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Field And Remote Sensing Analysis Of The 2015 Pyroclastic Density Currents At Colima (Mexico) And Calbuco (Chile) Volcanoes: Implications For Hazard Assessment And Crisis Management, Elodie Macorps 2021 University of South Florida

Field And Remote Sensing Analysis Of The 2015 Pyroclastic Density Currents At Colima (Mexico) And Calbuco (Chile) Volcanoes: Implications For Hazard Assessment And Crisis Management, Elodie Macorps

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although one of the most spectacular phenomena of active volcanoes, Pyroclastic density currents, or PDCs, are considered the most dangerous volcanic hazards. PDCs are avalanches of hot volcanic gases, ash, and larger volcanic fragments that travel at incredible speed down the flank of a volcano. High dynamic pressures, high temperatures, and high velocities are the primary dangers associated with PDCs and lead to near-complete destruction and death.

I use a multi-disciplinary approach to study the deposits left behind by PDCs, in order to understand their dynamics, their interactions with the receiving landscape, and their final distribution, starting on the ground …


Ductile And Brittle Deformation Of Slackwater Deposits In The Tucannon River Valley, Chelsi K. Howard 2021 Eastern Washington University

Ductile And Brittle Deformation Of Slackwater Deposits In The Tucannon River Valley, Chelsi K. Howard

Geosciences Student Work

The Tucannon River valley in eastern Washington is home to a number of ductile and brittle soft-sediment deformation. This project aims to look at ductile deformation by classifying and comparing styles of clastic dikes in the field and to look at brittle deformation by analyzing small faults in localized outcrops. Clastic dikes are sedimentary intrusions into other sedimentary strata. There are three main types of clastic dikes: injection, extrusion, and sugtrusion. In addition, two subcategories of clastic dikes are described as sheeted dikes and fault injection dikes. Ductile and brittle deformation occurs in “slackwater” deposits associated with margins of glacial …


Four Decades Of Understanding Martian Geomorphology: Revisiting Baker's "The Geomorphology Of Mars", Anshuman Bhardwaj, Lydia Sam, Saeideh Gharehchahi 2021 University of Aberdeen

Four Decades Of Understanding Martian Geomorphology: Revisiting Baker's "The Geomorphology Of Mars", Anshuman Bhardwaj, Lydia Sam, Saeideh Gharehchahi

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Owing to multiple successful orbiter and rover missions in the past two and half decades, our understanding of the Martian atmosphere, terrain, and subsurface has continuously evolved. This prompts the need to revisit the first holistic review of Martian geomorphology based on useful images from Viking Mission orbiters, authored by Prof. Victor R. Baker. Several of the remote sensing-based interpretations and recommendations in Baker’s (1981) paper are as valid even today as they were four decades back. With an unprecedented focus on Mars exploration in the coming decades, it is important to briefly revisit the advances and prospects in Martian …


Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson 2021 University of New Hampshire

Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Numerous large boulders at the base of Wishbone Hill, northeast of Anchorage, Alaska, suggest a historic rockfall event and potential for future surface instability, putting lives and property at risk. The source of the rockfall-boulders is an exposed syncline with a cliff face composed of conglomerate. The age of trees growing atop boulders provides a minimum exposure-age of those boulders and, thus, the rockfall event. To determine when the rockfall occurred, we dated trees growing atop the boulders using tree-ring samples collected from 30 Alaska paper birch trees. After mounting and polishing, each tree-ring sample was dot-counted, and tree-ring widths …


Mineralogy Of Aeolian Deposits In Gale Crater, Mars: The Bagnold Dunes To Glen Torridon, Eleanor Moreland 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Mineralogy Of Aeolian Deposits In Gale Crater, Mars: The Bagnold Dunes To Glen Torridon, Eleanor Moreland

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

We select four sand deposits along the traverse of the Curiosity rover to evaluate the spatial distribution of mineralogy and grain size. While extensive work has focused on characterizing the Bagnold Dunes in-situ and from orbit, less attention has been given to deposits south of the Vera Rubin Ridge (VRR). Overall, our results illustrate a compositional dichotomy among aeolian deposits, separated by the VRR. Initial investigations of hyperspectral data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show differences in the long wavelength spectral features and absolute reflectance measurements for the deposit south of the Bagnold Dunes. The southern …


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering forces encompass …


Landscape Evolution At Endeavour And Gale Craters On Mars, And How Terrain Characteristics Correlate With Mineralogy On Lower Mount Sharp, Gale Crater, Madison Nicole Hughes 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Landscape Evolution At Endeavour And Gale Craters On Mars, And How Terrain Characteristics Correlate With Mineralogy On Lower Mount Sharp, Gale Crater, Madison Nicole Hughes

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The geomorphic expression of terrain provides information such as the underlying lithologic properties and the dominant surface processes. By examining the surface morphology of two impact craters on Mars that have been explored by rovers, we can synergistically combine orbital and ground observations to obtain a deeper insight into the geologic history. In this dissertation, we analyze the landscape evolution of Endeavour and Gale craters, which have been explored by the Opportunity and Curiosity rovers, respectively. This is accomplished largely by analyzing the topography on a larger scale using images from Mars orbiters and their associated Digital Elevation Models, combined …


Linking Human Activities To Water Quality In Coastal New England: Past And Present, Amelia Hurst 2021 University of Connecticut

Linking Human Activities To Water Quality In Coastal New England: Past And Present, Amelia Hurst

University Scholar Projects

This project examines the timing and effect of direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural influences on the marine environment in embayments in southern New England over the past decades to century timescale. We investigated the effects of human land use from colonial through post-industrial times, determined baseline conditions and natural climatic variability, and analyzed the response of marine ecosystems to specific local management actions aimed to improve water quality. A coastal sediment core was taken in Mumford Cove, CT and was analyzed downcore for eutrophication markers (C: N, %C, %N, d15N, d13C) and metals (Hg, Pb, …


Late Amazonian Wind Regimes And Landscape Evolution In Northern Meridiani Planum, Mars, Thomas Stritch 2021 Augustana College

Late Amazonian Wind Regimes And Landscape Evolution In Northern Meridiani Planum, Mars, Thomas Stritch

Geology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Aeolian process have dominated the lower latitudes of Mars for billions of years. Aeolian landforms can act as records of current and past climates and landscape evolution processes. The etched deposits of Meridiani Planum, a vast suite of layered bedrock extending from southwest Arabia Terra to Schiaparelli crater, have long been noted to have been eroded by aeolian processes. However, little detailed work on the aeolian landforms of Meridiani Planum beyond the Opportunity rover landing site has been done. In this study, I examine wind streaks, aeolian bedforms (including dunes and large ripples), and yardangs in a valley about 370 …


Small-Scale Resuspension And Redistribution Of Surface Sediments In The Northeast Gulf Of Mexico, Austin Harris 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Small-Scale Resuspension And Redistribution Of Surface Sediments In The Northeast Gulf Of Mexico, Austin Harris

Master's Theses

Following the release of ~4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico from the Macondo wellhead, a vast area of the seafloor contained recently deposited marine sediments contaminated by the oil spill. The initial deposition of these contaminated marine sediments was likely not the end of the journey for the particles. Downslope gravitational processes and events of increased current speed in the deep ocean setting can result in recently deposited sediments to resuspend and be moved laterally with the current flow, increasing the area effected by the oil spill. Erosion experiments performed in a closed-loop resuspension flume were …


Assessing Soil-Related Terroir Factors In Sunnyslope District Vineyards Of Southwest Idaho, Rachael Nicole Haggen 2021 Boise State University

Assessing Soil-Related Terroir Factors In Sunnyslope District Vineyards Of Southwest Idaho, Rachael Nicole Haggen

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Terroir is the set of factors including climate, soil, and management practices that influence the character of a wine. Of these factors, soil texture and chemistry is a major determinant in wine grape quality (van Leeuwen et al., 2009). Understanding the characteristics of the soil is key to making decisions that support the production of the highest possible quality grapes from the resources available. Few studies have been conducted in the Snake River Valley AVA (SRVAVA). This study seeks to build upon the data already available and provide analysis of vineyard-scale terroir in a leading grape growing district of the …


Architectural-Element Analysis And Depositional Models For Pre-Vegetation Braidplain And Braid-Delta Environments, With Modern Analogues, Jason Gerhard Muhlbauer 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Architectural-Element Analysis And Depositional Models For Pre-Vegetation Braidplain And Braid-Delta Environments, With Modern Analogues, Jason Gerhard Muhlbauer

Doctoral Dissertations

Pre-vegetation landscapes that blanketed the continents before the emergence vascular plants in the late-Silurian are proposed habitats for the earliest terrestrial biota and are analogous to martian setting thought to have potentially hosted life. Analysis of the middle member of the Wood Canyon Formation, a Cambrian age sandstone, reveal new details about terrestrial pre-vegetation environments. In fluvial middle-member stratigraphy, units are defined by stacking patterns of three facies associations (FA1-3). In FA1, stacked cosets, interpreted as braidplain barforms and channel fills, preserve vertical- and downstream-accretion elements under unimodal paleoflow. Floodplains, represented by FA2, include red-orange intervals of fine- to medium-grained …


Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Joints are the most common deformation structure in the Earth’s upper crust and exert a significant influence on structural stability, landscape morphology, and fluid flow . Therefore, a greater understanding of fracture parameters (e.g., length, aperture, etc.) allows us to more accurately predict their presence, persistence, and prevalence, in the subsurface . We study the fracture spacing of two sub-orthogonal joint sets—66 NE-246 SW and 330 NW-150 SE—in the Caples Lake granodiorite of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Specifically, we investigate 1) their spacing distributions with a keen interest in power-law (fractal) spacing, 2) distribution comparisons between master and cross …


Effects Of The Triassic-Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Event Recorded In Continental Strata In Western Pangea: The Δ13c Record Of Warner Valley & Zion National Park, Dennis Mmasa 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of The Triassic-Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Event Recorded In Continental Strata In Western Pangea: The Δ13c Record Of Warner Valley & Zion National Park, Dennis Mmasa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Triassic is a period of abrupt climate change bracketed by mass extinctions including one driven by the eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Late Triassic. The Moenave Formation (MF) of Utah and Arizona is ideal to investigate effects of the CAMP on continental strata distal to the eruptive center. This study focuses on the C-isotopic composition of bulk carbonate C from two localities, Blacks Canyon, Zion National Park, UT and Olsen Canyon within Warner Valley, UT. The data collected was used to document a chemostratigraphic record to compare to globally established records and bulk organic …


069— Geomorphic Characteristics Of Canadice Lake, Ny, Watersheds And The Anthropogenic Effects On Watershed Output And Sensitivity, Carla Crampton 2021 SUNY Geneseo

069— Geomorphic Characteristics Of Canadice Lake, Ny, Watersheds And The Anthropogenic Effects On Watershed Output And Sensitivity, Carla Crampton

GREAT Day

Land use and size of watershed catchment areas affects the overall health and water quality of Canadice Lake. Methods in ArcGIS Pro were used for high resolution imagery and topography data to analyze the geomorphology of watersheds at Canadice Lake. Watersheds were mapped using ArcGIS Hydrology tools by constructing flow direction and accumulation grids. In each individual watershed, total area of the watershed, area of residential and agricultural land use, and total length of roads was determined to evaluate which watersheds are most sensitive to human impact and which watersheds are likely to contribute the highest flow discharge and sediment …


205— Revisiting The Geologic History Of The Pathfinder Landing Site At Ares Vallis, Mars, Andrew Agent 2021 SUNY Geneseo

205— Revisiting The Geologic History Of The Pathfinder Landing Site At Ares Vallis, Mars, Andrew Agent

GREAT Day

Before NASA sent the Pathfinder lander and Sojourner rover to the mouth of Ares Vallis in 1997, they anticipated the discovery of Hesperian-age (3.6 Ga-3.0 Ga) sediments deposited from catastrophic outflows. When pictures came back, the rocks they discovered were large, boulder-size, angular, and were largely inconsistent with transport by large floods. The origin of the deposits at the Pathfinder landing site remains controversial. This study aims to constrain the surface geology of the Pathfinder landing site using new high-resolution imagery and crater statistics. Context Camera (CTX) images along with High-Resolution Imaging Experiment (HiRISE) images were used to map surface …


328— Watershed Analysis Of The Eberswalde Delta (Early Hesperian), Mars, Jason Mueller 2021 SUNY Geneseo

328— Watershed Analysis Of The Eberswalde Delta (Early Hesperian), Mars, Jason Mueller

GREAT Day

The Eberswalde Delta is an impressive Martian fluvial-deltaic system. It is fed by an Earth-like dendritic river system that indicates past precipitation. This study is designed to quantify controls on network morphometry and its past extent using Esri ArcMap. Upstream contributing area (km2), elevation (m), depth (m), width (m), W/D ratio, and slope (-m/m), were calculated and graphed by stream order and long profiles. Width/depth increased with distance downstream but fluctuated in the fifth-order channel that was convex with knickpoints. This implied the system was youthful. The fourth-order stream was concave and in a sedimentary sub-basin. This sub-basin may have …


Glacial Geology Of Readfield Maine, Bryer Carlson 2021 University of Maine at Farmington

Glacial Geology Of Readfield Maine, Bryer Carlson

Michael D. Wilson Symposium

This poster explores the glacial geology in the town of Readfield Maine. With the use of GPR (ground penetrating radar), LiDar imaging and the State's surficial geology maps, evidence for a specific glacial feature called an "esker" was sought out and collected.


Climatic Controls On The Kinematics Of The Hooskanaden Landslide, Curry County, Oregon, Kara Kingen 2021 Portland State University

Climatic Controls On The Kinematics Of The Hooskanaden Landslide, Curry County, Oregon, Kara Kingen

Dissertations and Theses

Slow-moving earthflows represent major sources of sediment transport and erosion and are problematic for the management of critical infrastructure. The Hooskanaden Landslide -- a slow-moving earthflow on the southwest coast of Oregon -- crosses US Highway 101 and has been a site of continued interest to the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) due to the weak lithology, erosive environment, and recurrent surge behavior (every ~15 years). Past surges, including the most recent (2019), have occurred during the winter, suggesting that velocity changes are predominantly controlled by climatic inputs. To examine the response of the Hooskanaden Landslide to seasonal and other …


Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the …


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