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Magmatic Response To Subduction Initiation: Part 1. Fore-Arc Basalts Of The Izu-Bonin Arc From Iodp Expedition 352, John W. Shervais, Mark Reagan, Emily A. Haugen, Renat R. Almeev, Julian A. Pearce, Julie Prytulak, Jeffrey G. Ryan, Scott A. Whattam, Marguerite Godard, Timothy Chapman, Hongyan Li, Walter Kurz, Wendy R. Nelson, Daniel Heaton, Maria Kirchenbaur, Kenji Shimizu, Tetsuya Sakuyama, Yibing Li, Scott K. Vetter 2018 Utah State University

Magmatic Response To Subduction Initiation: Part 1. Fore-Arc Basalts Of The Izu-Bonin Arc From Iodp Expedition 352, John W. Shervais, Mark Reagan, Emily A. Haugen, Renat R. Almeev, Julian A. Pearce, Julie Prytulak, Jeffrey G. Ryan, Scott A. Whattam, Marguerite Godard, Timothy Chapman, Hongyan Li, Walter Kurz, Wendy R. Nelson, Daniel Heaton, Maria Kirchenbaur, Kenji Shimizu, Tetsuya Sakuyama, Yibing Li, Scott K. Vetter

Geology Faculty Publications

The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore arc preserves igneous rock assemblages that formed during subduction initiation circa 52 Ma. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 cored four sites in the fore arc near the Ogasawara Plateau in order to document the magmatic response to subduction initiation and the physical, petrologic, and chemical stratigraphy of a nascent subduction zone. Two of these sites (U1440 and U1441) are underlain by fore-arc basalt (FAB). FABs have mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like compositions, however, FAB are consistently lower in the high-field strength elements (TiO2, P2O5, Zr) and Ni compared to MORB, with Na2O at the ...


Mercury In Big Cypress Bayou And Caddo Lake Watersheds In Marion And Harrison Counties Texas, Joseph Watkins 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Mercury In Big Cypress Bayou And Caddo Lake Watersheds In Marion And Harrison Counties Texas, Joseph Watkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Caddo Lake has been included on the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality 303(d) list for impairment due to mercury (Hg) content since 1996. One of the primary tributaries, Big Cypress Bayou, flows across Eocene-aged rocks and sediments associated with the Wilcox Group; the Wilcox is of interest because it contains lignite coal, which has a direct link to mercury. Previous research has focused on dry deposition from fossil fuel combustion as the primary source of mercury but has not addressed the potential watershed contribution to mercury concentrations in Caddo Lake.

Big Cypress Bayou flows through Harrison and Marion counties ...


Delineation Of Karst Potential Using Lidar And Gis Analyses, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Colby Reece 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Delineation Of Karst Potential Using Lidar And Gis Analyses, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Colby Reece

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Traditional karst surveys require extensive field investigations to completely characterize large areas. They are often time-consuming, requiring up to several years to collect and categorize data. Bias is given to areas that are most easily accessible and false negatives are common. The implementation of geographic information systems (GIS) has aided in the aggregation and standardization of karst data; however, these systems have also been used to develop terrain models that allow the user to remotely delineate sinkholes and other surficial features. The Fort Hood Military Installation is a karst landscape that has been altered significantly for use in military ...


Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten DePrekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen 2018 Michigan Technological University

Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Transportation infrastructure is critical for the advancement of society. Bridges are vital for an efficient transportation network. Bridges across the world undergo variable deformation/displacement due to the Earth’s dynamic processes. This displacement is caused by ground motion, which occurs from many natural and anthropogenic events. Events causing deformation include temperature fluctuation, subsidence, landslides, earthquakes, water/sea level variation, subsurface resource extraction, etc. Continual deformation may cause bridge failure, putting civilians at risk, if not managed properly. Monitoring bridge displacement, large and small, provides evidence of the state and health of the bridge. Traditionally, bridge monitoring has been executed ...


Petrogenesis Of Enriched And Intermediate Poikilitic Shergottites: From Magmatic Source To Emplacement, Rachel Rahib 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Petrogenesis Of Enriched And Intermediate Poikilitic Shergottites: From Magmatic Source To Emplacement, Rachel Rahib

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Poikilitic shergottites, making up >20% of martian meteorites, likely represent a significant composition of the martian crust, as intrusive gabbroic rocks. To further constrain petrogenetic relationships amongst enriched and intermediate poikilitic shergottites, we utilize bulk rock trace element compositions, mineral major element compositions, phosphorus maps of olivine grains, oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) values, subsolidus equilibration temperatures, and quantitative textural analyses, of the most comprehensive suite of poikilitic shergottites yet (11 samples), including three newly recovered samples (Northwest Africa [NWA] 11065, NWA 11043, NWA 10961). Although petrographically light rare earth element (LREE) enriched and intermediate poikilitic shergottites are similar, distinct LREE abundances ...


Chemical And Morphological Variance In Vitriclastic Shards From Iodp Site U1437: Inferences About Source Regions And Eruptive Mechanisms, Larissa Sleeper 2018 Western Washington University

Chemical And Morphological Variance In Vitriclastic Shards From Iodp Site U1437: Inferences About Source Regions And Eruptive Mechanisms, Larissa Sleeper

Geology Graduate and Undergraduate Student Scholarship

International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 350 recovered roughly 2000 meters of volcaniclastic material. This paper focuses on the first 100 meters of this core which was almost entirely composed of tuffaceous mud. Tiny (micron) vitriclastic shards within this mud were analyzed to determine their chemistry and their morphology to make inferences about their source environment and eruptive mechanisms.


Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis

Master's Theses

Coastal systems in the Gulf of Mexico are threatened to reduced sediment supply, storm impacts and relative sea level rise (RSLR). The geologic record can provide insights of geomorphic threshold crossings (formation, progradation, transgression, destruction) to these forcing mechanisms to predict future barrier evolution to climate change. The stratigraphic framework and antecedent topography directly influence coastal evolution over geologic timescales. This study synthesizes ~2100km of geophysical data, 700+ sediment cores, and 63 radiocarbon dates to regionally map two sequence boundaries, multiple ravinement surfaces and fourteen depositional facies. One marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 valley’s fill provided up to 300 ...


Holocene Formation And Evolution Of Horn Island, Mississippi, Usa, Nina Gal 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Holocene Formation And Evolution Of Horn Island, Mississippi, Usa, Nina Gal

Master's Theses

Horn Island, one of the most stable barriers along the Mississippi-Alabama chain, provides critical habitat, helps regulate estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and reduces wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. This study integrates 2,200 km of high-resolution geophysics, 35 sediment cores, and 15 radiocarbon ages to better understand the formation and evolution of the island in response to sea-level rise, storms, and antecedent geology. The Biloxi and Pascagoula incised valleys converge at Horn Island and have played a profound role in the evolution of the system. Within the incised valleys, numerous shallow paleochannels between 4 and ...


Morphologic Mapping Of Lunar Impact Basins, Zachary R. Morse 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Morphologic Mapping Of Lunar Impact Basins, Zachary R. Morse

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Modern high-resolution remote sensing datasets for the Moon provide a detailed view of the lunar surface and its features. This thesis uses visible, compositional, and topographic data to create the most detailed geomorphological maps to date of portions of three lunar impact structures: Orientale Basin, Tsiolkovsky Crater, and Schrödinger Basin, which are three of the best-preserved impact structures on the lunar farside.

This thesis discusses the mapping and analysis of seven distinct ejecta facies around Orientale, nine distinct facies in and around Tsiolkovsky, and twelve units of surface materials in the central Schrödinger Basin region. This analysis utilized ...


Physical And Chemical Controls On Suffosion Development In Gypsic Soil, Culberson County, Texas, Jonah Morris 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Physical And Chemical Controls On Suffosion Development In Gypsic Soil, Culberson County, Texas, Jonah Morris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the Gypsum Plain, suffosion processes have encouraged road failure through dissolution and transport of gypsic soils; however, no prior research has been conducted within the Delaware Basin in regard to these processes. These phenomena were evaluated in both field and laboratory settings in order to assess the parameters of suffosion development associated with Ranch to Market (RM) 652 in Culberson County, Texas, where infrastructure extends across Castile and Rustler strata. Field studies simulated surficial ponding in various gypsic soils and correlated suffosion potential with soil composition and thickness. Soluble fractions of gypsic soils were delineated through geochemical analyses, further ...


Depositional Environment And Facies Analyses Of The Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Bell And Coryell Counties, Texas, Jacob Meinerts 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Depositional Environment And Facies Analyses Of The Owl Mountain Province, Fort Hood Military Installation, Bell And Coryell Counties, Texas, Jacob Meinerts

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Owl Mountain Province is a plateaued, karst landscape located in the eastern section of the Fort Hood Military Installation and is characterized by Lower Cretaceous Fredericksburg Group carbonates. The topography is capped by thick sequences of the Edwards limestone; steep scarps and incised valleys along the edges of the plateaus host inter-fingering outcrops of the Edwards and Comanche Peak limestones, and the lower valleys are covered by alluvial sediments and intermittent outcrops of the Walnut Clay. These formations were deposited to the north and west of the main Edwards trend, and are thought to be part of a series ...


An Outcrop Based Study Of The Weches Formation In Sabine County, Texas: Investigating Its Unconventional Resource Potential Through The Study Of Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, Petrology, And Geochemistry, Talban Kantala 2018 Stephen F Austin State University

An Outcrop Based Study Of The Weches Formation In Sabine County, Texas: Investigating Its Unconventional Resource Potential Through The Study Of Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, Petrology, And Geochemistry, Talban Kantala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fresh Weches Formation (Middle Eocene) exposures found in aggregate quarries in Sabine County, Texas, were sampled, measured, and logged with gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). Sedimentology and petrology characteristics of Weches samples were analyzed through thin section, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and GRS Th/K ratios analyses. The source rock quality of the Weches was evaluated with geochemical techniques involving total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and GRS Th/U ratios.

The Weches, in the study area, is 27.4 meters thick, and delineated into three major stratigraphic facies: an upper marginal marine prodeltaic facies (Therrill Member) comprised of ...


Analysis Of Sterol Diagenesis Stages In A Peat Core From Kamchatka, Russia, Tia Ogus 2018 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Analysis Of Sterol Diagenesis Stages In A Peat Core From Kamchatka, Russia, Tia Ogus

Honors Theses

Peatlands are a critical part of the global carbon cycle. While many studies of peat carbon focus on accumulation, less is known about peat decay. We use the diagenesis of sterols to track the decomposition of peat in a Holocene-length core of a sedge fen on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Diagenesis can transform sterols as soon as the peat is initially deposited, but they can also remain unchanged for millennia. We have quantified the transformation of sterols into their diagenetic products to measure the maturity of peat and estimate carbon loss. Further, there are two pathways in sterol diagenesis, oxidative ...


Analyzing Ductile Shear Zone Network Geometries In The Grassy Portage Sill, Rainy Lake Region, Northwestern Ontario, Canada, Ernest John Thalhamer 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Analyzing Ductile Shear Zone Network Geometries In The Grassy Portage Sill, Rainy Lake Region, Northwestern Ontario, Canada, Ernest John Thalhamer

Theses and Dissertations

The Grassy Portage Sill (GPS) is a ~2.7 Ga metagabbroic sill located in the Rainy Lake region of northwestern Ontario. The Rainy Lake region is located in the Superior Province between the metavolcanic Wabigoon subprovince to the north and the metasedimentary Quetico subprovince to the south. Two regional faults bound the region and intersect to the east, forming a wedge which defines the Rainy Lake zone. This area was regionally deformed due to oblique transpression, resulting from the Kenoran Orogeny (~2.7 Ga). The GPS is approximately 20 km long and 1-2 km wide, and has undergone heterogeneous strain ...


Diversity And Dispersal Trends Following The Latest-Permian Mass Extinction, David A. Tarailo 2018 University of Iowa

Diversity And Dispersal Trends Following The Latest-Permian Mass Extinction, David A. Tarailo

Theses and Dissertations

The latest-Permian mass extinction was the greatest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic. The extinction decimated both marine and terrestrial communities, and changed the evolutionary trajectory of multicellular life on the planet. The unique nature of the extinction’s aftermath has prompted attention from paleontologists seeking to understand the timing and pattern of the Triassic recovery. With this dissertation I have sought to shed additional light on the terrestrial side of the extinction by examining different patterns by which its survivors responded to the extinction.

Temnospondyl amphibians were one of the few tetrapod clades that were able to take advantage of ...


Assessing Ground Penetrating Radar's Ability To Image Subsurface Characteristics Of Icy Debris Fans In Alaska And New Zealand, Robert W. Jacob, Jeffrey M. Trop, R. Craig Kochel 2018 Bucknell University

Assessing Ground Penetrating Radar's Ability To Image Subsurface Characteristics Of Icy Debris Fans In Alaska And New Zealand, Robert W. Jacob, Jeffrey M. Trop, R. Craig Kochel

Faculty Journal Articles

Icy debris fans have recently been described as fan shaped depositional landforms associated with (or formed during) deglaciation, however, the subsurface characteristics remain essentially undocumented. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) to non-invasively investigate the subsurface characteristics of icy debris fans (IDFs) at McCarthy Glacier, Alaska, USA and at La Perouse Glacier, South Island of New Zealand. IDFs are largely unexplored paraglacial landforms in deglaciating alpine regions at the mouths of bedrock catchments between valley glaciers and icecaps. IDFs receive deposits of mainly ice and minor lithic material through different mass-flow processes, chiefly ice avalanche and to a lesser extent ...


Diamond Intracrystalline Stable Isotope Chemical Image Analysis By Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometery, Tyler J. Sundell 2018 Missouri State University

Diamond Intracrystalline Stable Isotope Chemical Image Analysis By Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometery, Tyler J. Sundell

MSU Graduate Theses

The chemical resistance of diamond allows in-situ study of the diamond source regions. For a majority of gem quality diamonds, this source region is the sublithospheric mantle keel of a cratonic nuclei. Through analysis of stable isotopes, radiogenic isotopes and trace elements, diamond geochemical analyses can define chemical fluxes in the mantle keel. However, such studies require multiple methodologies for each chemical suite, high spatial resolution and analytical precision. Here, I evaluate Time-of-Flight Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) as an alternative method for diamond geochemical analyses. ToF-SIMS analysis can perform in cation and anion mode to measure the entire periodic ...


Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta: A Radar Interferometric And Modeling Approach, Esayas Gebrekidan Gebremichael 2018 Western Michigan University

Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta: A Radar Interferometric And Modeling Approach, Esayas Gebrekidan Gebremichael

Dissertations

Many of the deltas of the world are experiencing land deformation, subsidence or uplift of landmass, due to natural or anthropogenic causes, or a combination of both processes and causes. These deltaic settings are densely populated and border some of our world’s largest water bodies (oceans and seas). The land deformation, especially the subsidence component, when combined with the climate change-induced sea level rise, coastal erosion, and other anthropogenic drivers, will undoubtedly impact the population and economy of coastal areas of deltas. For the Nile Delta of Egypt, the land deformation processes and the factors that control the deformation ...


New Ca-Id-Tims Detrital Zircon Constraints On Middle Neoproterozoic Sedimentary Successions, Southwestern United States, Abigail R. Bullard 2018 Utah State University

New Ca-Id-Tims Detrital Zircon Constraints On Middle Neoproterozoic Sedimentary Successions, Southwestern United States, Abigail R. Bullard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Three related sedimentary successions located in Arizona, Utah, and California were deposited in basins on proto-North America during the early rifting of Rodinia (~780 Mya). Previous detrital zircon U-Pb maximum ages for the units are inexact, making it difficult to piece together what happened at this point in Earth history.

We report better maximum age constraints on these units obtained by subjecting detrital zircons to high-precision CA-ID-TIMS analysis, which provide more exact 206 Pb/238U ages. These new data significantly improve the precision for the base of the ChUMP units, with an average age of 775. 63 ± 0.27 Ma ...


Hydrogeologic Framework Studies Of Portions Of The Niobrara River, Douglas R. Hallum, Steven S. Sibray, Leslie M. Howard 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Hydrogeologic Framework Studies Of Portions Of The Niobrara River, Douglas R. Hallum, Steven S. Sibray, Leslie M. Howard

Conservation and Survey Division

The Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NeDNR) and Upper Niobrara-White Natural Resources District (UNWNRD) expressed interest in improving understanding and their ability to effectively manage water resources in and around a particular reach of the Niobrara River. Aquifer-thickness contours mapped by the Conservation and Survey Division (CSD) indicate that the principle aquifer has zero thickness in this area. Additionally, the statewide geologic bedrock map produced by CSD shows non-aquifer strata of the White River Group along the same reach, and this setting is consistent with the designation of an “aquifer absent area,” as in the present document. Water-management policy development ...


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