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Measurement And Interpolation Of Sea Surface Temperature And Salinity In The Tropical Pacific: A 9,000 Nautical Mile Research Odyssey, Amber Brooks 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Measurement And Interpolation Of Sea Surface Temperature And Salinity In The Tropical Pacific: A 9,000 Nautical Mile Research Odyssey, Amber Brooks

Earth and Soil Sciences

The purpose of this project was to compare spline and inverse distance weighting interpolation tools on data collected in the tropical Pacific Ocean by ship and data from a global network of CTD floats, known as Argo floats (fig.1), to provide evidence that technological advancement and integration is aiding our understanding of the ocean-atmosphere system of planet Earth. Thirty-one sea surface temperature and salinity samples were manually taken across a 9,000 nautical mile trek of the Pacific Ocean for the months of April, May and June 2008. Argo ASCII globally gridded monthly averaged sea surface temperature and salinity ...


Mississippi Canyon 252 Incident Nrda Tier 1 For Deepwater Communities, Gregory Boland, Gary Brewer, Erik Cordes, Amanda Demopoulos, Chuek Fisher, Chris German, Ken Sulak 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mississippi Canyon 252 Incident Nrda Tier 1 For Deepwater Communities, Gregory Boland, Gary Brewer, Erik Cordes, Amanda Demopoulos, Chuek Fisher, Chris German, Ken Sulak

USGS Staff -- Published Research

The northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is geologically diverse basin, described as the most complex continental slope region in the world. Regional topography of the slope consists of basins, knolls, ridges, and mounds derived from the dynamic adjustments of salt and the introduction of large volumes of sediment over long time scales. More than 99% of the sea floor in the GOM consists of soft sediment made up of various mixtures of primarily silt and clay. These wide-spread soft bottom communities are described in reports from major MMS studies by Gallaway et al. (1998) and Rowe and Kennicutt (2009). Relative ...


Establishment And Partial Characterization Of A Cell Line From Burbot Lota Lota Maculosa: Susceptibility To Ihnv, Ipnv And Vhsv, Mark P. Polinski, John D. Drennan, William N. Batts, Susan C. Ireland, Kenneth D. Cain 2010 Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho

Establishment And Partial Characterization Of A Cell Line From Burbot Lota Lota Maculosa: Susceptibility To Ihnv, Ipnv And Vhsv, Mark P. Polinski, John D. Drennan, William N. Batts, Susan C. Ireland, Kenneth D. Cain

USGS Staff -- Published Research

This study describes the development and partial characterization of a continuous fibroblastic-like cell line (BEF-1) developed from late stage embryos of North American burbot Lota lota maculosa. This cell line has been maintained for over 5 yr and 100 passages in vitro. Cells were cultured using Eagle’s minimum essential medium with Earle’s salts (MEM) supplemented with GlutaMAX ™, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), pH 7.4. The addition of penicillin-streptomycinneomycin (PSN) antibiotic mixture (0.05, 0.05, 0.1 mg ml–1, respectively) did not negatively influence cell replication; however, the antimycotic Fungizone™ (2.5 μg ml–1 ...


A Study Of The Sustainability Of Wild Capture Salmon In The Pacific Northwest, Justin D. Hansen 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

A Study Of The Sustainability Of Wild Capture Salmon In The Pacific Northwest, Justin D. Hansen

Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Variations In Winter Surface High Pressure In The Northern Hemisphere And Climatological Impacts Of Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice, Kristen D. Fox 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Variations In Winter Surface High Pressure In The Northern Hemisphere And Climatological Impacts Of Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice, Kristen D. Fox

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

This study explores the role Arctic sea ice plays in determining mean sea level pressure and 1000 hPa temperatures during Northern Hemisphere winters while focusing on an extended period of October to March. This is accomplished by investigating two regions of the same size and comparable climatic zones and elevations in the Northern Hemisphere. A breakdown of 29 years of reanalysis data into average monthly values, anomalies, trends, and comparisons between regions serves as current data to compare with a computer model control run. Ensuring the control run accurately models current atmospheric patterns, altering the model inputs to have no ...


Minimun Riparian Buffer Width For Maintaining Water Quality And Habitat Along Stevens Creek, Sammi Bray 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Minimun Riparian Buffer Width For Maintaining Water Quality And Habitat Along Stevens Creek, Sammi Bray

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

ABSTRACT Riparian buffer zones are important sites of biodiversity, sediment trapping, pollutant removal, and hydrologic regulation that have significant implications for both people and wildlife. Urbanization’s influence on and need for adequate water quality increases the need for careful planning in regards to riparian areas. Wildlife are key components in the ecosystem functions of riparian zones and require consideration in peri-urban planning as well. This study reviews relevant literature to determine the recommended minimum riparian buffer width for maintaining water quality and habitat along Stevens Creek in Lincoln, Nebraska. Only sources that listed a specific purpose related to water ...


Relatin Dissolved Oxygen Concentration To Fish Distribution In Jarecki Lake, Adam Sutton 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Relatin Dissolved Oxygen Concentration To Fish Distribution In Jarecki Lake, Adam Sutton

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Abstract Water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles were measured once every month from mid July to mid February in a relatively deep sand-pit lake in southeast Nebraska. These profiles showed depleted DO concentrations below the thermocline during summer stratification indicating areas fish will likely avoid in summer months. Colder temperatures in fall caused complete mixing of the water column allowing fish to inhabit all depths of the lake. An inverse temperature stratification occurred directly below the ice during winter months as ice cover cooled the surface water to below 4 degrees Celsius. Ice cover also blocked air – water oxygen ...


Comparison Of Different Aproaches To Extract Heterogeneous Objects From An Image Using An Orchards Example, Przemysław Kupidura, Gwadera Łukasz 2010 Warsaw University of Technology

Comparison Of Different Aproaches To Extract Heterogeneous Objects From An Image Using An Orchards Example, Przemysław Kupidura, Gwadera Łukasz

Przemysław Kupidura

Traditional, pixel-based classification is very often an useless tool for an automatic extraction of heterogeneous types of land cover. This paper presents the application of mathematical morphology for a semi-automatic extraction of heterogenous objects using an example of orchards. Thanks to this algorithm it is possible to obtain orchards pixels of unique set of digital numbers, allowing succesful application of a traditional pixel-based classification for extraction of this class.The algorithm concerning a sequence of morphological operations of multispectral satellite images of very high resolution (VHR) is then veryfied on test images. The paper concerns also a comparison of an ...


Semi-Automatic Method For A Built-Up Area Intensity Survey Using Morphological Granulometry, Przemysław Kupidura 2010 Warsaw University of Technology

Semi-Automatic Method For A Built-Up Area Intensity Survey Using Morphological Granulometry, Przemysław Kupidura

Przemysław Kupidura

Built-up areas as a land-use type are easy to extract in a visual photo-interpretation process, however their heterogeneous character makes theirs automatic or semi-automatic extraction very complicated, even impossible using non-contextual, pixel-based methods of image classification. This paper concerns the application of the semi-automatic method of the extraction of built-up areas in satellite images. Granulometric maps, a mathematical morphology operator is used as a main tool for surveying a heterogeneity of particular parts of an aerial or satellite image. This function measures amount and size of objects in the determined neighborhood of each pixel of an image. Pixels representing built-up ...


Regional Vs. Local Impact Of Wind On Glaciers In The Andes Mountains, Derek Ferris 2010 Bridgewater State University

Regional Vs. Local Impact Of Wind On Glaciers In The Andes Mountains, Derek Ferris

Undergraduate Review

Northern Peru will face critical water resource issues in the near future as permanent ice in the Andes Mountains continues to rapidly melt. Ironically, the melt-water from these glaciers supports the culture of 100s of thousands of people living at lower elevations, particularly during the dry season, and predictions suggest some glaciers may be gone in less than 100 years. The impact of local warming of “U” shaped valleys running down the dryer western slope of the Andes range is largely disregarded in current climate model predictions because of the complexity of simulating the complex topography. Studies that compare the ...


Augmented Reality Navigation Interfaces Improve Human Performance In End-Effector Controlled Telerobotics, Keshav Chintamani 2010 Wayne State University

Augmented Reality Navigation Interfaces Improve Human Performance In End-Effector Controlled Telerobotics, Keshav Chintamani

Wayne State University Dissertations

On the International Space Station (ISS) and space shuttles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used robotic manipulators extensively to perform payload handling and maintenance tasks. Teleoperating robots require expert skills and optimal performance is crucial to mission completion and crew safety. Degradation in performance is observed when manual control is mediated through remote camera views, resulting in poor end-effector navigation quality and extended task completion times. This thesis explores the application of three-dimensional augmented reality (AR) interfaces specifically designed to improve human performance during end-effector controlled teleoperations. A modular telerobotic test bed was developed for this purpose ...


Paleogeographic, Paleoceanographic, And Tectonic Controls On Early Late Ordovician Graptolite Diversity Patterns, Daniel Goldman, Shuang-Ye Wu 2010 University of Dayton

Paleogeographic, Paleoceanographic, And Tectonic Controls On Early Late Ordovician Graptolite Diversity Patterns, Daniel Goldman, Shuang-Ye Wu

Geology Faculty Publications

The Katian Age (early Late Ordovician) was a time of significant decline in marine biodiversity, but whether this decline was a real phenomenon or an artifact of the relatively few studies devoted to this interval requires further research. We examined the pattern of graptolite faunal changes across the boundary between the Climacograptus bicornis and Diplacanthograptus caudatus graptolite zones in North America and on several other continents.

A sharp decline in species diversity occurs in the Appalachian Basin. Scores for normalized diversity dropped from 20 in the C. bicornis Zone to 7 in the D. caudatus Zone. Only 11% of the ...


Climatological And Elevational Controls On Organic And Inorganic Nutrients In Stream Waters, Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado Front Range, Jordan N. Parman 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Climatological And Elevational Controls On Organic And Inorganic Nutrients In Stream Waters, Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado Front Range, Jordan N. Parman

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Due to short growing seasons, sparse vegetation, thin soils, and a harsh climate, the biota of high elevation ecosystems throughout the Colorado Front Range are sensitive to disturbance. These ecosystems are subject to two major drivers of environmental change: directional changes in climate and increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) deposition in wetfall. By analyzing long term climate records and water chemistry data, we investigate the role of climate and N deposition in determining nitrate export from Green Lakes Valley in the Colorado Front Range. We found that streamwater nitrate concentrations observed at the Green Lakes 4 (GL4) outlet have significantly increased ...


Effects Of Drought On Avian Community Structure, Thomas P. Albright, Anna M. Pidgeon, Chadwick D. Rittenhouse, Murray K. Clayton, Curtis H. Flather, Patrick D. Culbert, Brian D. Wardlows, Volker C. Radeloff 2010 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Effects Of Drought On Avian Community Structure, Thomas P. Albright, Anna M. Pidgeon, Chadwick D. Rittenhouse, Murray K. Clayton, Curtis H. Flather, Patrick D. Culbert, Brian D. Wardlows, Volker C. Radeloff

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Droughts are expected to become more frequent under global climate change. Avifauna depend on precipitation for hydration, cover, and food. While there are indications that avian communities respond negatively to drought, little is known about the response of birds with differing functional and behavioral traits, what time periods and indicators of drought are most relevant, or how response varies geographically at broad spatial scales. Our goals were thus to determine (1) how avian abundance and species richness are related to drought, (2) whether community variations are more related to vegetation vigor or precipitation deviations and at what time periods relationships ...


Combined Effects Of Heat Waves And Droughts On Avian Communities Across The Conterminous United States, Thomas P. Albright, Anna M. Pidgeon, Chadwick D. Rittenhouse, Murray K. Clayton, Brian D. Wardlow, Curtis H. Flather, Patrick D. Culbert, Volker C. Radeloff 2010 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Combined Effects Of Heat Waves And Droughts On Avian Communities Across The Conterminous United States, Thomas P. Albright, Anna M. Pidgeon, Chadwick D. Rittenhouse, Murray K. Clayton, Brian D. Wardlow, Curtis H. Flather, Patrick D. Culbert, Volker C. Radeloff

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Increasing surface temperatures and climatic variability associated with global climate change are expected to produce more frequent and intense heat waves and droughts in many parts of the world. Our goal was to elucidate the fundamental, but poorly understood, effects of these extreme weather events on avian communities across the conterminous United States. Specifically, we explored: (1) the effects of timing and duration of heat and drought events, (2) the effects of jointly occurring drought and heat waves relative to these events occurring in isolation, and (3) how effects vary among functional groups related to nest location and migratory habit ...


Absorption And Biotransformation Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers De-71 And De-79 In Chicken (Gallus Gallus), Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos), American Kestrel (Falco Sparverius) And Black-Crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax Nycticorax) Eggs, Moira A. McKernan, Barnett A. Rattner, Jeff S. Hatfield, Robert C. Hale, Mary Ann Ottinger 2010 University of Maryland

Absorption And Biotransformation Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers De-71 And De-79 In Chicken (Gallus Gallus), Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos), American Kestrel (Falco Sparverius) And Black-Crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax Nycticorax) Eggs, Moira A. Mckernan, Barnett A. Rattner, Jeff S. Hatfield, Robert C. Hale, Mary Ann Ottinger

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 µg g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 lg DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa BDE; DE-79; 15.4 lg DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake ...


The Cleaning Of Burned And Contaminated Archaeological Maize Prior To 87sr/86sr Analysis, L.V. Benson, H. E. Taylor, T. I. Plowman, D. A. Roth, R. C. Antweiler 2010 U.S. Geological Survey

The Cleaning Of Burned And Contaminated Archaeological Maize Prior To 87sr/86sr Analysis, L.V. Benson, H. E. Taylor, T. I. Plowman, D. A. Roth, R. C. Antweiler

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Accurate trace-metal and strontium-isotope analyses of archaeological corn cobs require that metal contaminants be removed prior to chemical analysis. Archaeological cobs are often coated with construction debris, dust, or soilwhich contains mineral particles. In addition, most archaeological cobs are partially or completely burned and the burned parts incorporate mineral debris in their hardened residual structures. Unburned cobs are weak ion exchangers and most metals within a cob are not firmly bound to cob organic matter; therefore, immersing cobs in acids and rinsing them in deionized water to remove mineral contaminants may result in the undesirable loss of metals, including strontium ...


Evidence For Recent Population Bottlenecks In Northern Spotted Owls (Strix Occidentalis Caurina), W. Chris Funk, Eric D. Forsman, Matthew Johnson, Thomas D. Mullins, Susan M. Haig 2010 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Evidence For Recent Population Bottlenecks In Northern Spotted Owls (Strix Occidentalis Caurina), W. Chris Funk, Eric D. Forsman, Matthew Johnson, Thomas D. Mullins, Susan M. Haig

USGS Staff -- Published Research

The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the US Endangered Species Act. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls which has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks. Bottlenecks can increase the probability of mating among related individuals, potentially causing inbreeding depression, and can decrease adaptive potential. Here we report evidence for recent bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals and 10 ...


Development And Application Of A Pollen-Based Paleohydrologic Reconstruction From The Lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, Usa, Debra Willard, Christopher Bernhardt, Roger Brown, Bryan Landacre, Philip A. Townsend 2010 US Geological Survey

Development And Application Of A Pollen-Based Paleohydrologic Reconstruction From The Lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, Usa, Debra Willard, Christopher Bernhardt, Roger Brown, Bryan Landacre, Philip A. Townsend

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment ...


Combined Effects Of Heat Waves And Droughts On Avian Communities Across The Conterminous United States, Thomas P. Albright, Anna M. Pidgeon, Chadwick D. Rittenhouse, Murray K. Clayton, Brian D. Wardlow, Curtis H. Flather, Patrick D. Culbert, Volker C. Radeloff 2010 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Combined Effects Of Heat Waves And Droughts On Avian Communities Across The Conterminous United States, Thomas P. Albright, Anna M. Pidgeon, Chadwick D. Rittenhouse, Murray K. Clayton, Brian D. Wardlow, Curtis H. Flather, Patrick D. Culbert, Volker C. Radeloff

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Increasing surface temperatures and climatic variability associated with global climate change are expected to produce more frequent and intense heat waves and droughts in many parts of the world. Our goal was to elucidate the fundamental, but poorly understood, effects of these extreme weather events on avian communities across the conterminous United States. Specifically, we explored: (1) the effects of timing and duration of heat and drought events, (2) the effects of jointly occurring drought and heat waves relative to these events occurring in isolation, and (3) how effects vary among functional groups related to nest location and migratory habit ...


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