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An Intercomparison Of Regional Atmospheric Circulation And The Melt Season Loss Of Arctic Snow Cover And Sea Ice Extent Across The Land-Ocean Boundary, Angela C. Bliss 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Intercomparison Of Regional Atmospheric Circulation And The Melt Season Loss Of Arctic Snow Cover And Sea Ice Extent Across The Land-Ocean Boundary, Angela C. Bliss

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This study is designed to compare the monthly continental snow cover and sea ice extent loss in the Arctic with regional atmospheric conditions including: mean sea level pressure, 925 hPa air temperature, and mean wind direction among others during the melt season (March-August) over the 29-year study period 1979-2007. Little research has gone into studying the concurrent variations in the annual loss of continental snow cover and sea ice extent across the land-ocean boundary, since these data are largely stored in incompatible formats. However, the analysis of these data, averaged spatially over three autonomous study regions located in Siberia, North …


Hydromechanical Interference Slug Tests In A Fractured Biotite Gneiss, Trever Slack 2010 Clemson University

Hydromechanical Interference Slug Tests In A Fractured Biotite Gneiss, Trever Slack

All Theses

Fractures are ubiquitous in the shallow crust and they commonly control the flow and storage of fluids in rock. Estimating transmission and storage properties resulting from fractures is commonly accomplished by interpreting the pressure signals caused by stressing an aquifer during a pumping or slug test. Fractures deform in response to pressure changes during well tests, and measuring and interpreting the deformation along with the pressure change is a way to potentially increase the information about storage and transmission properties. Tests where the pressure and deformation are coupled are called hydromechanical well tests. Previous investigations have focused on the effects …


The Impact Of Water Harvesting On A Small Watershed In Rural India, Daniel Matz 2010 Clemson University

The Impact Of Water Harvesting On A Small Watershed In Rural India, Daniel Matz

All Theses

Reliable sources of fresh water are a finite resource across the world. Many countries, including India, face water scarcity due to temporal and spatial variations in precipitation, surface water pollution, and depletion of groundwater resources. In order to combat against water scarcity, the government, non-governmental organizations, researchers, and individuals have attempted to create solutions to the water scarcity problem. One solution, which has become popular throughout India is the construction of water harvestings structures (WHS), small earthen dams built to capture monsoonal runoff on ephemeral streams. Villagers believe these structures have a positive effect on groundwater levels and water availability …


Predicting Long-Term Well Performance From Short-Term Well Tests In The Piedmont, David Hisz 2010 Clemson University

Predicting Long-Term Well Performance From Short-Term Well Tests In The Piedmont, David Hisz

All Theses

A reliable estimate of the physically sustainable discharge of a well is a fundamental aspect affecting management of water resources, but there are surprisingly few analyses describing on how to make such an estimate. Current available methods include either an empirical or a quantitative approach. The empirical method is based on holding the head or flow rate constant in order to maintain a target drawdown for as long as possible. The second method involves conducting a constant rate test to calculate the properties of the aquifer, T and S, and extrapolate the drawdown using a type curve (i.e. Theis analysis). …


Cockatoo Sands Soil Survey : Assessment Of The Potential Irrigation Areas, Kununurra Area, East Kimberley, Henry Smolinski, Kus Kuswardiyanto, Justin Laycock 2010 Department of Primary Industry and Regional Development

Cockatoo Sands Soil Survey : Assessment Of The Potential Irrigation Areas, Kununurra Area, East Kimberley, Henry Smolinski, Kus Kuswardiyanto, Justin Laycock

Resource management technical reports

No abstract provided.


Wind Speed Dependence Of Single-Site Wave-Height Retrievals From High-Frequency Radars, Brian K. Haus, Lynn K. Shay, Paul A. Work, George Voulgaris, Rafael J. Ramos, Jorge Martinez-Pedraja 2010 University of Miami

Wind Speed Dependence Of Single-Site Wave-Height Retrievals From High-Frequency Radars, Brian K. Haus, Lynn K. Shay, Paul A. Work, George Voulgaris, Rafael J. Ramos, Jorge Martinez-Pedraja

Faculty Publications

Wave-height observations derived from single-site high-frequency (HF) radar backscattered Doppler spectra are generally recognized to be less accurate than overlapping radar techniques but can provide significantly larger sampling regions. The larger available wave-sampling region may have important implications for observing system design. Comparison of HF radar–derived wave heights with acoustic Doppler profiler and buoy data revealed that the scale separation between the Bragg scattering waves and the peak energy-containing waves may contribute to errors in the single-site estimates in light-to-moderate winds. A wave-height correction factor was developed that explicitly considers this scale separation and eliminates the trend of increasing errors …


Simulation Of Contaminant Transport From Solid Domestic Waste Disposal Sites In The Warri Deltaic Plain Sands, Warri-Effurun, Nigeria, Charles Onoriode Usiaphre 2010 Montclair State University

Simulation Of Contaminant Transport From Solid Domestic Waste Disposal Sites In The Warri Deltaic Plain Sands, Warri-Effurun, Nigeria, Charles Onoriode Usiaphre

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Protecting the groundwater resource in the Warri Deltaic Plain sand from the impact of anthropogenic contamination requires an understanding and knowledge of groundwater flow paths, transport processes and the source of contamination. This study was carried out to find out contaminant transport from solid domestic waste sites to the groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional finite-difference code, MODFLOW, was used to simulate the groundwater flow. The flow pattern reveals predominantly downward flow, with major horizontal motion towards towns around Ekurede Urhobo and Ekurede Itsekiri in Warri. Simulation of advective contaminant transport using MODPATE1 for particle tracking indicates local movement of …


Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Pompton Pink Granite, New Jersey Highlands, Ian Phillip Johnson 2010 Montclair State University

Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Pompton Pink Granite, New Jersey Highlands, Ian Phillip Johnson

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

The Pompton Pink Granite is a small (~1 km2), post-orogenic granitoid body located in the New Jersey Highlands. It is a mildly peraluminous (ASI or aluminum saturation index, A/CNK = molar Al2O₃ / (CaO + Na₂O + K₂O) > 1.0) pluton composed of microcline, microperthite, quartz, oligoclase, epidote, biotite, and magnetite and is classified as a granite based on its mineral and geochemical composition using standard IUGS classification schemes. The Pompton Pink Granite shows similar major-element geochemistry to other A-type granitoids found in the New Jersey Highlands, but its trace­ element geochemistry distinguishes it from these other …


The Relationships Of Streambank Angles And Shapes To Streambank Erosion Rates In The Little River Watershed, Tn, William Ryan Foster 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Relationships Of Streambank Angles And Shapes To Streambank Erosion Rates In The Little River Watershed, Tn, William Ryan Foster

Masters Theses

Sediment is a leading cause of water quality impairment throughout the United States. In the Little River watershed in eastern Tennessee, several tributaries have been classified as impaired due primarily to sedimentation. Researchers at The University of Tennessee, in collaboration with a group of local and state organizations, began monitoring Little River tributaries to better understand their sources of pollution. To investigate the rates and processes of streambank erosion, erosion-pin monitoring sites were established on 32 banks in the watershed. This thesis complements the erosion-pin monitoring efforts by determining bank characteristics and examining the relationships of streambank angles and shapes …


Factors Influencing Soil Moisture At The Hillslope Scale In A Semi-Arid Mountainous Environment, Ivan John Geroy 2010 Boise State University

Factors Influencing Soil Moisture At The Hillslope Scale In A Semi-Arid Mountainous Environment, Ivan John Geroy

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Soil moisture couples ground, surface, and atmospheric water interactions via the processes of evapotranspiration, infiltration, and runoff generation (Grayson et al., 1997). Consequently, understanding the factors that influence the spatial distribution of soil moisture is vitally important to the accurate conceptualization and modeling of watershed processes. Typically, topographic indexing methods for the prediction of soil moisture have been studied in temperate or humid areas where the soil profile is often saturated and redistribution of soil moisture is driven by topography (Famiglietti et al., 1998; Grayson et al., 1997; Western et al., 1999). By contrast, in semi-arid environments, long periods of …


Spatial Variations Of Crustal Characteristics Beneath The Hoggar Swell, Algeria, Revealed By Systematic Analyses Of Receiver Functions From A Single Seismic Station, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao 2010 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Spatial Variations Of Crustal Characteristics Beneath The Hoggar Swell, Algeria, Revealed By Systematic Analyses Of Receiver Functions From A Single Seismic Station, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The Hoggar swell in Algeria is one of the significant massifs of northwest Africa. The paucity of high-resolution geophysical studies of the crust and mantle beneath the massifs is mostly responsible for the heated debates about the depth of the source region of the Cenozoic volcanism and the closely related uncertainty about the mechanism that formed and maintains the high elevation of the swells. Here we report results from a systematic study of 1386 high-quality receiver functions (RFs) recorded by station TAM, the only permanent broadband seismic station on the Hoggar swell. The resulting crustal thickness is about 34 km …


Clay Mineral Cycles Identified By Diffuse Spectral Reflectance In Quaternary Sediments From The Northwind Ridge: Implications For Glacial-Interglacial Sedimentation Patterns In The Arctic Ocean, Lyanne N. Yurco, Joseph D. Ortiz, Leonid Polyak, Dennis A. Darby, Kevin A. Crawford 2010 Old Dominion University

Clay Mineral Cycles Identified By Diffuse Spectral Reflectance In Quaternary Sediments From The Northwind Ridge: Implications For Glacial-Interglacial Sedimentation Patterns In The Arctic Ocean, Lyanne N. Yurco, Joseph D. Ortiz, Leonid Polyak, Dennis A. Darby, Kevin A. Crawford

OES Faculty Publications

A Quaternary record of fine-grained sediment composition is used to investigate Arctic Ocean climate variability on glacial-interglacial time scales. Diffuse spectral reflectance data from sediment core P1-92AR-P25 from the Northwind Ridge, north of Alaska, demonstrates cyclic variations in mineralogy. Varimax-rotated R-mode factor analysis of down-core data revealed three major mineralogical assemblages, which were then compared with the content of manganese, a proxy for basin ventilation, and thus glacial-interglacial cycles. Results indicate that factor 1, a smectite + chlorite clay assemblage, was delivered to the core site during interglacials, either by fluvial discharge or sea-ice drift from Siberian rivers or inflow …


An Investigation For The Need Of Secondary Treatment Of Residential Wastewater When Applied With A Subsurface Drip Irrigation System, Boone S. Hillenbrand 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

An Investigation For The Need Of Secondary Treatment Of Residential Wastewater When Applied With A Subsurface Drip Irrigation System, Boone S. Hillenbrand

Masters Theses

The objective of this study was to investigate the need for domestic wastewater to receive secondary treatment when being applied to the soil by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). SDI uniformly distributes wastewater into the soil, which optimizes the soil’s chemical, physical, and biological capacity to remove waste constituents. Because of these advantages, many regulatory jurisdictions are allowing SDI at sites that previously were prohibited from using conventional trench-based soil application systems because of shallow soil restrictions. However, most of these regulatory agencies also require that the wastewater receives secondary treatment (dissolved organic carbon reduction) before the SDI system. At issue …


Along-Strike Growth Of The Ostler Fault, New Zealand: Consequences For Drainage Deflection Above Active Thrust, Colin B. Amos, Douglas W. Burbank, Stuart A. L. Read 2010 Western Washington University

Along-Strike Growth Of The Ostler Fault, New Zealand: Consequences For Drainage Deflection Above Active Thrust, Colin B. Amos, Douglas W. Burbank, Stuart A. L. Read

Geology Faculty Publications

Rarely are geologic records available to constrain the spatial and temporal evolution of thrust‐fault growth as slip accumulates during repeated earthquake events. Here, we utilize multiple generations of dated and deformed fluvial terraces to explore two key aspects of the along‐strike kinematic development of the Ostler fault zone in southern New Zealand over the past ∼100 k.y.: accumulation of fault slip through space and time and fixed‐length thrust growth that results in patterns of drainage diversion suggestive of laterally propagating faults. Along the Ostler fault, surface deformation patterns revealed by topographic surveying of terrace profiles in nine transverse drainages define …


A Morphological And Geochemical Investigation Of Grypania Spiralis: Implications For Early Earth Evolution, Miles Anthony Henderson 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Morphological And Geochemical Investigation Of Grypania Spiralis: Implications For Early Earth Evolution, Miles Anthony Henderson

Masters Theses

Macroscopic “carbonaceous” fossils such as Grypania, Katnia, Chuaria, and Tawuia play a critical role in our understanding of biological evolution in the Precambrian and their environmental implications. Unfortunately, understanding of these fossils remains limited by their relative simplicity of form, mode of preservation, and broad taphonomic variability. As a result, debate continues as to even the fundamental taxonomic affinity of the organisms. Megascopic coiled forms (i.e. Grypania and Katnia), for instance, have been interpreted as trace fossils, multicellular algae, prokaryotic filaments, macroscopic bacteria, cyanobacteria, or a transitional form from macroscopic to megascopic bacterial life. Similarly, Chuaria …


Structural And Metamorphic Evolution Of The West-Central Newton Window, Eastern Inner Piedmont, Burke, Catawba, And Lincoln Counties, North Carolina, William George Gilliam 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Structural And Metamorphic Evolution Of The West-Central Newton Window, Eastern Inner Piedmont, Burke, Catawba, And Lincoln Counties, North Carolina, William George Gilliam

Masters Theses

Rocks of the western and eastern Inner Piedmont, along with the eastern Blue Ridge, comprise the Neoacadian metamorphic core of the southern Appalachians. The composite Inner Piedmont consists of the eastern Tugaloo (western Inner Piedmont) and Cat Square (eastern Inner Piedmont) terranes, which are separated by the Brindle Creek fault. Geochronologic evidence established the Brindle Creek fault as a terrane boundary within the Inner Piedmont, separating terranes of Laurentian and mixed Laurentian/Avalonian (peri-Gondwanan) zircon suites. The Newton window exposes Tugaloo terrane rocks of the Tallulah Falls Formation in the footwall of the Brindle Creek thrust sheet.

Detailed geologic mapping in …


Temporal And Spatial Assessment Of Evaporation, Transpiration, And Soil Moisture Redistribution, Brian M. Bird 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Temporal And Spatial Assessment Of Evaporation, Transpiration, And Soil Moisture Redistribution, Brian M. Bird

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

At a native stand of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in North Las Vegas, a rainfall simulation study was conducted over a 12 month period from October 2005 to October 2006. Simulated rainfall occurred during the winter, spring, summer, and fall periods. Rainfall simulation systems were positioned on each of 12 plots, each containing a single creosote bush. Simulated rainfall events occurred at night with multiple short pulses designed to maximize infiltration while minimizing ponding. Yearly simulated rainfall amounts were set at 0, 15, 30 and 60 cm (replicated three times) and were approximately 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 times the …


Identification Of Geochemical Facies Through Major Ion Data And Additional Parameters From Shallow Groundwater Utilizing A Comparison Of Geomathematics And Traditional Methods In Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, Eric Dano 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Identification Of Geochemical Facies Through Major Ion Data And Additional Parameters From Shallow Groundwater Utilizing A Comparison Of Geomathematics And Traditional Methods In Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, Eric Dano

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

There has been little exploration to identify geochemical facies in shallow groundwater in the Las Vegas Valley in Clark County, Nevada. Identification of hydrochemical facies in Las Vegas Valley is important for assessing the extent and nature of a potential groundwater resource. The identification of facies could be complicated by the possibility that secondary recharge constitutes a hydrochemical facies of its own. To identify geochemical facies, groundwater samples for major ions, stable isotopes and some municipal tracers were collected from 35 wells in an established network of monitor wells. Wells were purged with a bailer or 12V pump and EC, …


Arima Model For Forecasting Poisson Data: Application To Long-Term Earthquake Predictions, Wangdong Fu 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Arima Model For Forecasting Poisson Data: Application To Long-Term Earthquake Predictions, Wangdong Fu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Earthquakes that occurred worldwide during the period of 1896 to 2009 with magnitude greater than or equal to 8.0 on the Richter scale are assumed to follow a Poisson process. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average models are presented to fit the empirical recurrence rates, and to predict future large earthquakes. We show valuable modeling and computational techniques for the point processes and time series data. Specifically, for the proposed methodology, we address the following areas: data management and graphic presentation, model fitting and selection, model validation, model and data sensitivity analysis, and forecasting.


The Effects Of Contact Metamorphism On The Host Rocks For Carlin-Type Mineralization At The Getchell Development, Nevada, Usa, Nathan C. Eck 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effects Of Contact Metamorphism On The Host Rocks For Carlin-Type Mineralization At The Getchell Development, Nevada, Usa, Nathan C. Eck

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Carlin-type gold deposits (CTGDs) result from low to moderate temperature hydrothermal systems which form replacement bodies in carbonate or calcareous host rocks. The Getchell CTGD is located on the Getchell trend in north central Nevada. The Eocene age mineralization is locally hosted within the metamorphic aureole of the Cretaceous age Osgood stock. Previous studies have noted that the effects of the contact metamorphism can be heterogeneous, with strongly calc-silicate altered carbonates transitioning to relatively pristine limestone over short distances. The main finding of this study was that the variability in calc-silicate alteration is largely dependent on the differing host lithologies …


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