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Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia

LSU Master's Theses

Glacial outburst floods are difficult to predict and threaten human life. These events are characterized by rapid draining of glacier-dammed lakes via the sub/englacial hydraulic network to the proglacial stream. The glacier-dammed lake on Gornergletscher in Switzerland, which fills and drains each summer, provides an opportunity to study this hazard. For three drainages (2004, 2006, and 2007), icequakes (IQ) are tracked as well as on-ice GPS movement. The seasonal seismic networks had 8 – 24 three-component stations and apertures of about 300 – 400 m on the glacier surface. The seasonal GPS arrays contained 4 – 8 GPS antennae on the glacier ...


Critical Zone Structure Under A Granite Ridge Inferred From Drilling And Three-Dimensional Seismic Refraction Data, Brady A. Flinchum, W. Steven Holbrook, Daniella Rempe, Seulgi Moon, Clifford S. Riebe, Bradley J. Carr, Jorden L. Hayes, James St. Clair, Marc Philipp Peters 2018 Dickinson College

Critical Zone Structure Under A Granite Ridge Inferred From Drilling And Three-Dimensional Seismic Refraction Data, Brady A. Flinchum, W. Steven Holbrook, Daniella Rempe, Seulgi Moon, Clifford S. Riebe, Bradley J. Carr, Jorden L. Hayes, James St. Clair, Marc Philipp Peters

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Observing the critical zone (CZ) below the top few meters of readily excavated soil is challenging yet crucial to understanding Earth surface processes. Near‐surface geophysical methods can overcome this challenge by imaging the CZ in three dimensions (3‐D) over hundreds of meters, thus revealing lateral heterogeneity in subsurface properties across scales relevant to understanding hillslope erosion, weathering, and biogeochemical cycling. We imaged the CZ under a soil‐mantled ridge developed in granitic terrain of the Laramie Range, Wyoming, using data from five boreholes and a 3‐D volume (970 by 600 by 80 m) of seismic velocities generated ...


Landscape Analysis Of Soil Methane Flux Across Complex Terrain, Kendra E. Kaiser, Brian L. McGlynn, John E. Dore 2018 Boise State University

Landscape Analysis Of Soil Methane Flux Across Complex Terrain, Kendra E. Kaiser, Brian L. Mcglynn, John E. Dore

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Relationships between methane (CH4) fluxes and environmental conditions have been extensively explored in saturated soils, while research has been less prevalent in aerated soils because of the relatively small magnitudes of CH4 fluxes that occur in dry soils. Our study builds on previous carbon cycle research at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana, to identify how environmental conditions reflected by topographic metrics can be leveraged to estimate watershed scale CH4 fluxes from point scale measurements. Here, we measured soil CH4 concentrations and fluxes across a range of landscape positions (7 riparian, 25 upland), utilizing topographic and seasonal ...


Steering Operational Synergies In Terrestrial Observation Networks: Opportunity For Advancing Earth System Dynamics Modelling, Roland Baatz, Pamela L. Sullivan, Li Li, Samantha R. Weintraub, Henry W. Loescher, Michael Mirtl, Peter M. Groffman, Diana H. Wall, Michael Young, Tim White, Hang Wen, Steffen Zacharias, Ingolf Kühn, Jianwu Tang, Jérôme Gaillardet, Isabelle Braud, Alejandro N. Flores, Praveen Kumar, Henry Lin, Teamrat Ghezzehei, Julia Jones, Henry L. Gholz, Harry Vereecken, Kris Van Looy 2018 Forschungszentrum Jülich

Steering Operational Synergies In Terrestrial Observation Networks: Opportunity For Advancing Earth System Dynamics Modelling, Roland Baatz, Pamela L. Sullivan, Li Li, Samantha R. Weintraub, Henry W. Loescher, Michael Mirtl, Peter M. Groffman, Diana H. Wall, Michael Young, Tim White, Hang Wen, Steffen Zacharias, Ingolf Kühn, Jianwu Tang, Jérôme Gaillardet, Isabelle Braud, Alejandro N. Flores, Praveen Kumar, Henry Lin, Teamrat Ghezzehei, Julia Jones, Henry L. Gholz, Harry Vereecken, Kris Van Looy

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD) depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs), and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration ...


Determining Principal Stress Orientations And Magnitudes In The Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Louis Quinones 2018 Southern Methodist University

Determining Principal Stress Orientations And Magnitudes In The Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Louis Quinones

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Since 2008, the Fort Worth Basin in northern Texas has experienced over 30 M3.0+ earthquakes, including one M4.0. Earthquakes have primarily occurred on Precambrian basement faults and within the overlying Ellenburger limestone unit, which is the primary wastewater disposal formation used in the basin. The most productive earthquake sequences (Azle, Irving- Dallas, and Venus) have been recorded using local seismic networks containing a mix of SMU broadband, IRIS short period, and USGS NetQuakes stations and by regional seismic networks operated under the Advanced National Seismic System and the Texas Seismic Network (TexNet).

Using the data recorded by the ...


Characterization Of Ground Deformation Associated With Shallow Groundwater Processes Using Satellite Radar Interferometry, Xie Hu 2018 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Ground Deformation Associated With Shallow Groundwater Processes Using Satellite Radar Interferometry, Xie Hu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Shallow groundwater processes maylead to ground deformation and even geohazards. With the features of day-and-night accessibility and large-scale coverage, time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven a useful tool for mapping the deformation over various landscapes at cm to mm level with weekly to monthly updates. However, it has limitations such as, decorrelation,atmospheric artifacts, topographic errors, andunwrapping errors, in particular for the hilly, vegetated, and complicated deformation patterns. In this dissertation, I focus on characterizing the ground deformation over landslides, aquifer systems, and mine tailings impoundment, using the designed advanced time-series InSAR strategy, as well as theinterdisciplinary knowledge ...


A Geophysical Delineation Of A Normal Fault Within The Gulf Coastal Plain, Montgomery County, Texas, Danielle Minteer 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

A Geophysical Delineation Of A Normal Fault Within The Gulf Coastal Plain, Montgomery County, Texas, Danielle Minteer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Gulf Coast of Texas has been a known hydrocarbon basin for many years with various structural trapping mechanisms such as anticlines, faults and salt domes. While most large salt domes have been extensively studied in the Gulf Coastal Plain, many smaller normal faults have not been studied in detail. This research study employs an integrated geophysical approach to mapping the Big Barn fault in Montgomery County, Texas. This fault is located on the Gulf Coastal Plain and is approximately 20 miles north of Houston, Texas. Most normal faults in the Gulf Coastal Plain formed as a result of the ...


Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller 2018 University of Maine

Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Shell middens along the Maine coast archive up to 5000 years of cultural and climatic change, but the record is continually and rapidly lost to the sea through climate-driven coastal erosion and sea-level rise. These sites were constructed by the ancestors of Maine Tribes, and are composed of centimeters to meters of clam (Mya arenaria) and/or oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, other faunal remains, and cultural materials. Shell middens record human interaction with the environment and early coastal occupation and adaptation. The faunal remains reflect paleoenvironmental conditions and the distribution of extinct and extant forage-species along the western Gulf of ...


Lava, Ash Flows, Mudslides And Nasty Gases: Good Reasons To Respect Volcanoes, Brittany Brand 2018 Boise State University

Lava, Ash Flows, Mudslides And Nasty Gases: Good Reasons To Respect Volcanoes, Brittany Brand

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Volcanoes are beautiful and awe-inspiring, but the ongoing eruption of Kilauea on Hawaii’s Big Island is showing how dangerous these events can be. So far this event has destroyed dozens of homes and displaced hundreds of people, but no deaths or serious injuries have been reported. Other volcanic eruptions have had deadlier impacts.


Estimation Of Porosity And Water Saturation In Dual-Porosity Pyroclastic Deposits From Joint Analysis Of Compression, Shear, And Electromagnetic Velocities, Andrew C. Gase, John H. Bradford, Brittany D. Brand 2018 University of Texas at Austin

Estimation Of Porosity And Water Saturation In Dual-Porosity Pyroclastic Deposits From Joint Analysis Of Compression, Shear, And Electromagnetic Velocities, Andrew C. Gase, John H. Bradford, Brittany D. Brand

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In situ measurements of porosity and water saturation of pyroclastic deposits have the potential to improve interpretations of geology and hydrology in volcanic regions, and to provide more accurate estimates of dense rock equivalent for volcanic eruptions. However, rock-property models must consider the dual-porosity structure of pyroclastic deposits (i.e., vesicles within pumices and intergranular pores). Vesicularity, intergranular porosity, and water saturation all affect the density, elasticity, and dielectric properties of pyroclastic materials, which control seismic and electromagnetic velocities. The data from active seismic and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques may improve porosity and water saturation estimation if the responses of ...


Crustal Structure Of The Bhutanese Himalaya: New Insights From A Gravity Analysis In Western And Central Bhutan, Kinzang Duba 2018 Missouri State University

Crustal Structure Of The Bhutanese Himalaya: New Insights From A Gravity Analysis In Western And Central Bhutan, Kinzang Duba

MSU Graduate Theses

To expand the current understanding of lithospheric structure within Bhutan Himalaya, a detailed gravity survey was conducted for the first time along the all major roads within western and central Bhutan in 2015-2017. The acquired Bouguer gravity anomaly data were analyzed and interpreted using map methods (wavelength filtering and Euler deconvolution) which clearly indicate that there are substantial anomalies due to crustal density sources and a complex Himalayan geology. Four two-dimensional gravity models across the Himalayan tectonostratigraphic units were constructed to determine the crustal density structure using constraints from the geological and geophysical studies. The results support that the long ...


Local, Regional, And Remote Seismo‐Acoustic Observations Of The April 2015 Vei 4 Eruption Of Calbuco Volcano, Chile, Robin S. Matoza, David Fee, David N. Green, Alexis Le Pichon, Julien Vergoz, Matthew M. Haney, T. Dylan Mikesell, Luis Franco, O. Alberto Valderrama, Megan R. Kelley, Kathleen McKee, Lars Ceranna 2018 University of California, Santa Barbara

Local, Regional, And Remote Seismo‐Acoustic Observations Of The April 2015 Vei 4 Eruption Of Calbuco Volcano, Chile, Robin S. Matoza, David Fee, David N. Green, Alexis Le Pichon, Julien Vergoz, Matthew M. Haney, T. Dylan Mikesell, Luis Franco, O. Alberto Valderrama, Megan R. Kelley, Kathleen Mckee, Lars Ceranna

CGISS Publications and Presentations

The two major explosive phases of the 22–23 April 2015 eruption of Calbuco volcano, Chile, produced powerful seismicity and infrasound. The eruption was recorded on seismo-acoustic stations out to 1,540 km and on five stations (IS02, IS08, IS09, IS27, and IS49) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network at distances from 1,525 to 5,122 km. The remote IMS infrasound stations provide an accurate explosion chronology consistent with the regional and local seismo-acoustic data and with previous studies of lightning and plume observations. We use the IMS network to detect and locate the eruption signals using ...


Geology Of The Purgatory Saddle 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, And Gravity And Magnetic Analysis Of Accreted Terrane Boundary, Western Idaho, Sourav Krishna Nandi 2018 Missouri State University

Geology Of The Purgatory Saddle 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, And Gravity And Magnetic Analysis Of Accreted Terrane Boundary, Western Idaho, Sourav Krishna Nandi

MSU Graduate Theses

Western Idaho (USA) contains deformation associated with the Mesozoic accretion of volcanic island arc terranes of the Blue Mountains Province to Laurentia. The near vertical boundary between the accretionary orogeny and Precambrian North America is represented by the transpressional western Idaho shear zone, which lies east of metamorphic rocks in the Salmon River suture zone. The Blue Mountains Province in western Idaho contains four accreted crustal blocks: the Wallowa, Olds Ferry, Baker, and Izee terranes. The purpose of this study is to understand the structural relationship of the pre-accretionary, syn-accretionary and post-accretionary tectonic features along the accreted terrane boundary in ...


Multi-Channel Ground-Penetrating Radar For The Continuous Quantification Of Snow And Firn Density, Depth, And Accumulation, Tate Meehan 2018 Boise State University

Multi-Channel Ground-Penetrating Radar For The Continuous Quantification Of Snow And Firn Density, Depth, And Accumulation, Tate Meehan

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

A priority of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) prediction is ascertaining the surface density and annual snow accumulation. These forcing data are inputs for firn density models and can be used to inform remotely sensed ice sheet surface processes and to assess Regional Climate Model (RCM) skill. The Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS) retrieved 16 shallow firn cores and dug 42 snow pits along the Western percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) during May and June of 2016 and 2017. I deployed and maintained a multi-channel 500 MHz ground-penetrating radar in a multi-offset configuration ...


Liquefaction-Induced Dragload And/Or Downdrag On Deep Foundations Within The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Ishimwe Elvis 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Liquefaction-Induced Dragload And/Or Downdrag On Deep Foundations Within The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Ishimwe Elvis

Theses and Dissertations

Deep foundation elements are typically used to transfer structural loads for multi-story buildings and large-span bridges to a competent soil layer when 1) the soil close to the ground surface has no sufficient bearing capacity, and when 2) liquefiable soils are encountered. The majority of the bridges constructed within seismic zones rely upon the stability of earthen embankments and deep foundation that are installed above or within liquefiable soil deposits. Despite large factor of safety values or different load and resistance factors being used to adequately design deep foundations within seismic areas, soil liquefaction may cause extensive damage to the ...


Interpretation And Fracture Characterization Of Early-Cretaceous Buda Limestone Formation Using Post-Stack 3d Seismic Data In Zavala County, Texas, Andrey Smirnov 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interpretation And Fracture Characterization Of Early-Cretaceous Buda Limestone Formation Using Post-Stack 3d Seismic Data In Zavala County, Texas, Andrey Smirnov

Theses and Dissertations

The Buda Limestone is a naturally fractured Early Cretaceous carbonate formation in south Texas which unconformably underlies the Eagle Ford Shale. Matrix porosity of the Buda is less than 6%, therefore natural fractures improve the potential for commercial hydrocarbon production from this tight limestone formation. This presents a challenge for producers to identify these zones using well log and post stack 3D seismic data typically available to medium or small exploration companies. This project provides a workflow based on well log analysis tied to seismic acoustic impedance (AI) inversion to locate areas of probable natural fractures. Acoustic impedance inversion was ...


Seismology And Volcanology: Exploration Of Volcanoes, Long-Periods, And Machines - Predicting Volcano Eruption Using Signature Seismic Data, Kyle Killion, Rajeev Kumar, Celia J. Taylor, Gabriele Morra 2018 Southern Methodist University

Seismology And Volcanology: Exploration Of Volcanoes, Long-Periods, And Machines - Predicting Volcano Eruption Using Signature Seismic Data, Kyle Killion, Rajeev Kumar, Celia J. Taylor, Gabriele Morra

SMU Data Science Review

Abstract. Seismo-volcanologists manually isolate and verify long-period waves and Strombolian events using seismic and acoustic waves. This is a very detailed and time-consuming process. This project is to employ machine learning algorithms to find models which locate long-period and Strombolian signatures automatically. By comparing the timing of seismic and acoustic waves, clustering techniques effectively isolated big volcanic events and aided in the further refinement of techniques to capture the hundreds of typical daily Strombolian events at Villarrica volcano. Within the research, we utilized the unsupervised machine learning environment to locate a group of signatures for customizing machine learned long-period signature ...


Diverse Eruptive Activity Revealed By Acoustic And Electromagnetic Observations Of The 14 July 2013 Intense Vulcanian Eruption Of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador, J. F. Anderson, J. B. Johnson, A. L. Steele, M. C. Ruiz, B. D. Brand 2018 Boise State University

Diverse Eruptive Activity Revealed By Acoustic And Electromagnetic Observations Of The 14 July 2013 Intense Vulcanian Eruption Of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador, J. F. Anderson, J. B. Johnson, A. L. Steele, M. C. Ruiz, B. D. Brand

CGISS Publications and Presentations

During the powerful July 2013 eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, we recorded exceptionally high amplitude, long‐period infrasound (1,600‐Pa peak‐to‐peak amplitude, 5.5‐s period) on sensors within 2km of the vent alongside electromagnetic signals from volcanic lightning serendipitously captured as interference. This explosion was one of Tungurahua's most powerful vulcanian eruptions since recent activity began in 1999, and its acoustic wave is among the most powerful volcanic infrasound ever recorded anywhere. We use these data to quantify erupted volume from the main explosion and to classify postexplosive degassing into distinct emission styles. Additionally, we ...


Ice Core Records Of West Greenland Melt And Climate Forcing, H.P. Marshall, T. Meehan 2018 Boise State University

Ice Core Records Of West Greenland Melt And Climate Forcing, H.P. Marshall, T. Meehan

CGISS Publications and Presentations

Remote sensing observations and climate models indicate that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass since the late 1990s, mostly due to enhanced surface melting from rising summer temperatures. However, in situ observational records of GrIS melt rates over recent decades are rare. Here we develop a record of frozen meltwater in the west GrIS percolation zone preserved in seven firn cores. Quantifying ice layer distribution as a melt feature percentage (MFP), we find significant increases in MFP in the southernmost five cores over the past 50 years to unprecedented modern levels (since 1550 CE). Annual to decadal ...


Regional Stress Regime Study Of East Texas Based On Orientation Of Fractures In The Weches Formation, Cory D. Ellison 2018 Stephen F Austin State University

Regional Stress Regime Study Of East Texas Based On Orientation Of Fractures In The Weches Formation, Cory D. Ellison

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fractures in the Weches Formation in a roughly 50 mile radius around Nacogdoches, Texas were documented and analyzed using data obtained at various outcrops. This data was used to infer information about the regional stress regime based on the direction of maximum/minimum horizontal stresses (SHmax / SHmin) that formed the fractures. This is based on the principle that systematic, steeply dipping, mode I joints propagate in the direction of SHmax and normal to the direction of SHmin. Joints in the Weches Formation are typically iron filled and are predominantly opening mode, indicated by crack-seal formation, steep dip (700 – 900) and ...


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