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Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, Taliesin Haugh 2018 SIT Graduate Institute

Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, Taliesin Haugh

Capstone Collection

Climate change threatens our world and way of life. Intelligent development and investment could mitigate the worst threats of climate change, while simultaneously providing continuous growth for the global economy. The New Climate Economy proposes efforts to combat this ecological collapse that would result in $30 trillion in new annual economic growth by 2030. Stockholm Resilience Center agrees, giving a framework based on global ecological systems that calls for five critical tasks that can bring growth and stability: Renewable energy

Sustainable local food production

New development models, based on what has worked globally

Reduction of wealth inequity

Education, health, and ...


Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, David Wacey, Nora Noffke, Martin Saunders, Paul Guagliardo, David M. Pyle 2018 Old Dominion University

Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, David Wacey, Nora Noffke, Martin Saunders, Paul Guagliardo, David M. Pyle

OEAS Faculty Publications

The ~ 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is a key geological unit for the study of Earth's earliest life and the habitats it occupied. Here, we describe a new suite of spheroidal to lenticular microstructures that morphologically resemble some previously reported Archean microfossils. Correlative microscopy shows that these objects have a size distribution, wall ultrastructure, and chemistry that are incompatible with a microfossil origin and instead are interpreted as pyritized and silicified fragments of vesicular volcanic glass. Organic kerogenous material is associated with much of the altered volcanic glass; variable quantities of organic carbon line or ...


Two Post-Glacial Sagebrush Steppe Fire Records At The Wildland-Urban Interface, Eastern Cascades, Washington, Dusty Pilkington 2018 Central Washington University

Two Post-Glacial Sagebrush Steppe Fire Records At The Wildland-Urban Interface, Eastern Cascades, Washington, Dusty Pilkington

All Master's Theses

Recent increases in large fires in the rapidly developing wildland-urban interface (WUI) areas of central Washington, where development intermixes with wildland fuels, contribute to federal firefighting costs exceeding of $1 billion annually. In addition, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion and anthropogenic-caused warming shorten fire return intervals while lengthening fire seasons. These climatic, ecological, economic, and social factors combine with fuel accumulation resulting from historic fire suppression to threaten lives and property in the WUI. To plan for safe growth in WUI areas, long-term fire histories are needed to expand understanding of past fire regimes in an understudied ecosystem, sagebrush steppe. In ...


Ordovician Continental Paleogeography And Paleoenvironment For The Michigan Basin From Paleomagnetic Analysis, Michelle MacRae 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Ordovician Continental Paleogeography And Paleoenvironment For The Michigan Basin From Paleomagnetic Analysis, Michelle Macrae

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigates the paleomagnetic record of Paleozoic rocks from two Michigan basin localities in southwestern Ontario to help close the 40 myr gap in Paleozoic paleomagnetic data. Paleomagnetic data from the Queenston (Upper Ordovician) formation consistently exhibits easily removed viscous remanence, an intermediate and a high temperature component consistent with the unblocking temperatures of magnetite and hematite respectively. Alternating-field and thermal demagnetization in 16–20 steps up to 670º C typically reveal a southeastern, shallow up direction removed from magnetite, and a southwestern, steep up direction removed from hematite. A Late Paleozoic overprint was preserved in the magnetite and ...


Using Foraminifera In Stemseas Site 1 To Understand The Recent Paleoceanographic And Paleoclimatic History Of Tanner Basin, California Borderland, Michael Stanley Stone 2017 James Madison University

Using Foraminifera In Stemseas Site 1 To Understand The Recent Paleoceanographic And Paleoclimatic History Of Tanner Basin, California Borderland, Michael Stanley Stone

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

In May of 2016, the STEMSEAS Educational Transit cruise OC1605-tranA collected the STEMSEAS Site 1 core from the Tanner Basin in the California Borderland. This research serves as the first formal survey of the foraminifera preserved within that core. The purpose of this research is to use foraminifera preserved within that core to understand the recent depositional and paleoenvironmental conditions at Site 1, and to place that information into a regional paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic context. In pursuing this purpose, this research aims to answer three questions: 1) Can biostratigraphic markers in the foraminiferal assemblages in STEMSEAS Site 1 core be ...


Paleogeography Of Early Paleozoic Laurentia And Meguma, Avalonia Terranes Via Paleomagnetism And Faunal Review, Halima S. Warsame 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Paleogeography Of Early Paleozoic Laurentia And Meguma, Avalonia Terranes Via Paleomagnetism And Faunal Review, Halima S. Warsame

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Paleomagnetic assessment of 821 Cambrian to Silurian-aged rock specimens of igneous and sedimentary origin was used as a means to provide insight on the ancient geographies of the region in which these rocks are currently found. The Earth’s magnetic field direction can be recorded at the time of rock formation and/or at a later significant event by magnetic minerals, allowing these signatures to be used to track the past motions of the continents. Stepwise demagnetization of the Port au Port, St. George and Table Head Groups in western Newfoundland, and the Mavillette gabbro (426 +/- 2 Ma, U-Pb baddeleyite ...


Using Stable Isotope Geochemistry To Determine Changing Paleohydrology And Diagenetic Alteration In The Late Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Ut Usa, Daigo Yamamura 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Stable Isotope Geochemistry To Determine Changing Paleohydrology And Diagenetic Alteration In The Late Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Ut Usa, Daigo Yamamura

Theses and Dissertations

The Western Interior Basin of the North America preserves one of the best sedimentary and paleontological records of the Cretaceous in the world. The Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation is a rapidly deposited fluvial sequence and preserves one of the most complete terrestrial fossil record of the North America. Such a unique deposit provides an opportunity to investigate the interaction between the physical environment and ecology. In an effort to decipher such interaction, stable isotope composition of cements in sedimentary rocks, concretions and vertebrate fossils were analyzed.

Despite the difference in facies and sedimentary architecture, the isotope composition does not change ...


New Genera And Species Of Fossil Marine Amioid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Holostei) From The Late Cretaceous Agoult Locality In Southeastern Morocco, Mark V. H. Wilson, Alison M. Murray, Terry C. Grande 2017 University of Alberta

New Genera And Species Of Fossil Marine Amioid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Holostei) From The Late Cretaceous Agoult Locality In Southeastern Morocco, Mark V. H. Wilson, Alison M. Murray, Terry C. Grande

Terry Grande

No abstract provided.


Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, George K. Thiruvathukal, Gregory J. Matthews, Maxwell P. Luetkemeier, Juliet K. Brophy 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Examining The Use Of Amazon’S Mechanical Turk For Edge Extraction Of The Occlusal Surface Of Fossilized Bovid Teeth, George K. Thiruvathukal, Gregory J. Matthews, Maxwell P. Luetkemeier, Juliet K. Brophy

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

In order to reconstruct environments associated with Plio-Pleistocene hominins in southern Africa, researchers frequently rely upon the animals associated with the hominins, in particular, animals in the Family Bovidae. Bovids in southern Africa are typically identified by their teeth. However, identifying the taxon of a bovid tooth is challenging due to various biasing factors. Furthermore, inaccurate identification of fossil bovids can have significant consequences on the reconstructed paleoenvironment. Recent research on the classification of bovid fossil teeth has relied on using elliptical Fourier analysis to summarize the shape of the outline of the occlusal surface of the tooth and the ...


Middle Miocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of The Central Great Plains From Stable Carbon Isotopes In Large Mammals, Willow H. Nguy 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Middle Miocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of The Central Great Plains From Stable Carbon Isotopes In Large Mammals, Willow H. Nguy

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Middle Miocene (18-12 Mya) mammalian faunas of the North American Great Plains contained a much higher diversity of apparent browsers than any modern biome. This has been attributed to greater primary productivity, which may have supported greater browser diversity that commonly corresponds with densely vegetated habitats. However, several lines of proxy evidence suggest that open woodlands or savannas dominated middle Miocene biomes; neither of which support many browsers today. Stable carbon isotopes in mammalian herbivore tooth enamel were used to reconstruct vegetation structure of middle Miocene biomes.

Stable carbon isotopes in C3 dominated environments reflect vegetation density and herbivores ...


Provenance Of And Age Of Granitoid And Sandstone Clasts In Conglomerates Of The Paleocene To Upper Cretaceous Yakutat Group, Russell Fjord, Alaska, Alexander Dolcimascolo 2017 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Provenance Of And Age Of Granitoid And Sandstone Clasts In Conglomerates Of The Paleocene To Upper Cretaceous Yakutat Group, Russell Fjord, Alaska, Alexander Dolcimascolo

Honors Theses

The Paleocene to Upper Cretaceous Yakutat Group consists of a flysch facies. A conglomerate occurs in two places in Russell Fjord, and the composition and age of clasts bears on tectonic reconstructions. One site (#23) occurs in what is mapped as flysch and one in the mélange (#25), but the conglomerates are essentially identical. They contain clasts of sandstone, greenstone, limestone, marble, chert, and plutonic rocks that are clast supported, and interbedded with sandstones that contain coalified plant fragments. The maximum depositional age (MDA) of the U/Pb-dated zircons from the sandstone is 65.9 ± 1.8 Ma and 65 ...


Reconstructing Holocene Fire And Landscape History Using Charcoal And Lake Sediments In Big Belt Mountains, Montana, Katherine Gildner 2017 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Reconstructing Holocene Fire And Landscape History Using Charcoal And Lake Sediments In Big Belt Mountains, Montana, Katherine Gildner

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A 4215-year-old sediment record from a shallow kettle lake in the Big Belt Mountains of Central Montana was analyzed for charcoal to develop a preliminary fire history for this area. Two sediment cores, each approximately 155cm long, were retrieved and described. One was analyzed for charcoal content and radiocarbon dated. A simple age-depth model was constructed using the radiocarbon dates from two wood fragments (at 14cm and 143cm depth) to provide a preliminary age constraint to the fire history. Three distinct fire regimes are indicated in the charcoal record. The first was a period of low fire intensity and frequency ...


Paleoimagery: The Artistic Restoration Of Dinosaurs And Prehistoric Life, Colin McNulty 2017 Bowling Green State University

Paleoimagery: The Artistic Restoration Of Dinosaurs And Prehistoric Life, Colin Mcnulty

Honors Projects

My purpose in creating this paper is to research a holistic view of paleontological illustration (also called paleoimagery or paleoart). A thorough history of paleoimagery is outlined from its roots in biblical illustration in the 17th and 18th centuries approaching the modern day. A two-fold examination of the utility of art to communicate science and its use within the science of paleontology is also given. This includes discussions of the specific components of art pieces that help them to successfully communicate scientific ideas and examples of how paleoimagery contributes to paleontology. The author then outlines the conception and ...


Black Bears (Ursus Americanus) Versus Brown Bears (U. Arctos): Combining Morphometrics And Niche Modeling To Differentiate Species And Predict Distributions Through Time, Theron Michael Kantelis 2017 East Tennessee State University

Black Bears (Ursus Americanus) Versus Brown Bears (U. Arctos): Combining Morphometrics And Niche Modeling To Differentiate Species And Predict Distributions Through Time, Theron Michael Kantelis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Late Pleistocene American black bears (Ursus americanus) often overlap in size with Pleistocene brown bears (U. arctos), occasionally making them difficult to diagnose. Large U. americanus have previously been distinguished from U. arctos by the length of the upper second molar (M2). However, the teeth of fossil U. americanus sometimes overlap size with U. arctos. As such, there is need for a more accurate tool to distinguish the two species. Here, 2D geometric morphometrics is applied to the occlusal surface of the M2 to further assess the utility of this tooth for distinguishing U. americanus and U. arctos specimens. When ...


The Homology And Phylogeny Of The Diploporita (Blastozoa: Echinodermata), Sarah Lynne Sheffield 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Homology And Phylogeny Of The Diploporita (Blastozoa: Echinodermata), Sarah Lynne Sheffield

Doctoral Dissertations

Evolutionary relationships of extinct echinoderms are poorly understood, especially within stem-bearing blastozoans, a large group of echinoderms with unique respiratory structures and feeding brachioles. They were highly experimental in their body plans and very unlike echinoderms today (e.g., sea urchins). Many of the blastozoan subgroups recognized in recent classifications do not represent clades (natural associations of organisms derived from a single ancestor); they are either grades of organization or groups united by superficially similar features. Consequently, these ‘traditional’ groupings cannot be used to analyze evolutionary questions, such as biogeography or rates of evolution. This problem is highlighted within the ...


Behavioral Paleoecology Of Lower Cambrian Deposit Foragers: Reinterpreting Looping And Meandering Traces Using Optimal Foraging Theory And Quantitative Analysis, Zachary Andrew Jensen 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Behavioral Paleoecology Of Lower Cambrian Deposit Foragers: Reinterpreting Looping And Meandering Traces Using Optimal Foraging Theory And Quantitative Analysis, Zachary Andrew Jensen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The early Cambrian was a period of transition during which the seafloor environment was changing from a microbial-mat-dominated environment to a bioturbation-dominated environment. The result was a patchy landscape of variable food resources for foraging burrowers to exploit. Looping trace fossils, such Psammichnites gigas and Taphrhelminthopsis nelsoni, appear in strata worldwide during this transitional period, and the ecological niche they filled is a subject of debate among ichnologists. The objectives of this study are (1) to determine the foraging strategies preserved by looping traces through the application of optimal foraging theory and quantitative analysis, and (2) use those results to ...


Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague 2017 Cedarville University

Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Young-earth creationists hold to separate creations of birds and land animals due to a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:20-25, which describes their creations on different days. As such, they oppose the conventional model of theropod-to-bird evolution. For many years, there were few Mesozoic birds known, namely Hesperornis and Icthyornis. Specimens such as Archaeopteryx, found in 1861, seemed to strengthen the argument for the proposed transition. However, even after John Ostrom reinvigorated the idea of dinosaur-to-bird evolution in 1960 with the discovery of Deinonychus, evidence of this transition was still sparse. In the 1990’s, exquisitely-preserved dinosaur fossils began to ...


Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague 2017 Cedarville University

Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Young-earth creationists hold to separate creations of birds and land animals due to a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:20-25, which describes their creations on different days. As such, they oppose the conventional model of theropod-to-bird evolution. For many years, there were few Mesozoic birds known, namely Hesperornis and Icthyornis. Specimens such as Archaeopteryx, found in 1861, seemed to strengthen the argument for the proposed transition. However, even after John Ostrom reinvigorated the idea of dinosaur-to-bird evolution in 1960 with the discovery of Deinonychus, evidence of this transition was still sparse. In the 1990’s, exquisitely-preserved dinosaur fossils began to ...


Geometric Morphometric Differentiation Of Two Western Usa Lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Squamata): Uta Stansburiana And Urosaurus Ornatus, With Implications For Fossil Identification, Julie Rej, Jim I. Mead 2017 East Tennessee State University

Geometric Morphometric Differentiation Of Two Western Usa Lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Squamata): Uta Stansburiana And Urosaurus Ornatus, With Implications For Fossil Identification, Julie Rej, Jim I. Mead

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Squamate fossil identification has been challenging due to the incomplete understanding and sometimes complete lack of osteological research of extant species. Here we compared the maxilla of two similar species of phrynosomatids: Uta stansburiana (Common Side-blotched Lizard) and Urosaurus ornatus (Ornate Tree Lizard). Through landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses, we determined which characters significantly separated the two species. A principle component analysis (PCA) and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) were conducted, in which we compared 15 landmarks between U. stansburiana and U. ornatus. Both the PCA and stepwise DFA showed separation between the two species. The stepwise DFA selected five ...


G:, Taylor Lafe Cantrall 2017 Bard College

G:, Taylor Lafe Cantrall

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.


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