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Heavy Metal Concentrations And Environmental Quality In Three Wisconsin Lakes, Alex Khawaja Waheed 2017 Whitman College

Heavy Metal Concentrations And Environmental Quality In Three Wisconsin Lakes, Alex Khawaja Waheed

Honors Theses

The environmental history of lake ecosystems in the United States is broadly defined by a slow increase in contamination triggered by the Industrial Revolution and urbanization beginning around 1850, a sharper increase around 1950, and a general decrease following environmental legislation in the 1970s. This study examined sediment cores taken from three Wisconsin lakes spanning a range of human influence: Sparkling Lake (relatively pristine), Shadow Lake (remediated), and Lake Monona (impacted). Sediment cores were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) as well as for correlations with organic and calcareous content using loss on ignition (LOI). Sparkling Lake ...


Cyclothem Characterization For The Eastern Edge Of The Cherokee Basin, Luke Rijfkogel 2017 Fort Hays State University

Cyclothem Characterization For The Eastern Edge Of The Cherokee Basin, Luke Rijfkogel

John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activities Day (SACAD)

The purpose of this project is to interpret lithologic units using geophysical data obtained from 8 wells in the Cherokee Basin. Results show Gamma Ray (GR) values range from less than 20 to 300 degree API, Photo-electric (PE), values range from 1.5 to 5.5 b/e, and Bulk Density (RHOB) values range from 1.5 to 2.8 g/cc. 5 major facies were identified and recognized 27 lithology units, including 10 coal beds. The other facies include Sandstone, Shale and Limestone. The abundance of interbedded coal layers indicate cyclical deposition, alternating between high and low energy deposits.


Nutrient Variations Of Six Surface Water Bodies In Mchenry County, Il, Jacob Piske 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Nutrient Variations Of Six Surface Water Bodies In Mchenry County, Il, Jacob Piske

Celebration of Learning

This research analyzes water quality from several ponds in McHenry County, Illinois, with a goal of developing a understanding of pollution sources and temporal variations in concentrations of nitrate, potassium, phosphorus, chlorine, and sodium. Over the past 25 years, the population of McHenry County has grown rapidly, with residential developments expanding into former farmlands. Yet, the county remains heavily agricultural, with roughly 60% of the surface area used for agricultural purposes. Concentrations of NO3-, P+, K+, Cl-, and Na+ were analyzed from six sites: two in subdivisions, two in farmland, and two near major highways. Data were collected once a ...


Evaluating Fault-Line Escarpment Exposure In The Guadalupe Mountains Of West Texas And New Mexico, Audrey Anne Happel 2017 Illinois State University

Evaluating Fault-Line Escarpment Exposure In The Guadalupe Mountains Of West Texas And New Mexico, Audrey Anne Happel

Theses and Dissertations

The Permian stratigraphy of the Guadalupe Mountains is well-known due to the impeccable exposure of Permian strata along distinct escarpments that define the boundaries of the range. Even though the Permian strata have been closely examined to understand the associated petroleum reservoirs in the adjacent Delaware basin, little work has been done on the escarpments that expose the well-known rocks at the surface by way of tectonic and erosional processes. The development of escarpments are directly affected by multiple processes that create the landscape, and can be used as a tool to temporally and spatially constrain tectonic and erosional activity ...


Dendrochronological Analysis Of Historical Structures In Southwestern Ohio Dewitt House Oxford, Ohio., 2017 The College of Wooster

Dendrochronological Analysis Of Historical Structures In Southwestern Ohio Dewitt House Oxford, Ohio.

Historic Structures

Dating historical structures in Oxford Ohio using dendrochronology. The Historical Structures collection consists of reports that are the result of dendochronological analysis of timbers from structures in Pennsylvania and Ohio. Contributors: Fetters, Caitlin; Krivicich, Mike; Lehmann, Sophie; Wiles, Greg


Basement And Cover Structural Analysis Along The Eagle River Gorge, Sawatch Range, Colorado, Kaitlin Lee Askelson 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Basement And Cover Structural Analysis Along The Eagle River Gorge, Sawatch Range, Colorado, Kaitlin Lee Askelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Sawatch Range within the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado exposes Paleoproterozoic basement and overlying Paleozoic sedimentary rocks with a complex history of ductile and brittle deformation.

The goal of this study is to conduct analyses of brittle structures that occur in the basement and cover units to determine geometric relationships between the structures, provide a detailed description of structures and refine a geologic history for structures along the basement-cover contact in the northeastern Sawatch Range along the Eagle River canyon and U.S. Highway 24 from Red Cliff to Gilman, Colorado. Paleoproterozoic basement rocks include the Cross Creek granite ...


The Relationship Among Suture Complexity, Shell Form, And Stratigraphic Formation In Ammonites Of The Western Interior Seaway, Darrah Jorgensen 2017 Fort Hays State University

The Relationship Among Suture Complexity, Shell Form, And Stratigraphic Formation In Ammonites Of The Western Interior Seaway, Darrah Jorgensen

Masters Theses

Throughout ammonite evolution, shell suture patterns grew increasingly more complex, but the purpose of these sutures has long been debated. One hypothesis is that suture complexity is related to the structural integrity of the shell under pressure. To test this hypothesis, suture complexity was compared to shell form and stratigraphic formation to determine if there were significant differences in suture complexity, as a proxy for structural integrity, among shell forms or stratigraphic formations. Highly complex sutures might have allowed for the tightly coiled form of many ammonites, an advantage compared to less coiled forms because the pressure is distributed over ...


Analysis Of Big Creek Aquifer Alluvial Facies And Associated Phreatic Surface Contour Maps Hays, Ellis County, Kansas, Krisopher John Neuhauser 2017 Fort Hays State University

Analysis Of Big Creek Aquifer Alluvial Facies And Associated Phreatic Surface Contour Maps Hays, Ellis County, Kansas, Krisopher John Neuhauser

Masters Theses

Three contour maps of groundwater elevation levels below Hays, Kansas generated in 2016 show that the phreatic surface in eight monitoring wells declined 3.6 inches to 1 foot 9.6 inches over a three-month period of July, August, and September. They also indicate that groundwater flows in curvilinear directions toward Big Creek. Analyses of ten north-south oriented structural cross sections of the alluvial fill beneath the central region of Hays provide evidence of buried low-sinuosity and meandering streams, floodplains, and possibly adjoining tributaries and abandoned channels. Correlation of the more porous and permeable sand and gravel facies along a ...


Uas-Collected Multispectral Imagery For The Identification Of Rangeland Vegetation In A Southern Mixed-Grass Prairie, Adam Rusk 2017 Fort Hays State University

Uas-Collected Multispectral Imagery For The Identification Of Rangeland Vegetation In A Southern Mixed-Grass Prairie, Adam Rusk

Masters Theses

The interest in using unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for remote sensing of natural resources and ecology has grown rapidly in recent years and continues to develop. Recent improvements in the cost, size, and accessibility of consumer-grade UASs are now facilitating image collection on low-flying UAS platforms. Rangelands provide a unique opportunity to explore the uses of UAS remote sensing due to their large spatial extent and spatial and temporal heterogeneity. This study focuses on the use of UAS’s to identify rangeland vegetation in a southern mixed-grass prairie in Kansas. Two primary questions were asked: 1) Do small UASs with ...


Hydrogeological Study Of A Municipal Groundwater Well Field In Central Kansas, Tyler Saryerwinnie 2017 Fort Hays State University

Hydrogeological Study Of A Municipal Groundwater Well Field In Central Kansas, Tyler Saryerwinnie

Masters Theses

The City of Victoria is a small town of approximately 1,200 people situated in Central Kansas. Along with other communities in Kansas, recent drought has made the issue of water quality and availability a pressing concern with local officials. This city relies heavily on the use of ground-water wells located south of the town near the Big Creek channel. It is the purpose of this study to define the hydrogeological conditions effecting the City’s well field, and in turn apply this information to define an area of influence and outline potential hazards for the well field. Utilizing previous ...


Stable Isotope Diet Analysis Of Teleoceras Fossiger From The High Plains Of Kansas, Patrick J. Wilson 2017 Fort Hays State University

Stable Isotope Diet Analysis Of Teleoceras Fossiger From The High Plains Of Kansas, Patrick J. Wilson

Masters Theses

Stable isotope geochemistry provides a way of examining both modern and ancient ecosystems. One important use of stable carbon isotopes is to determine the amount of C3 versus C4 plant biomass in the diet of herbivorous mammals. C3 plants have a more negative stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) than C4 plants because of the different photosynthetic pathways each type uses. These different δ13C values are preserved in the hydroxyapatite of herbivores upon consumption of the different plant types. The purpose of this study it to use δ13C values from serial samples of tooth enamel from six isolated permanent molars of ...


Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci 2017 University of New Mexico

Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Martian olivine-phyric basalt Northwest Africa (NWA) 10416 contains large olivine xenocrysts whose cores have been stained brown by hydrothermal alteration and whose rims are composed of pristine olivine overgrowths. Microanalysis of these olivine cores reveals various degrees of amorphization, some of which have been overprinted by terrestrial weathering, evident as part of a weathering rind along the exposed surface of the meteorite. Studies of a completely unweathered terrestrial analogue basalt from southern Colorado reveal similar features and indicate that both basalts were altered in a supersolidus magma chamber setting. The alteration features in NWA 10416 thus imply the presence ...


Characterization Of Stress Changes In Subduction Zones From Space- And Ground-Based Geodetic Observations, Bryan James Stressler 2017 University of Iowa

Characterization Of Stress Changes In Subduction Zones From Space- And Ground-Based Geodetic Observations, Bryan James Stressler

Theses and Dissertations

Temporally and spatially clustered earthquake sequences along plate boundary zones indicate that patterns of seismicity may be influenced by earthquake-induced stress changes. Many studies invoke Coulomb stress change (CSC) as one possible geo-mechanical mechanism to explain stress interactions between earthquakes, their aftershocks, or large subsequent earthquakes; however, few address the statistical robustness of CSC triggering beyond spatial correlations. To address this, I evaluate the accuracy of CSC predictions in subduction zones where Earth’s largest earthquakes occur and generate voluminous and diverse aftershock sequences. A series of synthetic tests are implemented to investigate the accuracy of inferred stress changes predicted ...


Dyngjusandur Sand Sheet, Iceland, As A Depositional Analog To The Stimson Fm. In Gale Crater, Mars, Michael James Sara 2017 University of Iowa

Dyngjusandur Sand Sheet, Iceland, As A Depositional Analog To The Stimson Fm. In Gale Crater, Mars, Michael James Sara

Theses and Dissertations

Basalts from Askja, Iceland have high MgO (5-18 wt %) and high Fe2O3 (5-18 wt %: Baratoux et al., 2011; Mangold et al., 2013, this study) similar to Martian basalts, which have Fe2O3 from 10-33 wt % McSween et al, 2006; Ming et al., 2008]) and MgO around 11 wt. % (McSween et al., 2009). Askja’s cold desert climate provides a good weathering analogueanalog (Mountney and Russell, 2004). Askja is located in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland and basalts have been weathered to form mafic volcaniclastic deposits in a 40-km long sand sheet to the E-SE of the Askja caldera complex (Fig ...


Isotopic Analysis Of Shallow Groundwater Of The Clear Creek Watershed, Jake Bucklin 2017 University of Iowa

Isotopic Analysis Of Shallow Groundwater Of The Clear Creek Watershed, Jake Bucklin

Theses and Dissertations

The stable isotopic composition of groundwater within a watershed in eastern Iowa was studied in order to understand how water moves through the system. Samples were gathered using multiple observation wells and pore water samplers and then analyzed to determine the δ18O and δ2H of each sample. Shallow pore water is much more variable in its isotopic composition than deeper water and seems to be more greatly affected by evapotranspiration, whereas groundwater below the water table appears to show a stable isotopic signature suggesting the integration of multiple rain events. Other samples of similar depths across the slope of a ...


Diverse Monogenetic Volcanism Across The Main Arc Of The Central Andes, Northern Chile., Brennan Martin Edelman de Roo van Alderwerelt 2017 University of Iowa

Diverse Monogenetic Volcanism Across The Main Arc Of The Central Andes, Northern Chile., Brennan Martin Edelman De Roo Van Alderwerelt

Theses and Dissertations

Instances of fault-controlled monogenetic volcanism across the subduction arc of the Central Andes at ~ 23°S illuminate the nature of different parental melts being delivered to the crust. Evidence of magmatic history is preserved in bulk rock geochemistry, the content of melt inclusions, and mineral compositions. Volcanism in this region is dominated by felsic and intermediates lavas as the thickened crust (55 – 65 km) and vast volumes (> 500,000 km3) of mid-crustal magma beneath the Altiplano-Puna high plateau region prevent mafic magmas from reaching the surface (Davidson & De Silva, 1991; Beck et al., 1996; Perkins et al., 2016). However, small volumes of relatively ...


A Floral Assemblage Of The Upper Cretaceous El Gallo Formation, El Rosario, Baja California, Mexico, Reilly F. Hayes, Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros, Gerardo Álvarez-Reyes, René Hernandez-Rivera, David E. Fastovsky 2017 Department of Geosciences, University of Rhode Island

A Floral Assemblage Of The Upper Cretaceous El Gallo Formation, El Rosario, Baja California, Mexico, Reilly F. Hayes, Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros, Gerardo Álvarez-Reyes, René Hernandez-Rivera, David E. Fastovsky

Senior Honors Projects

Over the past eight months, I have collaborated with paleontologists from the Universidad Nactional Autónoma de México to formally describe plant fossils they uncovered in Baja California between their 2013 and 2016 field seasons. We report the first floral assemblage of the dinosaur-aged El Gallo Formation, Baja California, Mexico, a small (82-specimen) collection of plant fossils from fossil soils contained within the 75.84 +/- 0.05 to 74.55 +/- 0.09 million-year-old El Disecado Member of the unit. A compound fruit belonging to the genus Operculifructus, previously reported from the 3.40 to 1.08 million year younger Cerro del ...


Impacts On The Stakeholders Of The Nexus Pipeline, Jessica A. Speweike 2017 Bowling Green State University

Impacts On The Stakeholders Of The Nexus Pipeline, Jessica A. Speweike

Honors Projects

This journalistic feature covers the different impacts on those individuals who are involved with or affected by the Nexus Gas Transmission pipeline. Testimony from Ohio landowners, activists, scientists and public officials cover a variety of opinions and concerns raised by the pipeline. Private property rights, environmental impact, and possible economic implications are detailed by those who have been involved with the Nexus pipeline since its early stages of implementation.


Converting Chemical Signatures In Vaterite Otoliths To Aragonite Otoliths In Steelhead Trout: Developing A Partition Coefficient, Jamie Justice 2017 Bowling Green State University

Converting Chemical Signatures In Vaterite Otoliths To Aragonite Otoliths In Steelhead Trout: Developing A Partition Coefficient, Jamie Justice

Honors Projects

Otoliths are small bones near the brain of teleost fish that aid in hearing and balance. Otoliths are typically composed of a polymorph of calcium carbonate called aragonite; however, when stressed, fish may transition to producing a less dense polymorph called vaterite. Otoliths are typically used in studies of fish natal origin or migration patterns because 1) otoliths grow concentrically around an origin (birth point), 2) the material in the otolith is not replaced over time, and 3) microelements (Sr and Ba) can be incorporated into the otoliths in proportion to elemental ratios in the water (i.e., when fish ...


Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez

Masters Theses

The Rio Grande, a semi-arid river in the American Southwest, is a major source of surface water for agriculture and drinking supplies in New Mexico and Texas. In addition to increasing salinity, considerable increases of NO3- [nitrate] have been observed in the semi-arid portion of the Rio Grande. It is possible that elevated water salinity inhibits denitrification on irrigated fields and, thus, fails to mediate excess nutrient load from anthropogenic activities. Therefore, two major goals of this project were to 1) characterize and quantify major NO3- sources, and 2) assess whether elevated water salinity affects microbial denitrification. In ...


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