapters

Bite marks provide direct evidence for trophic interactions and competition in the fossil record. However, variations in paleoecological dynamics, such as trophic relationships, feeding behavior, and food availability, govern the frequency of these traces. Theropod bite marks are particularly rare, suggesting that members of this clade might not often focus on bone as a resource, instead preferentially targeting softer tissues. Here, we present an unusually large sample of theropod bite marks from the Upper Jurassic Mygatt-Moore Quarry (MMQ). We surveyed 2,368 vertebrate fossils from MMQ in this analysis, with 684 specimens (28.885% of the sample) preserving at least ...


An Unusual Mastodon Revisited: Providing A Regional Focus For Mammut Americanum (Proboscidea, Mammutidae) In The Southeast, Matthew Inabinett 2020 East Tennessee State University

An Unusual Mastodon Revisited: Providing A Regional Focus For Mammut Americanum (Proboscidea, Mammutidae) In The Southeast, Matthew Inabinett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A century ago, two large American mastodon Mammut americanum specimens from coastal South Carolina were mounted for display at Amherst College. Their robust build, broad and pentalophodont third molars, and well-developed mandibular tusks were noted as unusual. Here, these specimens are redescribed; three additional mastodon mandibles from the same region of South Carolina are also described. Though collection information on these specimens is sparse, they appear to span >150 ka in the Middle to Late Pleistocene, and probably include the first report of Mammut from the earliest-Rancholabrean Ten Mile Hill Formation. Some “unusual” features — moderately to extremely broad third molars ...


Paleoecology Of Columbian And Pygmy Mammoths In Southern Nevada And California: How Terminal Pleistocene Ecosystems Shaped Mammoths At The Individual, Population, And Community Level, Lauren Elizabeth Parry 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Paleoecology Of Columbian And Pygmy Mammoths In Southern Nevada And California: How Terminal Pleistocene Ecosystems Shaped Mammoths At The Individual, Population, And Community Level, Lauren Elizabeth Parry

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this dissertation research is to examine the paleoecology of the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) and the pygmy mammoth (M. exilis) on the individual, population, and community level, emphasizing factors internal to their ecosystem that may have contributed to their extinction. I focus specifically on mammoths from Southern Nevada and Southern California to add regional data to the complex and evolving study of North American mammoth paleoecology.

Chapter 2 documents the permitted excavation of a partial mammoth (Mammuthus sp.) between 2016-2018 from late Pleistocene groundwater-discharge deposits near Fairbanks Spring in the Amargosa Valley, Nevada. A preliminary radiocarbon date ...


A Southeastern North America River Community Forty-Thousand Years Ago, Zack J. Quirk, Dennis B. Blanton 2020 University of Michigan Ann Arbor

A Southeastern North America River Community Forty-Thousand Years Ago, Zack J. Quirk, Dennis B. Blanton

Georgia Journal of Science

Understanding how past communities have been shaped by environmental alterations can provide insight into the impacts of future climate change. Local climate and river systems have changed significantly over the last glacial maximum, but little is known about the communities of the Georgian Coastal Plain earlier in the period. Plant fossils from Coffee Bluff, a Quaternary organic river deposit of the Ocmulgee River in southeastern Georgia, were used to determine past environmental and climatic conditions. The paleoflora were found imbedded in a mud matrix and were removed by a slaking method; they were later identified and separated to respective ecological ...


The Mesozoic Vertebrate Paleontology Of Israel, Jonathan Maxwell 2020 Cedarville University

The Mesozoic Vertebrate Paleontology Of Israel, Jonathan Maxwell

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The Mesozoic rock layers of Israel contain a number of interesting vertebrate fossils, most of which are late Cretaceous in age, though there are some occurrences of vertebrates from the Triassic as well. Unfortunately, the paleontology of Israel is not as well studied as other countries in the area. However, it has contributed some important information to our understanding of the area. The vertebrate fossils are of marine organisms found in a variety of limestones, mudstones and sandstones, indicating that the area was deposited underwater. This includes a large mosasaur, an elasmosaur, and a Triassic pelycosaur. These fossils combined with ...


Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2019, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel 2020 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2019, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel

Conservation and Survey Division

The term “groundwater” has come to be all but synonymous with Nebraska. Nearly three-quarters of the total volume of the High Plains Aquifer lies beneath the State. Groundwater maintains our streams, our ecosystems, our people, and our vitally important agricultural economy. Nebraska’s total groundwater resource is vast, yet it is also vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic changes, necessitating a long-term commitment to wise management through informed decision making. Monitoring, studying, and reporting form the essential basis for such management and, ultimately, for meeting the myriad challenges presented by change.

The personnel of the Conservation and Survey Division (CSD) are ...


Vegetation Prior To And During Onset Of East Antarctic Glaciation: High Resolution Palynological Insights From Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica, Meghan L. Duffy 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Vegetation Prior To And During Onset Of East Antarctic Glaciation: High Resolution Palynological Insights From Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica, Meghan L. Duffy

LSU Master's Theses

The Aurora Subglacial Basin (ASB) contains an estimated 3.5 m of global sea-level equivalent ice volume and is primarily drained by the Totten Glacier system, which terminates at the Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica. Thinning and retreating of the Totten Glacier indicate that this region is highly susceptible to oceanographic and atmospheric warming. The paleoclimate reconstruction of these changes, conducted in the context of this MS thesis, will improve understanding of East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) dynamics in this sensitive system. A recent study used seismic and sediment core data to document a dynamic early evolution of the EAIS in ...


Lithological And Geochemical Responses To Abrupt Global And Regional Paleoenvironmental Changes During The Aptian In A Hemipelagic Setting Of The Eastern Iberian Peninsula: A Multi-Proxy Approach, Jander Socorro 2020 Florida International University

Lithological And Geochemical Responses To Abrupt Global And Regional Paleoenvironmental Changes During The Aptian In A Hemipelagic Setting Of The Eastern Iberian Peninsula: A Multi-Proxy Approach, Jander Socorro

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intense episodes of environmental perturbations and regionally to globally distributed, oxygen-deprived marine facies characterize the Cretaceous sedimentary record. The Organyà Basin in the Spanish Pyrenees chronicles this period in expanded stratigraphic sequences that enabled high-resolution sampling and detailed analysis of disturbances poorly recorded in more lithologically condensed sections. Here, I present an integrated multi-proxy study aimed at understanding the Basin’s response to changing paleoenvironmental conditions during the early Aptian stage of the Cretaceous.

Results from the El Pui section indicate that large-scale (> 1‰), negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) that show no corresponding shifts in local sources of organic matter ...


A New Early Occurrence Of Cervidae In North America From The Miocene-Pliocene Ellensburg Formation In Washington, Usa, Meaghan M. Emery-Wetherell, Joseph F. Schilter 2020 Central Washington University

A New Early Occurrence Of Cervidae In North America From The Miocene-Pliocene Ellensburg Formation In Washington, Usa, Meaghan M. Emery-Wetherell, Joseph F. Schilter

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

A new fossil cervid from the Craig’s Hill locality of the Miocene-Pliocene Ellensburg Formation in the State of Washington, USA, may be one of the oldest fossil deer yet found in North America, underlying a date of 4.9 Ma ± 0.1 Ma. This mandible fragment with m2, m3, and associated p2 has a size that does not distinguish it from Bretzia pseudalces, Odocoileus hemionus, or Capreolus constantini, and distinguishes it from Eocoileus gentryorum and Odocoileus lucasi only in having a thinner p2. A strong paraconid on the p2, and ectostylids and cingulids on the m2 and m3 link ...


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