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Explosive Dust Test Vessel Comparison Using Pulverized Pittsburgh Coal, Jacob Miller, Jay Schafler, Phillip R. Mulligan, Robert Eades, Kyle A. Perry, Catherine E. Johnson 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Explosive Dust Test Vessel Comparison Using Pulverized Pittsburgh Coal, Jacob Miller, Jay Schafler, Phillip R. Mulligan, Robert Eades, Kyle A. Perry, Catherine E. Johnson

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Explosions of coal dust are a major safety concern within the coal mining industry. The explosion and subsequent fires caused by coal dust can result in significant property damage, loss of life in underground coal mines and damage to coal processing facilities. The United States Bureau of Mines conducted research on coal dust explosions until 1996 when it was dissolved. In the following years, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) developed a test standard, ASTM E1226, to provide a standard test method characterizing the “explosibility” of particulate solids of combustible materials suspended in air. The research presented herein ...


New Insights Into Carboniferous Cyclothems. The Fourth Biennial Field Conference Of The American Association Of Petroleum Geologists (Aapg) Midcontinent Section Fourth Biennial Field Conference Abstracts And Guidebook, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Christopher R. Fielding 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

New Insights Into Carboniferous Cyclothems. The Fourth Biennial Field Conference Of The American Association Of Petroleum Geologists (Aapg) Midcontinent Section Fourth Biennial Field Conference Abstracts And Guidebook, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Christopher R. Fielding

Conservation and Survey Division

The term “cyclothem” was coined by Wanless & Weller (1932) to describe repetitive stratigraphic successions of Carboniferous age in Illinois. Nonetheless, comparable rhythmicity had been identified in Carboniferous rocks both in the central and eastern USA, and in Europe during the preceding century. Cyclothems were found to comprise repetitive vertical successions of sandstones, heterolithic (thinly interbedded) sandstones and mudrocks, mudrocks, limestones, and coals, in many cases with pedogenic overprinting of these lithologies. As usage of the term “cyclothem” increased, so did the diversity of successions to which the term was applied, to the point where many geologists advocated abandonment of the ...


Geologic Mapping Of Nebraska: Old Rocks, New Maps, Fresh Insights, R. M. Joeckel, Robert F. Diffendal, P. R. Hanson, Jesse T. Korus 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Geologic Mapping Of Nebraska: Old Rocks, New Maps, Fresh Insights, R. M. Joeckel, Robert F. Diffendal, P. R. Hanson, Jesse T. Korus

Robert F. Diffendal, Jr., Publications

Geologic mapping in Nebraska and environs is an ongoing endeavor that has spanned more than 170 years, involved dozens of scientists, and evolved through many changes. Digital mapping has risen to dominance in the state only since 1996. Geologic mapping in Nebraska today concentrates on surficial mapping, which emphasizes materials exposed at the land surface and their relationships with landforms, and which is particularly relevant because non- bedrock geologic materials (regolith) lie at the surface across at least 87% of the state. Moreover, surfi cial geologic maps assist the understanding of groundwater and sand and gravel resources, to name a ...


Late Holocene Spit Evolution On Centennial Timescales In The Southeast Delaware Bay, Usa, Ryan Eli Phillip 2018 Coastal Carolina University

Late Holocene Spit Evolution On Centennial Timescales In The Southeast Delaware Bay, Usa, Ryan Eli Phillip

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between barrier spit growth and longshore drift is well established. However, the role of storm activity in spit evolution on an intermediate (centennial) timescale is more of a mystery due to a knowledge gap between decadal-scale shoreline processes and millennial-scale stratigraphic data. Recent studies in the northwestern Atlantic basin using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) are providing the opportunity to study centennial-scale shoreline evolution and examine similar age storm activity. Cape Henlopen, Delaware exhibits preserved remnants of a long-term northward-growing spit coastline that evolved from a recurved spit complex, to a cuspate spit, to the present-day ...


A Targeted Investigation Of The Upper Contact Unit Of The Sudbury Igneous Complex In The North Range, Sudbury Impact Structure, Canada, Lindsay E. Debono 2018 The University of Western Ontario

A Targeted Investigation Of The Upper Contact Unit Of The Sudbury Igneous Complex In The North Range, Sudbury Impact Structure, Canada, Lindsay E. Debono

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) represents the remnant of a crystalline impact melt sheet of the Sudbury impact structure; and is historically and presently a strategic exploration target sustaining the region's prolific mining camp. In order to better understand the SIC, it is critical to investigate the chilled upper contact of the SIC, which has historically received little recognition. Through field observations, whole rock geochemistry, petrography, and electron microprobe analysis, this study concludes that the SIC upper contact is in fact extensive across the North Range of the SIC. Additionally, the geochemistry of the SIC units, offset dykes, and ...


Further Evidence For The Invasion And Establishment Of Pterois Volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) Along The Atlantic Coast Of The United States, H. Scott Meister, David M. Wyanski, Joshua K. Loefer, Steve W. Ross, Andrea M. Quattrini, Kenneth J. Sulak 2018 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Marine Resources Research Institute,

Further Evidence For The Invasion And Establishment Of Pterois Volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) Along The Atlantic Coast Of The United States, H. Scott Meister, David M. Wyanski, Joshua K. Loefer, Steve W. Ross, Andrea M. Quattrini, Kenneth J. Sulak

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We document the continues population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal water of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding population on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs North Carolina, South Caroline, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 4-99 m and 13 ...


Marine Threats Overlap Key Foraging Habitat For Two Imperiled Sea Turtle Species In The Gulf Of Mexico, Kristen M. Hart, Autumn R. Iverson, Ikuko Fujisaki, Margaret M. Lamont, David Bucklin, Donna J. Shaver 2018 Wetland and Aquatic Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey

Marine Threats Overlap Key Foraging Habitat For Two Imperiled Sea Turtle Species In The Gulf Of Mexico, Kristen M. Hart, Autumn R. Iverson, Ikuko Fujisaki, Margaret M. Lamont, David Bucklin, Donna J. Shaver

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Effective management of human activities affecting listed species requires understanding both threats and animal habitat-use patterns. However, the extent of spatial overlap between high-use foraging areas (where multiple marine species congregate) and anthropogenic threats is not well-known. Our modeling approach incorporates data on sea turtle spatial ecology and a suite of threats in the Gulf of Mexico to identify and map “hot spots” of threats to two imperiled turtle species. Of all 820 “high” threats grid cells, our tracked turtles foraged at least 1 day in 77% of them. Although threat data were not available outside the U.S. Exclusive ...


The Sisal Database: A Global Resource To Document Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Records From Speleothems, Kamolphat Atsawawaranunt, Laia Comas-Bru, Sahar Amirnezhad Mozhdehi, Michael Deininger, Sandy P. Harrison, Andy Baker, Meighan Boyd, Nikita Kaushal, Syed Masood Ahmad, Yassine Ait Brahim, Monica Arienzo, Petra Bajo, Kerstin Braun, Yuval Burstyn, Sakonvan Chawchai, Wuhui Duan, István Gábor Hatvani, Jun Hu, Zoltán Kern, Inga Labuhn, Matthew Lachniet, Franziska A. Lechleitner, Andrew Lorrey, Carlos Pérez-Mejías, Robyn Pickering, Nick Scroxton, SISAL Working Group Members 2018 Reading University

The Sisal Database: A Global Resource To Document Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Records From Speleothems, Kamolphat Atsawawaranunt, Laia Comas-Bru, Sahar Amirnezhad Mozhdehi, Michael Deininger, Sandy P. Harrison, Andy Baker, Meighan Boyd, Nikita Kaushal, Syed Masood Ahmad, Yassine Ait Brahim, Monica Arienzo, Petra Bajo, Kerstin Braun, Yuval Burstyn, Sakonvan Chawchai, Wuhui Duan, István Gábor Hatvani, Jun Hu, Zoltán Kern, Inga Labuhn, Matthew Lachniet, Franziska A. Lechleitner, Andrew Lorrey, Carlos Pérez-Mejías, Robyn Pickering, Nick Scroxton, Sisal Working Group Members

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Stable isotope records from speleothems provide information on past climate changes, most particularly information that can be used to reconstruct past changes in precipitation and atmospheric circulation. These records are increasingly being used to provide out-of-sample evaluations of isotope-enabled climate models. SISAL (Speleothem Isotope Synthesis and Analysis) is an international working group of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) project. The working group aims to provide a comprehensive compilation of speleothem isotope records for climate reconstruction and model evaluation. The SISAL database contains data for individual speleothems, grouped by cave system. Stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon (δ18O, δ13C) measurements are ...


Sulfur (34S/32S) Isotope Composition Of Gypsum And Implications For Deep Cave Formation On The Nullarbor Plain, Australia, Matej Lipar, Mateja Ferk, Sonja Lojen, Milo Barham 2018 Anton Melik Geographical Institute

Sulfur (34S/32S) Isotope Composition Of Gypsum And Implications For Deep Cave Formation On The Nullarbor Plain, Australia, Matej Lipar, Mateja Ferk, Sonja Lojen, Milo Barham

International Journal of Speleology

Large deep caves with little relation to surface topography are distinctive karst features on the Nullarbor Plain of Australia. The presence of gypsum deposits and chemoautotrophic bacteria within the caves have been suggested as evidence for cave formation and (or) enlargement via sulfuric acid speleogenesis. To test this hypothesis, the stable sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S) of both cave gypsum and surface gypsum were measured. Analyses yielded relatively high, positive δ34S values from both cave gypsum and surface gypsum, arguing against gypsum genesis via microbial chemoautotrophy, and more broadly, sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Instead, the gypsum is interpreted ...


Decadal Topographic Change In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys Of Antarctica: Thermokarst Subsidence, Glacier Thinning, And Transfer Of Water Storage From The Cryosphere To The Hydrosphere, J. S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain, M. K. Obryk, J. Telling, Craig Glennie, M. Gooseff, David J. Van Horn 2018 Colgate University

Decadal Topographic Change In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys Of Antarctica: Thermokarst Subsidence, Glacier Thinning, And Transfer Of Water Storage From The Cryosphere To The Hydrosphere, J. S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain, M. K. Obryk, J. Telling, Craig Glennie, M. Gooseff, David J. Van Horn

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Recent local-scale observations of glaciers, streams, and soil surfaces in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDV) have documented evidence for rapid ice loss, glacial thinning, and ground surface subsidence associated with melting of ground ice. To evaluate the extent,magnitude, and location of decadal-scale landscape change in the MDV, we collected airborne lidar elevation data in 2014–2015 and compared these data to a 2001–2002 airborne lidar campaign. This regional assessment of elevation change spans the recent acceleration of warming and melting observed by long-term meteorological and ecosystem response experiments, allowing us to assess the response of MDV ...


Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles DeMets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzmán-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter LaFemina, Neal Lord, Cécile Lasserre, Hélène Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert McCaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller 2018 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles Demets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzmán-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter Lafemina, Neal Lord, Cécile Lasserre, Hélène Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert Mccaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We use continuous and campaign measurements from 215 GPS sites in northern Central America and southern Mexico to estimate coseismic and afterslip solutions for the 2009 Mw = 7.3 Swan Islands fault strike-slip earthquake and the 2012 Mw = 7.3 El Salvador and Mw = 7.4 Guatemala thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Middle America trench. Our simultaneous, time-dependent inversion of more than 350 000 daily GPS site positions gives the first jointly consistent estimates of the coseismic slips for all three earthquakes, their combined time-dependent post-seismic effects and secular station velocities corrected for both the coseismic and post-seismic deformation. Our geodetic ...


County-Wide Assessment Of Irrigation Expansion On Air Temperature, Humidity And Evapotranspiration Rates In Nebraska, 1979-2015, Jozsef Szilagyi 2018 Conservation and Survey Division, School of Natural Resources

County-Wide Assessment Of Irrigation Expansion On Air Temperature, Humidity And Evapotranspiration Rates In Nebraska, 1979-2015, Jozsef Szilagyi

Conservation and Survey Division

Total irrigated land area has been expanding in Nebraska over the last 40 years, propelling the state into a leading position within the US in terms of irrigated acreages. Typically, those counties which display the largest degree of irrigation development had a significant portion of their land area already irrigated in 1978. Large-scale irrigation in Nebraska affects its atmospheric environment. During the typical irrigation season of May to August, counties with the largest rate of irrigation expansion have cooled by about 0.2 – 0.3 °F per decade in the summer months of June, July and August, while counties with ...


The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Currently, Mars appears to be in a ‘frozen’ and ‘dry’ state, with the clear majority of the planet’s surface maintaining year-round sub-zero temperatures. However, the discovery of features consistent with landforms found in periglacial environments on Earth, suggests a climate history for Mars that may have involved freeze and thaw cycles. Such landforms include hummocky, polygonised, scalloped, and pitted terrains, as well as ice-rich deposits and gullies, along the mid- to high-latitude bands, typically with no lower than 20o N/S. The detection of near-surface and surface ice via the Phoenix lander, excavation of ice via recent impact cratering ...


Stylolites Cathodoluminescence Under Cross Polarized Light, Katherine Dvorak 2018 Western Michigan University

Stylolites Cathodoluminescence Under Cross Polarized Light, Katherine Dvorak

The Hilltop Review

Devil's Gate limestone under cathodoluminescence. Bright yellow and orange areas are calcite and the bright blue indicates trace minerals along the solution seam. Trace minerals left in the seam are heavy metals and other silicate minerals.


High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, Yuyang He 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, Yuyang He

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

High-dimensional isotope relationships describes the relationships of two or more element or position-specific (PS) elements in the same molecule or ion. It provides us more powerful tools to study reaction mechanisms and dynamics. Chapter 1 is about dual or multiple stable isotope relationship on δ-δ (or δ'-δ') space. While temporal data sampled from a closed-system can be treated by a Rayleigh Distillation Model (RDM), spatial data should be treated by a Reaction-Transport Model (RTM). Here we compare the results of a closed-system RDM to a RTM for systems with diffusional mass transfer by simulating the trajectories on nitrate's ...


Comparison Of Flow And Transport Experiments On 3d Printed Micromodels With Direct Numerical Simulations, Francesca Watson, Julien Maes, Sebastian Geiger, Eric Mackay, Mike Singleton, Thomas McGravie, Terry Anouilh, T. Dawn Jobe, Shuo Zhang, Susan Agar, Sergey Ishutov, Franciszek Hasiuk 2018 Heriot-Watt University

Comparison Of Flow And Transport Experiments On 3d Printed Micromodels With Direct Numerical Simulations, Francesca Watson, Julien Maes, Sebastian Geiger, Eric Mackay, Mike Singleton, Thomas Mcgravie, Terry Anouilh, T. Dawn Jobe, Shuo Zhang, Susan Agar, Sergey Ishutov, Franciszek Hasiuk

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Understanding pore-scale flow and transport processes is important for understanding flow and transport within rocks on a larger scale. Flow experiments on small-scale micromodels can be used to experimentally investigate pore-scale flow. Current manufacturing methods of micromodels are costly and time consuming. 3D printing is an alternative method for the production of micromodels. We have been able to visualise small-scale, single-phase flow and transport processes within a 3D printed micromodel using a custom-built visualisation cell. Results have been compared with the same experiments run on a micromodel with the same geometry made from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, also known as Perspex ...


Quantifying Temperatures In The Early Solar Nebula And On Parent Bodies Using Cation Ordering In Spinel From Cais In Carbonaceous Chondrites, Victoria Houde 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Quantifying Temperatures In The Early Solar Nebula And On Parent Bodies Using Cation Ordering In Spinel From Cais In Carbonaceous Chondrites, Victoria Houde

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Understanding the early solar system requires studying early-formed materials. Calcium-Aluminium-Rich Inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest materials in the solar system. Spinel (MgAl2O4) is common in CAIs. Its cation distribution relates to formation, or most recent equilibration, temperature. This can be measured using 27Al Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Calibration curves can be used to calculate temperature.

Micro X-ray Diffraction identified spinel-containing CAIs in four of seven meteorites tested. 27Al MAS NMR and 27Al Triple Quantum (3Q) MAS NMR was acquired at 21.1 Tesla. Temperature estimates were calculated for each ...


Ureilite Meteorite Record Of Shock Metamorphism And Parent Body Processes, Yaozhu Li 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Ureilite Meteorite Record Of Shock Metamorphism And Parent Body Processes, Yaozhu Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ureilites are an abundant non-chondritic meteorite class that are petrographically similar to terrestrial ultramafic rocks, consisting mostly of coarse-grained olivine and pyroxene, with remarkably low occurrence of plagioclase feldspar. This work examines a suite of ureilites (six monomict ureilites and one polymict ureilite), primarily focusing on the mineral olivine as a recorder of shock damage. Optical petrography and Raman spectroscopy provide context information, and in-situmicro-X-ray diffraction (𝜇XRD) is used to obtain quantitative measurements of diffraction peak Full-Width-Half Maxima upon integration along the chi direction on 2D XRD patterns. Ureilites show an increasing streak length of FWHMχ and asterism (discrete ...


Global Dynamics Of A Mutualism–Competition Model With One Resource And Multiple Consumers, Yuanshi Wang, Hong Wu, Donald L. DeAngelis 2018 School of Mathematics, Sun Yat-sen University

Global Dynamics Of A Mutualism–Competition Model With One Resource And Multiple Consumers, Yuanshi Wang, Hong Wu, Donald L. Deangelis

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Recent simulation modeling has shown that species can coevolve toward clusters of coexisting consumers exploiting the same limiting resource or resources, with nearly identical ratios of coefficients related to growth and mortality. This paper provides a mathematical basis for such as situation; a full analysis of the global dynamics of a new model for such a class of n-dimensional consumer–resource system, in which a set of consumers with identical growth to mortality ratios compete for the same resource and in which each consumer is mutualistic with the resource. First, we study the system of one resource and two ...


Ancient Convergent Losses Of Paraoxonase 1 Yield Potential Risks For Modern Marine Mammals, Wynn K. Meyer, Jerrica Jamison, Rebecca Richter, Stacy E. Woods, Raghavendran Partha, Amanda Kowalczyk, Charles Kronk, Maria Chikina, Robert K. Bonde, Daniel E. Crocker, Joseph Gaspard, Janet M. Lanyon, Judit Marsillach, Clement E. Furlong, Nathan L. Clark 2018 Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh

Ancient Convergent Losses Of Paraoxonase 1 Yield Potential Risks For Modern Marine Mammals, Wynn K. Meyer, Jerrica Jamison, Rebecca Richter, Stacy E. Woods, Raghavendran Partha, Amanda Kowalczyk, Charles Kronk, Maria Chikina, Robert K. Bonde, Daniel E. Crocker, Joseph Gaspard, Janet M. Lanyon, Judit Marsillach, Clement E. Furlong, Nathan L. Clark

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Mammals diversified by colonizing drastically different environments, with each transition yielding numerous molecular changes, including losses of protein function. Though not initially deleterious, these losses could subsequently carry deleterious pleiotropic consequences. We have used phylogenetic methods to identify convergent functional losses across independent marine mammal lineages. In one extreme case, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) accrued lesions in all marine lineages, while remaining intact in all terrestrial mammals. These lesions coincide with PON1 enzymatic activity loss in marine species’ blood plasma. This convergent loss is likely explained by parallel shifts in marine ancestors’ lipid metabolism and/or bloodstream oxidative environment affecting PON1 ...


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