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Using Cross-Sets For Paleodischarge Estimation And Paleocurrent Vectors In The Parthenon Sandstone, Northwest Arkansas, Sean Robert Parry 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Cross-Sets For Paleodischarge Estimation And Paleocurrent Vectors In The Parthenon Sandstone, Northwest Arkansas, Sean Robert Parry

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, set thicknesses are used to estimate the paleohydraulics (paleodischarge and give magnitudes for paleocurrent directions) of the ancient river system which deposited the Parthenon Sandstone in northwest Arkansas. Set thickness is the vertical thickness of a group of strata conformable series (Mckee and Weir, 1953); set thickness represents truncated dunes. The goal of this thesis is to: 1) obtain paleodischarge estimates of the Parthenon sandstone via cross-sets and compare the results with previously calculated discharge estimates which use basin area to discharge collation techniques and 2) use paleodischarge estimates calculated within this thesis to give magnitude to ...


Converting Chemical Signatures In Vaterite Otoliths To Aragonite Otoliths In Steelhead Trout: Developing A Partition Coefficient, Jamie Justice 2017 Bowling Green State University

Converting Chemical Signatures In Vaterite Otoliths To Aragonite Otoliths In Steelhead Trout: Developing A Partition Coefficient, Jamie Justice

Honors Projects

Otoliths are small bones near the brain of teleost fish that aid in hearing and balance. Otoliths are typically composed of a polymorph of calcium carbonate called aragonite; however, when stressed, fish may transition to producing a less dense polymorph called vaterite. Otoliths are typically used in studies of fish natal origin or migration patterns because 1) otoliths grow concentrically around an origin (birth point), 2) the material in the otolith is not replaced over time, and 3) microelements (Sr and Ba) can be incorporated into the otoliths in proportion to elemental ratios in the water (i.e., when fish ...


Impacts On The Stakeholders Of The Nexus Pipeline, Jessica A. Speweike 2017 Bowling Green State University

Impacts On The Stakeholders Of The Nexus Pipeline, Jessica A. Speweike

Honors Projects

This journalistic feature covers the different impacts on those individuals who are involved with or affected by the Nexus Gas Transmission pipeline. Testimony from Ohio landowners, activists, scientists and public officials cover a variety of opinions and concerns raised by the pipeline. Private property rights, environmental impact, and possible economic implications are detailed by those who have been involved with the Nexus pipeline since its early stages of implementation.


Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez

Masters Theses

The Rio Grande, a semi-arid river in the American Southwest, is a major source of surface water for agriculture and drinking supplies in New Mexico and Texas. In addition to increasing salinity, considerable increases of NO3- [nitrate] have been observed in the semi-arid portion of the Rio Grande. It is possible that elevated water salinity inhibits denitrification on irrigated fields and, thus, fails to mediate excess nutrient load from anthropogenic activities. Therefore, two major goals of this project were to 1) characterize and quantify major NO3- sources, and 2) assess whether elevated water salinity affects microbial denitrification. In ...


Exploring The Calvert Cliffs: Interpreting Classic Miocene Sequences Through The Application Of Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy And Paleoecology, Joshua B. Zimmt 2017 College of William and Mary

Exploring The Calvert Cliffs: Interpreting Classic Miocene Sequences Through The Application Of Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy And Paleoecology, Joshua B. Zimmt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Calvert Cliffs (Maryland, USA) is a classic condensed Miocene sequence that has attracted much scientific attention for its laterally extensive and highly condensed fossil beds (Kidwell, 1982a). Several meters thick and up to 70% shell material, the period of formation of these major complex shell beds has been debated for decades. Kidwell (1989) and associated studies have demonstrated that the major complex shell beds possess certain characteristics that suggest the beds formed as a succession of condensed parasequences during a transgressive systems tract. However, no quantitative analysis has calculated the period of formation of the major complex shell beds ...


Dyngjusandur Sand Sheet, Iceland, As A Depositional Analog To The Stimson Fm. In Gale Crater, Mars, Michael James Sara 2017 University of Iowa

Dyngjusandur Sand Sheet, Iceland, As A Depositional Analog To The Stimson Fm. In Gale Crater, Mars, Michael James Sara

Theses and Dissertations

Basalts from Askja, Iceland have high MgO (5-18 wt %) and high Fe2O3 (5-18 wt %: Baratoux et al., 2011; Mangold et al., 2013, this study) similar to Martian basalts, which have Fe2O3 from 10-33 wt % McSween et al, 2006; Ming et al., 2008]) and MgO around 11 wt. % (McSween et al., 2009). Askja’s cold desert climate provides a good weathering analogueanalog (Mountney and Russell, 2004). Askja is located in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland and basalts have been weathered to form mafic volcaniclastic deposits in a 40-km long sand sheet to the E-SE of the Askja caldera complex (Fig ...


Isotopic Analysis Of Shallow Groundwater Of The Clear Creek Watershed, Jake Bucklin 2017 University of Iowa

Isotopic Analysis Of Shallow Groundwater Of The Clear Creek Watershed, Jake Bucklin

Theses and Dissertations

The stable isotopic composition of groundwater within a watershed in eastern Iowa was studied in order to understand how water moves through the system. Samples were gathered using multiple observation wells and pore water samplers and then analyzed to determine the δ18O and δ2H of each sample. Shallow pore water is much more variable in its isotopic composition than deeper water and seems to be more greatly affected by evapotranspiration, whereas groundwater below the water table appears to show a stable isotopic signature suggesting the integration of multiple rain events. Other samples of similar depths across the slope of a ...


Lost Names In The Paleozoic Lithostratigraphy Of Arkansas, Noah Morris 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Lost Names In The Paleozoic Lithostratigraphy Of Arkansas, Noah Morris

Theses and Dissertations

The geology of Arkansas has been studied for nearly 160 years, and our understanding of it is continually evolving. Part of this ever-changing study is the nomenclature of the stratigraphy. From the early reports to today, several lithostratigraphic names have been proposed and abandoned to improve the accuracy and clarity of the understanding of Arkansas’ geology. Over these 160 years of study, 214 names have been proposed for the Paleozoic beds of Arkansas, with nearly 80 of them currently in use today. These names are a testimony and legacy of the history of Arkansas’ natural resource development and Arkansas’ geologists ...


Slope, Grain Size, And Roughness Controls On Dry Sediment Transport And Storage On Steep Hillslopes, Roman A. DiBiase, Michael P. Lamb, Vamsi Ganti, Adam M. Booth 2017 Pennsylvania State University

Slope, Grain Size, And Roughness Controls On Dry Sediment Transport And Storage On Steep Hillslopes, Roman A. Dibiase, Michael P. Lamb, Vamsi Ganti, Adam M. Booth

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Existing hillslope sediment transport models developed for low-relief, soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the coupling between steep rocky hillslopes and headwater channels. Here we address this knowledge gap using a series of field and numerical experiments to inform a particle-based model of sediment transport by dry ravel—a mechanism of granular transport characteristic of steep hillslopes. We find that particle travel distance increases as a function of the ratio of particle diameter to fine-scale (1m) topographic variability associated with rocky landscapes. Applying a 2-D dry-ravel-routing model to lidar-derived surface topography, we show how spatial patterns of local and ...


Vegetation Habitat Mapping Of Mammoth Cave National Park Using Multi-Date Landsat-8 Imagery And Lidar Data, Hongli Yang 2017 Murray State University

Vegetation Habitat Mapping Of Mammoth Cave National Park Using Multi-Date Landsat-8 Imagery And Lidar Data, Hongli Yang

Steeplechase

Vegetation habitat mapping can be regarded as a model predicting the geographic distribution of plant cover types from mapped environmental variables. This paper discusses three environmental factors- slope, aspect and bedrock geology that determined different habitat types in Mammoth Cave National Park. The variation of aspect and slope can largely determine the amount of solar radiation and water available to vegetation, which influences the contrasting habitat types formed in a long term. Bedrock geology, one of the most influential factor in the study area, primarily controls the soil types and drainage conditions that support the various habitat types. The habitat ...


Karst Sub-Basin Delineation Via Dye Trace Study Near Turnhole Bend, Mammoth Cave National Park, Jake Tholen 2017 Western Michigan University

Karst Sub-Basin Delineation Via Dye Trace Study Near Turnhole Bend, Mammoth Cave National Park, Jake Tholen

Honors Theses

Establishing watershed boundaries is a critical stage in understanding the local water cycle. Drainage basins are typically identified by topographic divides; water flows to successively lower locations along the most direct path available. The karst terrain in Mammoth Cave National Park, however, presents additional challenges in identifying the boundaries of these basins. Underground drainages in the form of caves or conduits often do not correspond with surface topography. These passages can redirect water far from the most immediate surface release.

A dye trace study is designed to identify flow paths from the surface to springs along the Green River. Three ...


Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow 2017 University of new mexico

Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

A dense array of ~1,000 continuously recording, short-period geophones was deployed in the summer of 2014 within ~15 km of Mount St. Helens. Two earthquake catalogs created using reverse time imaging and template detection techniques, increase the detection rate and completeness of the earthquake catalog when compared to the permanent network, Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, catalog. An investigation into event type for ~200 of the earthquake detections leads to the discrimination of two major classification groups, volcano-tectonic and long period. Previous to this study, long period earthquakes had not been identified in the upper crust during a volcanically inactive ...


The Relationship Between Static Water Levels, Bedrock Topography, And Glacial Drift Thickness For The Cedarville, Greene County, Ohio Area, Joel G. Twinem 2017 Cedarville University

The Relationship Between Static Water Levels, Bedrock Topography, And Glacial Drift Thickness For The Cedarville, Greene County, Ohio Area, Joel G. Twinem

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Cedarville, Ohio, is an area covered in glacial deposits from the Pleistocene age. During this time, the Silurian dolomitic bedrock was exposed and worn down. Glacial till composed of sand and gravel was deposited atop the dolomite in wake of the glaciers retreat. The combination of vuggy bedrock and permeability of the overlying sediments cause the area to be very conducive to aquifer storage and movement. This study attempts to determine the relationship between bedrock topography, till thickness, and static water level, as well as the implications for future drilling. 26 static water levels were measured in the field using ...


Petrographic Analysis Of The Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) From The Ellisburg Storage Pool, Potter County, Northcentral Pennsylvania, Emily R. Jackson 2017 Cedarville University

Petrographic Analysis Of The Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) From The Ellisburg Storage Pool, Potter County, Northcentral Pennsylvania, Emily R. Jackson

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Three Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone cores, EW-216 (core 1), EW-415 (core 2), and EW-706 (core 3), were obtained from Dominion Transmission’s Ellisburg Storage Pool, located in Potter County, northcentral PA. The goal of the project was to create a petrographic analysis and description of the cores, with special attention given to any deformational features associated with stress/strain indicators. Extended Range Helium Porosimeter measurements, XRD analysis, and thin section production were completed by Calgary Rock and Materials. The cores were then analyzed using a petrographic microscope; a complete description from the analysis was written for each core. Photographs were ...


Genuine Or Reproduction: A Comparision Of 3d Imaging Techniques, Erica A. Loughner, Jordan C. Oldham 2017 Cedarville University

Genuine Or Reproduction: A Comparision Of 3d Imaging Techniques, Erica A. Loughner, Jordan C. Oldham

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Advancements in technology associated with 3D imaging for both print and digital applications are transforming many aspects of geology. Museums, researchers, and educators are now using 3D models to depict and reproduce fossils, minerals, and crystals for study, thereby reducing the risk of damage to valuable original specimens. This project examined which of the two processes available to Cedarville University geology program produces the best quality digital image and, subsequently, the best 3D printed object of a macroscopic-sized specimen. The first method utilizes the camera on a smartphone to take overlapping photos of the entire specimen (fossil or mineral) – top ...


Algal Blooms At Lake Erie, Crychelle Portis-Hurlbert 2017 Kent State University

Algal Blooms At Lake Erie, Crychelle Portis-Hurlbert

Student Showcase for Research, Scholarship & Creativity

Harmful algal blooms are a large amount of microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms that produce biotoxins. This type of vibrant green algae contains cyanobacteria and eukaryotic taxa. It also produces a visible algal scum on the surface of the water and causes taste and odor issues in drinking water. Cyanobacteria found in this algae can contribute to human health problems, such as, skin irritations from contact, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurological issues. It is also harmful to animals, mainly canines and livestock. The main causes of these algal blooms are fertilizers used in agricultural practices, urban runoff, and improper treatment of wastewater ...


Evaporite Karst Geohazards In The Delaware Basin, Texas: Review Of Traditional Karst Studies Coupled With Geophysical And Remote Sensing Characterization, Kevin W. Stafford, Wesley A. Brown, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jonathan D. Woodard 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Evaporite Karst Geohazards In The Delaware Basin, Texas: Review Of Traditional Karst Studies Coupled With Geophysical And Remote Sensing Characterization, Kevin W. Stafford, Wesley A. Brown, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jonathan D. Woodard

International Journal of Speleology

Evaporite karst throughout the Gypsum Plain of west Texas is complex and extensive, including manifestations ranging from intrastratal brecciation and hypogene caves to epigene features and suffosion caves. Recent advances in hydrocarbon exploration and extraction has resulted in increased infrastructure development and utilization in the area; as a result, delineation and characterization of potential karst geohazards throughout the region have become a greater concern. While traditional karst surveys are essential for delineating the subsurface extent and morphology of individual caves for speleogenetic interpretation, these methods tend to underestimate the total extent of karst development and require surficial manifestation of karst ...


Toward The Development Of A 10be Chronology Of Glaciation In The Mosquito Range, Colorado: A Progress Report, Noah Bensen, Keith A. Brugger 2017 University of Minnesota, Morris

Toward The Development Of A 10be Chronology Of Glaciation In The Mosquito Range, Colorado: A Progress Report, Noah Bensen, Keith A. Brugger

Undergraduate Research Symposium 2017

The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Rocky Mountain region occurred about 21 ka (20,000 years before present). However, dated glacial chronologies suggest that while LGM glacier advances in individual ranges in Colorado were somewhat synchronous, retreat from their maximum extents was asynchronous, varying between ~20 and 15 ka or later. The precise timing and spatial variation of glacier advance and retreat provides insights into LGM climate change and is necessary to calibrate climate models. To better understand the timing of the LGM in the Mosquito Range in Colorado, we collected 12 samples from granitic boulders on moraine crests ...


Evaluating The Impacts Of Grassland Conversions To Experimental Forest On Groundwater Recharge In The Nebraska Sand Hills, Zablon A. Adane 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating The Impacts Of Grassland Conversions To Experimental Forest On Groundwater Recharge In The Nebraska Sand Hills, Zablon A. Adane

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The Nebraska Sand Hills grasslands provide the greatest groundwater recharge rates in the High Plains Aquifer. However, the grasslands and their ecological services have become vulnerable to land use change and degradation. This study used a series of field data to investigate the effects of grassland conversions to forest on recharge rates in a century-old experimental forest in the Sand Hills. The results show that the impact of grassland conversion on recharge was dependent on the species and plantation density. Estimated recharge rates beneath the dense plantations represent reductions of 86–94% relative to the native grassland. Results of 1 ...


Gravity And Passive Seismic Methods Used Jointly For Understanding The Subsurface In A Glaciated Terrain: Dowling And Maple Grove Quadrangles, Barry County, Michigan, Scott A. Feldpausch 2017 Western Michigan University

Gravity And Passive Seismic Methods Used Jointly For Understanding The Subsurface In A Glaciated Terrain: Dowling And Maple Grove Quadrangles, Barry County, Michigan, Scott A. Feldpausch

Master's Theses

The Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) passive, single sensor seismic technique has been used together with gravimetry to study the topography hidden below the glacial drift of two 7.5’ quadrangles in Barry Co., MI. 265 stations were observed with both instruments along roads at nominal spacings of about 0.4 to 0.8 km. Occasional water wells and oil wells with documented penetrations of the base of glacial were used to calibrate the local power law regression calibration. This was also compared with the statewide calibration curve previously established. Results are presented as maps of Simple Bouguer Anomaly ...


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