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Policy And Science Of Geothermal Heat Use At Mcmurdo Station, Antarcrtica, Joe Alvine 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Policy And Science Of Geothermal Heat Use At Mcmurdo Station, Antarcrtica, Joe Alvine

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

My thesis research project deals with the use of geothermal heat in Antarctica. Currently it is not allowed due to article 7 of the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection that placed a 50 moratorium on the exploitation of mineral resources. The US main base in Antarctica, McMurdo Station is currently powered by diesel generators that are inefficient, cause environmental damage, and is expensive to run. By exploring alternative energy options, McMurdo Station can reduce its dependence on non-renewable energy sources. By determining the geothermal potential of McMurdo Station, this project explores the possibilities and benefits that would occur with the ...


Discovery Of A Nanodiamond-Rich Layer In The Greenland Ice Sheet, Andrei V. Kurbatov, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Jorgen P. Steffensen, Allen West, Douglas J. Kennett, James P. Kennett, Ted E. Bunch, Mike Handley, Douglas S. Introne, Shane S. Que Hee, Christopher Mercer, Marilee Sellers, Feng Shen, Sharon B. Sneed, James C. Weaver, James H. Wittke, Thomas W. Stafford, John J. Donovan, Sujing Xie, Joshua J. Razink, Adrienne Stich, Charles R. Kinzie, Wendy S. Wolbach 2010 University of Maine

Discovery Of A Nanodiamond-Rich Layer In The Greenland Ice Sheet, Andrei V. Kurbatov, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Jorgen P. Steffensen, Allen West, Douglas J. Kennett, James P. Kennett, Ted E. Bunch, Mike Handley, Douglas S. Introne, Shane S. Que Hee, Christopher Mercer, Marilee Sellers, Feng Shen, Sharon B. Sneed, James C. Weaver, James H. Wittke, Thomas W. Stafford, John J. Donovan, Sujing Xie, Joshua J. Razink, Adrienne Stich, Charles R. Kinzie, Wendy S. Wolbach

Earth Science Faculty Scholarship

We report the discovery in the Greenland ice sheet of a discrete layer of free nanodiamonds (NDs) in very high abundances, implying most likely either an unprecedented influx of extraterrestrial (ET) material or a cosmic impact event that occurred after the last glacial episode. From that layer, we extracted n-diamonds and hexagonal diamonds (lonsdaleite), an accepted ET impact indicator, at abundances of up to about 5!106 times background levels in adjacent younger and older ice. The NDs in the concentrated layer are rounded, suggesting they most likely formed during a cosmic impact through some process similar to carbon-vapor deposition ...


Shear Resistance And Continuity Of Subglacial Till: Hydrology Rules, Neal R. Iverson 2010 Iowa State University

Shear Resistance And Continuity Of Subglacial Till: Hydrology Rules, Neal R. Iverson

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The field observations of G.S. Boulton stimulated widespread interest in deformable beds. Shear resistance of till in its critical state is insensitive to strain rate and increases linearly with effective pressure. During unsteady deformation, pseudo-viscous shear resistance can be caused by dilation of consolidated tills and resultant pore-pressure decline. This effect is probably uncommon, however, because susceptible tills of low hydraulic diffusivity are also those least likely to consolidate significantly during effective-pressure transients. Stick–slip motion at Whillans Ice Stream, Antarctica, indicates that its basal till must weaken during rapid slip and strengthen during longer periods of slower slip ...


Using Pressure Pulse Seismology To Examine Basal Criticality And The Influence Of Sticky Spots On Glacial Flow, J. L. Kavanaugh, Peter Lindsay Moore, C. F. Dow, J. W. Sanders 2010 University of Alberta

Using Pressure Pulse Seismology To Examine Basal Criticality And The Influence Of Sticky Spots On Glacial Flow, J. L. Kavanaugh, Peter Lindsay Moore, C. F. Dow, J. W. Sanders

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Here we report results of water pressure pulse studies conducted at Storglaciären (Sweden) and West Washmawapta Glacier (British Columbia, Canada). Comparison of pressure pulse records with meteorological conditions at Storglaciären indicates that several periods of increased basal slip activity observed during a 10 day interval of summer 2008 were due to precipitation loading of the glacier surface, rather than to infiltration of surface water to the glacier bed; this indicates that the glacier bed was close to the failure strength for much of this interval. Pressure pulse magnitudes for the two glaciers were well-fit by power law distributions similar to ...


Geogram 2010, David J. Keeling Editor, WKU Department of Geography and Geology 2010 Western Kentucky University

Geogram 2010, David J. Keeling Editor, Wku Department Of Geography And Geology

Geography and Geology Publications

No abstract provided.


Collaborative Research: Grounding-Line Retreat In The Southern Ross Sea - Constraints From Scott Glacier, Brenda L. Hall 2010 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Collaborative Research: Grounding-Line Retreat In The Southern Ross Sea - Constraints From Scott Glacier, Brenda L. Hall

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

This award supports a project to investigate late Pleistocene and Holocene changes in Scott Glacier, a key outlet glacier that flows directly into the Ross Sea just west of the present-day West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) grounding line. The overarching goals are to understand changes in WAIS configuration in the Ross Sea sector at and since the last glacial maximum (LGM) and to determine whether Holocene retreat observed in the Ross Embayment has ended or if it is still ongoing. To address these goals, moraine and drift sequences associated with Scott Glacier will be mapped and dated and ice thickness ...


Glaciotectonic Deformation Along The Valparaiso Upland In Southwest Michigan, Usa, Brian C. Bird 2010 Western Michigan University

Glaciotectonic Deformation Along The Valparaiso Upland In Southwest Michigan, Usa, Brian C. Bird

Dissertations

Glaciotectonic deformation has been observed and analyzed across parts of the Valparaiso, Kendall, and Inner Kalamazoo Moraines in southwest Michigan, USA. Deformation structures such as folds and faults have been analyzed using techniques typically used by structural geologist along with the fabric of elongated clasts in the surficial diamicton. The structures are consistent with simple shear, horizontal compressional stresses, and pure shear. A series of drumlin fields exist along the western boundary of the study area. Direct investigation of the deformed sediments was conducted at a gravel pit in one of these drumlins. Lacustrine derived sediments interbedded with coarse sand ...


Conditions For Thrust Faulting In A Glacier, Peter Lindsay Moore, Neal R. Iverson, Denis Cohen 2010 Iowa State University

Conditions For Thrust Faulting In A Glacier, Peter Lindsay Moore, Neal R. Iverson, Denis Cohen

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Dipping, arcuate bands of debris-rich ice outcropping near the margins of glaciers are often interpreted as thrust faults, assumed to originate in zones of longitudinal compression. Identification of thrusts is typically based either on the geometry and sedimentology of the debris bands or on the crystal fabric of surrounding ice, but the physical processes necessary to generate thrusts are rarely evaluated. Herein, we combine a numerical model of compressive ice flow near a glacier margin with theoretical stress and strain rate criteria for ice fracture and stress criteria for frictional slip to determine the conditions necessary for thrust faulting in ...


Collaborative Proposal: 2000+ Year Detailed, Calibrated Climate Reconstruction From A South Pole Ice Core Set In An Antarctic - Global Scale Context, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr., Karl J. Kreutz, Andrei V. Kurbatov 2010 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Collaborative Proposal: 2000+ Year Detailed, Calibrated Climate Reconstruction From A South Pole Ice Core Set In An Antarctic - Global Scale Context, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr., Karl J. Kreutz, Andrei V. Kurbatov

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

This award supports a project to examine an existing ice core of opportunity from South Pole (SPRESO core) to develop a 2000+ year long climate record. SPRESO ice core will be an annually dated, sub-annually-resolved reconstruction of past climate (atmospheric circulation, temperature, precipitation rate, and atmospheric chemistry) utilizing continuous, co-registered measurements (n=45) of: major ions, trace elements, and stable isotope series, plus selected sections for microparticle size and composition. The intellectual merit of this project relates to the fact that few 2000+ year records of this quality exist in Antarctica despite increasing scientific interest in this critical time period ...


Central New York Varve Chronology: A Suggestion For Quaternary Geologists, Thomas Walker 2010 University of Kentucky

Central New York Varve Chronology: A Suggestion For Quaternary Geologists, Thomas Walker

Thomas Bradley Walker

Work done to build a chronology of deglaciation using varves has been the focus of a number of researchers in New England for many years. The locations employed to build their timeline have been quite useful to date. However, New England is not the only place in the Northeast conducive to studying the last deglaciation of North America. The discovery of a set of ice proximal varves in an ancient glacial lake, now a swamp, in Oswego County, central New York, has shown that some locations outside of New England would be suitable for similar studies. The land having been ...


Timing Of Present And Future Snowmelt From High Elevations In Northwest Montana, Bonnie Jean Gillan, Joel T. Harper, Johnnie N. Moore 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Timing Of Present And Future Snowmelt From High Elevations In Northwest Montana, Bonnie Jean Gillan, Joel T. Harper, Johnnie N. Moore

Geosciences Faculty Publications

The sensitivity of snowmelt-driven water supply to climate variability and change is difficult to assess in the mountain west, where strong climatic gradients coupled with complex topography are sampled by sparse ground measurements. We developed a model which ingests daily satellite imagery and meteorological data and is suitable for areas >1000 km2, yet captures spatial variability of snow accumulation and melt in steep mountain terrain.We applied the model for the years 2000–2008 to a 2900 km2 snowmelt-dominated watershed in NW Montana. We found that >25% of the basin’s snow water equivalent (SWE) accumulates above the highest measurement ...


An Investigation Of The Oceanic Redistribution Of Carbon During The Last Deglaciation, Sean Patrick Bryan 2010 University of Colorado, Boulder

An Investigation Of The Oceanic Redistribution Of Carbon During The Last Deglaciation, Sean Patrick Bryan

Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Records from ice and marine sediment cores have revealed significant changes in the

ocean and atmospheric carbon reservoirs at the end of the last glacial period: atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased by ~50%, the atmospheric radiocarbon activity (Δ14C) declined by 190‰, the Δ14C of intermediate depth waters in the eastern North Pacific Ocean became extremely low relative to the contemporaneous atmosphere, and planktic foraminifera in the tropical and southern high latitude oceans experienced a negative excursion in δ13C. A promising theory for explaining these changes involves increased storage of carbon in the deep ocean during ...


To The Ice: George Bird Grinnell's 1887 Ascent Of Grinnell Glacier, Richard Vaughan 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

To The Ice: George Bird Grinnell's 1887 Ascent Of Grinnell Glacier, Richard Vaughan

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article discusses a climbing expedition undertaken by U.S. conservationist George Bird Grinnell to ascend what would come to be known as Grinnell Glacier in Montana. Grinnell’s efforts to establish Glacier National Park are detailed. Grinnell’s previously unpublished descriptions of the glacier and its surrounding area are analyzed by the author.


A Dynamic Physical Model For Soil Temperature And Water In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, H. W. Hunt, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran, Hassan J. Basagic 2010 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

A Dynamic Physical Model For Soil Temperature And Water In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, H. W. Hunt, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran, Hassan J. Basagic

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

We developed a simulation model for terrestrial sites including sensible heat exchange between the atmosphere and ground surface, inter- and intra-layer heat conduction by rock and soil, and shortwave and longwave radiation. Water fluxes included snowmelt, freezing/thawing of soil water, soil capillary flow, and vapour flows among atmosphere, soil, and snow. The model accounted for 96-99% of variation in soil temperature data. No long-term temporal trends in soil temperature were apparent. Soil water vapour concentration in thawed surface soil in summer often was higher than in frozen deeper soils, leading to downward vapour fluxes. Katabatic winds caused a reversal ...


Women In Glaciology, An Historical Perspective, Christina L. Hulbe, Weili Wang, Simon Ommanney 2010 Portland State University

Women In Glaciology, An Historical Perspective, Christina L. Hulbe, Weili Wang, Simon Ommanney

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Women's history in glaciology extends as far back in time as the discipline itself, although their contributions to the scientific discourse have for all of that history been constrained by the sociopolitical contexts of the times. The first Journal of Glaciology paper authored by a woman appeared in 1948, within a year of the founding of the Journal, but it was not until the 1980s that women produced more than a few percent of Journal and Annals of Glaciology papers. Here international perspectives on women's participation in the sciences are presented in order to establish an economic and ...


Grounding-Line Basal Melt Rates Determined Using Radar-Derived Internal Stratigraphy, Ginny Catania, Christina L. Hulbe, Howard Conway 2010 University of Texas at Austin

Grounding-Line Basal Melt Rates Determined Using Radar-Derived Internal Stratigraphy, Ginny Catania, Christina L. Hulbe, Howard Conway

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We use ice-penetrating radar data across grounding lines of Siple Dome and Roosevelt Island, Antarctica, to measure the spatial pattern, magnitude and duration of sub-ice-shelf melting at these locations. Stratigraphic layers across the grounding line show, in places, a large-amplitude downwarp at, or slightly downstream of, the grounding line due to sub-ice-shelf basal melting. Localized downwarping indicates that melting is transient; melt rates, or the grounding line position, have changed within a few hundred years in order to produce the observed stratigraphy. Elsewhere, no meltrelated stratigraphic signature is preserved. In part, heterogeneity in the amount of sub-ice-shelf melt is due ...


Climate In The Southern Sawatch Range And Elk Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A., During The Last Glacial Maximum: Inferences Using A Simple Degree-Day Model, Keith A. Brugger 2010 University of Minnesota, Morris

Climate In The Southern Sawatch Range And Elk Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A., During The Last Glacial Maximum: Inferences Using A Simple Degree-Day Model, Keith A. Brugger

Geology Publications

Equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) were determined from reconstructions of 22 paleoglaciers at their extent during the local last glacial maximum (LGM) using the accumulation-area method. LGM ELAs thus derived ranged from 2980 to 3560 m and follow a statistically significant regional trend of rising ~4.5 m km-1 to the east. Two approaches using a degree-day model were used to infer LGM climate by finding plausible combinations of temperature and precipitation change that (1) would be required to lower ELAs to their mean LGM values in both the Taylor Park/eastern Elk Mountains region and western Elk Mountains, and (2 ...


Propagation Of Long Fractures In The Ronne Ice Shelf Investigated Using A Numerical Model Of Fracture Propagation, Christina L. Hulbe, Christine Marie LeDoux, Kenneth M. Cruikshank 2010 Portland State University

Propagation Of Long Fractures In The Ronne Ice Shelf Investigated Using A Numerical Model Of Fracture Propagation, Christina L. Hulbe, Christine Marie Ledoux, Kenneth M. Cruikshank

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Long rifts near the front of the Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, are observed to begin as fractures along the lateral boundaries of outlet streams feeding the shelf. These flaws eventually become the planes along which tabular icebergs calve. The fractures propagate laterally as they advect through the shelf, with orientations that can be explained by the glaciological stress field. Fracture length remains constrained over much of the advective path, and locations of crack tip arrest are observed to coincide with structural boundaries, such as suture zones between ice from adjacent outlet glaciers. Geomechanical principles and numerical models demonstrate that in ...


Post-Coring Entrapment Of Modern Air In Some Shallow Ice Cores Collected Near The Firn-Ice Transition: Evidence From Cfc-12 Measurements In Antarctic Firn Air And Ice Cores, Murat Aydin, S. A. Montzka, M. O. Battle, M. B. Williams, Warren J. De Bruyn, J. H. Butler, K. R. Verhulst, C. Tatum, B. K. Gun, D. A. Plotkin, B. D. Hall, Eric S. Saltzman 2010 University of California - Irvine

Post-Coring Entrapment Of Modern Air In Some Shallow Ice Cores Collected Near The Firn-Ice Transition: Evidence From Cfc-12 Measurements In Antarctic Firn Air And Ice Cores, Murat Aydin, S. A. Montzka, M. O. Battle, M. B. Williams, Warren J. De Bruyn, J. H. Butler, K. R. Verhulst, C. Tatum, B. K. Gun, D. A. Plotkin, B. D. Hall, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

In this study, we report measurements of CFC-12 (CCl2F2) in firn air and in air extracted from shallow ice cores from three Antarctic sites. The firn air data are consistent with the known atmospheric history of CFC-12. In contrast, some of the ice core samples collected near the firn-ice transition exhibit anomalously high CFC-12 levels. Together, the ice core and firn air data provide evidence for the presence of modern air entrapped in the shallow ice core samples that likely contained open pores at the time of collection. We propose that this is due to closure of the open pores ...


Why The Arctic? An Overview, Julie Brigham-Grette 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Why The Arctic? An Overview, Julie Brigham-Grette

IPY STEM Polar Connections

No abstract provided.


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