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The Sedimentary Imprint Of Pleistocene Glacio-Eustasy: Implications For Global Correlations Of Seismic Sequences, Cecilia M. McHugh, Craig S. Fulthorpe, Koichi Hoyanagi, Peter Blum, Gregory S. Mountain, Kenneth G. Miller 2017 CUNY Queens College

The Sedimentary Imprint Of Pleistocene Glacio-Eustasy: Implications For Global Correlations Of Seismic Sequences, Cecilia M. Mchugh, Craig S. Fulthorpe, Koichi Hoyanagi, Peter Blum, Gregory S. Mountain, Kenneth G. Miller

Publications and Research

We evaluate lithofacies, chronology, and seismic sequences from the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand passive continental slope (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] Expedition 317 Site U1352 and environs) and compare this with slope sequences from the New Jersey passive margin. Our goal is to understand continental slope sedimentation in response to glacio-eustasy and test the concepts of sequence stratigraphy. High-resolution geochemical elemental and lithostratigraphic analyses were calibrated to a chronology constructed from benthic foramininferal oxygen isotopes for the past ~1.8 m.y. We identify lithofacies successions by their unique geochemical and lithologic signature and correlate them with marine isotope stages ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Deep-Focus Earthquakes Via In-Situ Acoustic Emission Experiments On Fe2sio4 At High Temperature And Pressure, Timothy Officer 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Mechanism Of Deep-Focus Earthquakes Via In-Situ Acoustic Emission Experiments On Fe2sio4 At High Temperature And Pressure, Timothy Officer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In subduction zones, earthquakes are thought to be associated with faulting that arises from phase transformations. In order to test the viability of this mechanism experimentally, it was necessary to make microseismic measurements while the mineral under investigation was subjected to the pressure and temperature (P,T) conditions corresponding to their environment at depth. A system has been developed capable of making in situ acoustic emission (AE) measurements on samples under P,T conditions representative of the upper mantle and transition zone. Experiments were performed in a 3000-ton multi-anvil press using an 18/11 octahedral cell with 6 piezoelectric transducers ...


Combined Assimilation Of Satellite Precipitation And Soil Moisture: A Case Study Using Trmm And Smos Data, Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, Rafael L. Bras 2017 Georgia Institute of Technology

Combined Assimilation Of Satellite Precipitation And Soil Moisture: A Case Study Using Trmm And Smos Data, Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, Rafael L. Bras

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper presents a framework that enables simultaneous assimilation of satellite precipitation and soil moisture observations into the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Noah land surface model through variational approaches. The authors tested the framework by assimilating precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and soil moisture data from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The results show that assimilation of both TRMM and SMOS data can effectively improve the forecast skills of precipitation, top 10-cm soil moisture, and 2-m temperature and specific humidity. Within a 2-day time window, impacts of precipitation data assimilation on ...


Geophysical Delineation Of Megaporosity And Fluid Migration Pathways For Geohazard Characterization Within The Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas, Jonathan David Woodard 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geophysical Delineation Of Megaporosity And Fluid Migration Pathways For Geohazard Characterization Within The Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas, Jonathan David Woodard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Differential dissolution of gypsum karst within the Delaware Basin poses a significant threat to infrastructure that society depends on. The study area is located in Culberson County, Texas and traverses a distance of approximately 54 kilometers along RM 652 within the Gypsum Plain which is situated on the northern margin of the Chihuahua Desert and includes outcrops of Castile and Rustler strata that host karst geohazards. Regions of karst geohazard potential have been physically surveyed proximal to the study area in evaporites throughout the Castile Formation outcrop; minimal hazards, in comparison to the Castile Formation, have been documented in ...


Characterizing Coseismic Ionospheric Disturbance For Surface-Rupturing Earthquakes, Rebekah Faith Lee 2017 Boise State University

Characterizing Coseismic Ionospheric Disturbance For Surface-Rupturing Earthquakes, Rebekah Faith Lee

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) are commonly identified using global navigation space system (GNSS) satellites. Little research, however, has focused on using total electron content (TEC) observations to characterize acoustic sources on Earth's surface. For this thesis, I investigate the applicability of an analytical method to invert the TEC for the acoustic wave. The inversion is based on the modeling of a transfer function. Deconvolving the TEC by the transfer function gives the acoustic wave. Inverting for the acoustic wave in this way would remove phase differences in the TEC created by atmospheric-ionospheric coupling. I test the assumption in the ...


Seismic Refraction And Electrical Resistivity Tests For Fracture Induced Anisotropy In A Mountain Watershed, Aida Mendieta 2017 Boise State University

Seismic Refraction And Electrical Resistivity Tests For Fracture Induced Anisotropy In A Mountain Watershed, Aida Mendieta

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The critical zone (CZ) is the earth’s layer where water, air, rock, and life meet. It is the zone with which humans interact most. The National Research council (2001) defines the CZ as a “heterogeneous, near surface environment in which complex interactions involving rock, soil, water, air, and living organisms regulate the natural habitat and determine the availability of life sustaining resources”. The CZ may extend roughly from the top of the vegetation canopy to the deepest part of the rock column where meteoric water circulates – this is often in the 10 – 30 m range. The upper 1-2 m ...


3d Seismic Interpretation Of A Plio-Pleistocene Mass Transport Deposit In The Deepwater Taranaki Basin Of New Zealand, Francisco Jose Rusconi 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

3d Seismic Interpretation Of A Plio-Pleistocene Mass Transport Deposit In The Deepwater Taranaki Basin Of New Zealand, Francisco Jose Rusconi

Theses and Dissertations

A series of Plio-Pleistocene mass transport deposits (MTD) have been identified in the deepwater Taranaki Basin, in New Zealand, using the Romney 3D seismic survey, which covers an area of approximately 2000 km2. One of these MTDs has been chosen for description and interpretation based on high confidence mapping of its boundary surfaces. The deposit exhibits an array of interesting features similar to those documented by researchers elsewhere plus a unique basal feature unlike those previously observed. The basal shear surface exhibits erosional features such as grooves, “monkey fingers”, and glide tracks. Internally, the MTD is typically characterized by low ...


Seeing Prehistory Through New Lenses: Using Geophysical And Statistical Analysis To Identify Fresh Perspectives Of A 15th Century Mandan Occupation, Amber Marie Mitchum 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seeing Prehistory Through New Lenses: Using Geophysical And Statistical Analysis To Identify Fresh Perspectives Of A 15th Century Mandan Occupation, Amber Marie Mitchum

Theses and Dissertations

Great Plains prehistoric research has evolved over the course of a century, with many sites like Huff Village (32MO11) in North Dakota recently coming back to the forefront of discussion through new technological applications. Through a majority of its studies and excavations, Huff Village appeared to endure as the final stage in the Middle Missouri tradition. Long thought to reflect only systematically placed long-rectangular structure types of its Middle Missouri predecessors, recent magnetic gradiometry and topographic mapping data revealed circular structure types that deviated from long-held traditions, highlighting new associations with Coalescent groups. A compact system for food capacity was ...


Time Series Analysis Of Surface Deformation Associated With Fluid Injection And Induced Seismicity In Timpson, Texas Using Dinsar Methods, Simon Thorpe 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Time Series Analysis Of Surface Deformation Associated With Fluid Injection And Induced Seismicity In Timpson, Texas Using Dinsar Methods, Simon Thorpe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years, a rise in unconventional oil and gas production in North America has been linked to an increase in seismicity rate in these regions (Ellsworth, 2013). As fluid is pumped into deep formations, the state of stress within the subsurface changes, potentially reactivating pre-existing faults and/or causing subsidence or uplift of the surface. Therefore, hydraulic fracturing and/or fluid disposal injection can significantly increase the seismic hazard to communities and structures surrounding the injection sites (Barnhart et al., 2014). On 17th May 2012 an Mw4.8 earthquake occurred near Timpson, TX and has been linked with wastewater ...


Geophysical Study Of Complex Meteorite Impact Structures, William Zylberman 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Geophysical Study Of Complex Meteorite Impact Structures, William Zylberman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hypervelocity impact craters are the most abundant morphologic features on rocky planetary bodies of the Solar System, except on Earth where they have mostly been erased by plate tectonics, erosion, or are buried under sediments. The internal structure of complex impact craters can only be studied on Earth by using ground-truth geophysical and geological studies. Such approaches - combined with modeling - can reveal how impact cratering, target geological composition, erosion and other post-impact processes can lead to the observed geophysical anomalies, which could also be detected by remote geophysical data on other planetary surfaces. In this work, a multidisciplinary approach is ...


Imaging Wetland Hydrogeophysics: Applications Of Critical Zone Hydrogeophysics To Better Understand Hydrogeologic Conditions In Coastal And Inland Wetlands And Waters, Christine Marie Downs 2017 University of South Florida

Imaging Wetland Hydrogeophysics: Applications Of Critical Zone Hydrogeophysics To Better Understand Hydrogeologic Conditions In Coastal And Inland Wetlands And Waters, Christine Marie Downs

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three projects utilizing electric and electromagnetic (EM) methods to better understand critical-zone hydrogeologic conditions in select Florida wetlands and waters.

First, a time-lapse electrical resistivity (ER) survey was conducted in section of mangrove forest on a barrier island in southeast Florida to image changes in pore-water salinity in the root zone. ER data show the most variability in the root zone over a 24-hour period, and, generally, the ground is more resistive during the day than overnight.

Second, a suite of three-dimensional forward models, based on varying lateral boundaries and conductivities typical of a coastal wetland ...


How Dredge Pits Evolve Over Time: A Look At Their Geomorphologic Evolution And Infilling Processes, Patrick Robichaux 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

How Dredge Pits Evolve Over Time: A Look At Their Geomorphologic Evolution And Infilling Processes, Patrick Robichaux

LSU Master's Theses

As coastal environments become more susceptible to land loss through accelerating sea level rise and subsidence, new restoration methods harnessing borrowed sediment are more valuable than ever. Mud-capped dredge pits (MCDPs) are a relatively new source of restoration-quality sediment that has only recently been utilized for beach and barrier island restorations in Louisiana. Because MCDPs have been in use for less than two decades in only a handful sites, little is understood about their evolution over decadal timescales. To improve our understanding of MCDPs after they are dredged, we have conducted a suite of geophysical surveys including bathymetry, sidescan sonar ...


Origin And Stratigraphic Architecture Of The Middle Permian Lower And Upper Quanzijie Low-Order Cycles, Bogda Mountains, Nw China, Jonathan Obrist-Farner 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Origin And Stratigraphic Architecture Of The Middle Permian Lower And Upper Quanzijie Low-Order Cycles, Bogda Mountains, Nw China, Jonathan Obrist-Farner

Jonathan Obrist-Farner

"This study is carried out in the Bogda Mountains, NW China, and aims to provide a detailed sedimentary, stratigraphic, environmental, and paleoclimatic reconstruction in the paleo-mid-latitude along the east coast of Pangea. The Middle Permian lower and upper Quanzijie low-order cycles (QZJ LCs) provide a nearly complete sedimentary record in an area were little is known. In the first part of this work, the previously-established QZJ LC is divided into two LCs on the basis of regional stratigraphic correlation and major changes in depositional environments and tectonic and climatic processes. The newly-established lower QZJ LC is mainly composed of meandering ...


Acoustic And Seismic Fields Of Hydraulic Jumps At Varying Froude Numbers, Timothy J. Ronan, Jonathan M. Lees, T. Dylan Mikesell, Jacob F. Anderson, Jeffrey B. Johnson 2017 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Acoustic And Seismic Fields Of Hydraulic Jumps At Varying Froude Numbers, Timothy J. Ronan, Jonathan M. Lees, T. Dylan Mikesell, Jacob F. Anderson, Jeffrey B. Johnson

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Mechanisms that produce seismic and acoustic wavefields near rivers are poorly understood because of a lack of observations relating temporally dependent river conditions to the near-river seismoacoustic fields. This controlled study at the Harry W. Morrison Dam (HWMD) on the Boise River, Idaho, explores how temporal variation in fluvial systems affects surrounding acoustic and seismic fields. Adjusting the configuration of the HWMD changed the river bathymetry and therefore the form of the standing wave below the dam. The HWMD was adjusted to generate four distinct wave regimes that were parameterized through their dimensionless Froude numbers (Fr) and observations of ...


How Useful Is Gsv As An Environmental Observation Tool? An Analysis Of The Evidence So Far., Katherine Nesse, Leah Airt 2017 Seattle Pacific University

How Useful Is Gsv As An Environmental Observation Tool? An Analysis Of The Evidence So Far., Katherine Nesse, Leah Airt

SPU Works

Researchers in many disciplines have turned to Google Street View to replace pedestrian- or carbased in-person observation of streetscapes. It is most prevalent within the research literature on the relationship between neighborhood environments and public health but has been used as diverse as disaster recovery, ecology and wildlife habitat, and urban design. Evaluations of the tool have found that the results of GSV-based observation are similar to the results from in-person observation although the similarity depends on the type of characteristic being observed. Larger, permanent and discrete features showed more consistency between the two methods and smaller, transient and judgmental ...


New Gps Time Series Analysis And A Simplified Model To Compute An Accurate Seasonal Amplitude Of Tropospheric Delay, Hadis Samadi Alinia 2017 The University of Western Ontario

New Gps Time Series Analysis And A Simplified Model To Compute An Accurate Seasonal Amplitude Of Tropospheric Delay, Hadis Samadi Alinia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Horizontal and vertical deformation of the Earth’s crust is due to a variety of different geophysical processes that take place on various spatiotemporal scales. The quality of the observations from spaced-based geodesy instruments such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) data for monitoring these deformations are dependent on numerous error sources. Therefore, accurately identifying and eliminating the dominant sources of the error, such as troposphere error in GPS signals, is fundamental to obtain high quality, sub-centimeter accuracy levels in positioning results.

In this work, I present the results of double-differenced processing of five ...


Using Isotopes To Constrain Water Flux And Age Estimates In Snow-Influenced Catchments Using The Starr (Spatially Distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall–Runoff) Model, Pertti Ala-Aho, Doerthe Tetzlaff, James P. McNamara, Hjalmar Laudon, Chris Soulsby 2017 University of Aberdeen

Using Isotopes To Constrain Water Flux And Age Estimates In Snow-Influenced Catchments Using The Starr (Spatially Distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall–Runoff) Model, Pertti Ala-Aho, Doerthe Tetzlaff, James P. Mcnamara, Hjalmar Laudon, Chris Soulsby

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Tracer-aided hydrological models are increasingly used to reveal fundamentals of runoff generation processes and water travel times in catchments. Modelling studies integrating stable water isotopes as tracers are mostly based in temperate and warm climates, leaving catchments with strong snow influences underrepresented in the literature. Such catchments are challenging, as the isotopic tracer signals in water entering the catchments as snowmelt are typically distorted from incoming precipitation due to fractionation processes in seasonal snowpack.

We used the Spatially distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall– Runoff (STARR) model to simulate fluxes, storage, and mixing of water and tracers, as well as estimating water ages ...


A Comparison Of Ground Motion Characteristics From Induced Seismic Events In Alberta With Those In Oklahoma, Krista M. Kaski 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Comparison Of Ground Motion Characteristics From Induced Seismic Events In Alberta With Those In Oklahoma, Krista M. Kaski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ground motions from potentially-induced seismic events in Alberta of magnitude (M) > 3, recorded within 100 km, are empirically characterized in terms of their response spectral shapes and amplitudes. Ground motions are compared statistically to those from induced events in Oklahoma, as well as to three benchmark ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), derived from natural events. Discrepancies between Alberta and Oklahoma events appear to be magnitude-dependent, and distance-independent. For events greater than M~4, the ground motions appear equivalent in the two regions. High-frequency motions from M< 3.5 events in Alberta are weaker than those of natural events, even those at shallow focal depths. For larger magnitudes, the residuals between the Alberta motions and benchmark GMPEs (Yenier and Atkinson, 2015; Atkinson, 2015; Abrahamson et al., 2014) suggest that observations are in reasonable accord with the models. These results provide a further understanding of ground motions from induced events in Alberta.


Assessing A Multi-Platform Data Fusion Technique In Capturing Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Heterogeneous Dryland Ecosystems In Topographically Complex Terrain, Peter J. Olsoy, Jessica Mitchell, Nancy F. Glenn, Alejandro N. Flores 2017 Boise State University

Assessing A Multi-Platform Data Fusion Technique In Capturing Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Heterogeneous Dryland Ecosystems In Topographically Complex Terrain, Peter J. Olsoy, Jessica Mitchell, Nancy F. Glenn, Alejandro N. Flores

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Water-limited ecosystems encompass approximately 40% of terrestrial land mass and play a critical role in modulating Earth’s climate and provisioning ecosystem services to humanity. Spaceborne remote sensing is a critical tool for characterizing ecohydrologic patterns and advancing the understanding of the interactions between atmospheric forcings and ecohydrologic responses. Fine to medium scale spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to capture the spatial heterogeneity and the temporally intermittent response of these ecosystems to environmental forcings. Techniques combining complementary remote sensing datasets have been developed, but the heterogeneous nature of these regions present significant challenges. Here we investigate the capacity of ...


Assessment Of Earthquake Site Amplification And Application Of Passive Seismic Methods For Improved Site Classification In The Greater Vancouver Region, British Columbia, Frederick Andrew Jackson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Assessment Of Earthquake Site Amplification And Application Of Passive Seismic Methods For Improved Site Classification In The Greater Vancouver Region, British Columbia, Frederick Andrew Jackson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is renewed interest to improve seismic microzonation mapping in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). We investigate local geology as the cause of observed variable ground shaking from the 2015 M 4.7 Vancouver Island earthquake. We observe high amplification at 4-6 Hz on thick sediment and the northern edge of the Fraser River delta, and disparities with current regional seismic microzonation mapping. Site amplification and shear-wave velocity (VS) are assessed from the first borehole earthquake recordings in BC. We also perform ambient vibration analyses at 13 new locations in southwest BC to highlight suitability of passive seismic methods ...


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