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The Utility Of Foraminifera In Documenting Sediment Provenance For Overwash Deposits: A Case Study Using Sediments Deposited By Tropical Cyclone Pam In Vanuatu, thomas kosciuch 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Utility Of Foraminifera In Documenting Sediment Provenance For Overwash Deposits: A Case Study Using Sediments Deposited By Tropical Cyclone Pam In Vanuatu, Thomas Kosciuch

Master's Theses

Tropical cyclone inundation is a major threat to the highly exposed islands of the South Pacific. This vulnerability was highlighted in March 2015 when Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam made landfall on Vanuatu as a Category 5 storm, impacting coastlines with storm surges that produced high water marks up to 7 m above MSL and deposited sediments up to 400 m inland. We examined the foraminiferal assemblages contained within TC Pam sediments at two locations in Vanuatu: a mixed-carbonate embayment (Manuro), and a volcaniclastic beach (Port Resolution Bay; PRB). At Manuro, the TC Pam sediments were up to 10 cm thick ...


Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey

Conservation and Survey Division

The marine shale, chalk, marl, and chalky limestone of the Niobrara Formation directly underlie Quaternary sediments in 23 counties from south-central to northeastern Nebraska. Nevertheless, the formation serves as an aquifer only in and around Cedar, Madison, and Nuckolls counties. Niobrara aquifer wells mostly supply irrigation, domestic, and livestock needs. Two hundred of the approximately 230 active registered wells in Nebraska that are screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer are in Cedar County and environs. About another 200 wells in this area are screened in both the Niobrara aquifer and overlying Quaternary sediments. Wells screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer ...


Geophysical Delineation Of Megaporosity And Fluid Migration Pathways For Geohazard Characterization Within The Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas, Jonathan David Woodard 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geophysical Delineation Of Megaporosity And Fluid Migration Pathways For Geohazard Characterization Within The Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas, Jonathan David Woodard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Differential dissolution of gypsum karst within the Delaware Basin poses a significant threat to infrastructure that society depends on. The study area is located in Culberson County, Texas and traverses a distance of approximately 54 kilometers along RM 652 within the Gypsum Plain which is situated on the northern margin of the Chihuahua Desert and includes outcrops of Castile and Rustler strata that host karst geohazards. Regions of karst geohazard potential have been physically surveyed proximal to the study area in evaporites throughout the Castile Formation outcrop; minimal hazards, in comparison to the Castile Formation, have been documented in ...


Copper Mineralogy In The Oxide Zone Of The Lone Star Porphyry Copper Deposit, Eastern Arizona, Jeff G. Selck 2017 Brigham Young University

Copper Mineralogy In The Oxide Zone Of The Lone Star Porphyry Copper Deposit, Eastern Arizona, Jeff G. Selck

All Theses and Dissertations

The Lone Star porphyry copper deposit in the Safford District of southeastern Arizona was discovered in the late 1800's but never mined on a large scale. In addition to typical copper oxide species such as chrysocolla, the upper part of the deposit has zones of mineralization in which the chemical assays of core samples have higher amounts of copper than can be visually assigned to the observed copper-bearing minerals. The goal of this study is to identify the Cu-bearing minerals, which is crucial because the efficiency of the extraction processes is strongly dependent upon the mineralogy. Samples from seven ...


Quantitative Morphological Classification Of Planetary Craterforms Using Multivariate Methods Of Outline-Based Shape Analysis, Thomas Joseph Slezak 2017 Brigham Young University

Quantitative Morphological Classification Of Planetary Craterforms Using Multivariate Methods Of Outline-Based Shape Analysis, Thomas Joseph Slezak

All Theses and Dissertations

Craters formed by impact and volcanic processes are among the most fundamental planetary landforms. This study examines the morphology of diverse craterforms on Io, the Moon, Mars, and Earth using quantitative, outline-based shape analysis and multivariate statistical methods to evaluate the differences between different types of. Ultimately, this should help establish relationships between the form and origin of craterforms. Developed in the field of geometric morphometrics by paleontological and biological sciences communities, these methods were used for the analysis of the shapes of crater outlines. The shapes of terrestrial ash-flow calderas, terrestrial basaltic shield calderas, martian calderas, Ionian paterae, and ...


Digitizing Dinosaur National Monument's Carnegie Quarry, Rebecca Esplin 2017 Brigham Young University

Digitizing Dinosaur National Monument's Carnegie Quarry, Rebecca Esplin

All Theses and Dissertations

The Carnegie Quarry in northeastern Utah is world-renowned for the dinosaur skeletons it has produced and for its in situ display of dinosaur bones. The specimens excavated at Carnegie Quarry are displayed and curated in 20 repositories, most in North America. Data on these specimens in the forms of notes, photographs, publications, field maps, and so on, are scattered in an array of formats and institutions. The primary goal of this thesis is to develop a database linking these data with a digital map (GIS system) to make them readily accessible. To this end, a relational database was created using ...


Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On A Public Beach: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Maranda R. Miller, Mark E. Burbach 2017 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On A Public Beach: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Maranda R. Miller, Mark E. Burbach

Conservation and Survey Division

Conservation of natural resources and promotion of family-friendly tourism activities are vital to Jekyll Island. As it is stated in the Jekyll Island Authority (JIA) Master Plan “Jekyll Island is a unique, state-owned barrier island that balances conserving and preserving natural, historic, and cultural resources with providing accessible, affordable recreation, vacation, and education opportunities for the people of Georgia and beyond” (Jekyll Island Authority, 2014b, p. 4). The JIA has reported approximately 1 million people visit the island annually (Jekyll Island Authority, 2015). As such, tourism is instrumental to Jekyll Island’s economy, and that tourism contributes to the overall ...


Paleozoic Sandstones In The Tri-State Region, Southern Ozarks: Tectono-Stratigraphic Sequence Development And Compositional Evolution, The Source And Delivery Conundrum, And The Regional Tectonic History, Elvis Chekwube Bello 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Paleozoic Sandstones In The Tri-State Region, Southern Ozarks: Tectono-Stratigraphic Sequence Development And Compositional Evolution, The Source And Delivery Conundrum, And The Regional Tectonic History, Elvis Chekwube Bello

Theses and Dissertations

The Paleozoic stratigraphic record of the Ozark Region, southern midcontinent has been divided into at least 33 formations, with the most significant thickness of 9692 feet preserved in northwest Arkansas. The potential thickness would have been much greater, but epeirogenic movements and sea-level rise and fall produced regional surfaces of erosion reducing the record. That interplay between tectonics (epeirogenic movements) and eustatic change (transgressive-regressive cycles) preserved in the Ozark sedimentary history provides the basis for recognition of five distinct, but related, tectonostratigraphic units designated TS 1 through TS 5: Late Precambrian-Middle Cambrian (TS 1), Late Cambrian-Earliest Ordovician (TS 2), Early ...


3d Seismic Interpretation Of A Plio-Pleistocene Mass Transport Deposit In The Deepwater Taranaki Basin Of New Zealand, Francisco Jose Rusconi 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

3d Seismic Interpretation Of A Plio-Pleistocene Mass Transport Deposit In The Deepwater Taranaki Basin Of New Zealand, Francisco Jose Rusconi

Theses and Dissertations

A series of Plio-Pleistocene mass transport deposits (MTD) have been identified in the deepwater Taranaki Basin, in New Zealand, using the Romney 3D seismic survey, which covers an area of approximately 2000 km2. One of these MTDs has been chosen for description and interpretation based on high confidence mapping of its boundary surfaces. The deposit exhibits an array of interesting features similar to those documented by researchers elsewhere plus a unique basal feature unlike those previously observed. The basal shear surface exhibits erosional features such as grooves, “monkey fingers”, and glide tracks. Internally, the MTD is typically characterized by low ...


Provenance Analysis Of The Grover Gravel Using Detrital Zircon Geochronology, Petrology And Heavy Mineral Analysis, Grant Spoering 2017 Missouri State University

Provenance Analysis Of The Grover Gravel Using Detrital Zircon Geochronology, Petrology And Heavy Mineral Analysis, Grant Spoering

MSU Graduate Theses

The Grover Gravel in the St. Louis, Missouri area contains a mix of chert, quartzite, jasper, and ironstone in clast sizes ranging up to 60 cm. The gravel varies in thickness from a veneer to over 30 feet and rests on upland surfaces at elevations sometimes exceeding 300 feet above the floors of major valleys. A pre-Pleistocene age generally has been proposed or assumed for the gravel, which classically has been interpreted to be a meandering-stream deposit atop an extensive flat upland surface, which was subsequently eroded and dissected by rejuvenated streams. However, large quartzite boulders in the gravel also ...


Geological Characterization Of Precambrian Nonconformities: Implications For Injection-Induced Seismicity In The Midcontinent United States, Laura Cuccio 2017 Utah State University

Geological Characterization Of Precambrian Nonconformities: Implications For Injection-Induced Seismicity In The Midcontinent United States, Laura Cuccio

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The midcontinent United States, a region which typically does not experience many earthquakes, has experienced a significant increase in the number of earthquakes over the last decade. This increase in earthquake activity has been linked to wastewater injection, a process in which large volumes of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are injected into deep (2-3 km), high-permeability sedimentary rocks, near low-permeability Precambrian (>540-million-year-old) crystalline ‘basement’ rocks. The contact between these two rock types is referred to as the Precambrian nonconformity. Injection-induced earthquakes occur on or near basement-hosted faults due to an increase in pore fluid pressures, which implies that ...


Usarray Imaging Of North American Continental Crust, Xiaofei Ma 2017 Utah State University

Usarray Imaging Of North American Continental Crust, Xiaofei Ma

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The layered structure and bulk composition of continental crust contains important clues about its history of mountain-building, about its magmatic evolution, and about dynamical processes that continue to happen now. Geophysical and geological features such as gravity anomalies, surface topography, lithospheric strength and the deformation that drives the earthquake cycle are all directly related to deep crustal chemistry and the movement of materials through the crust that alter that chemistry.

The North American continental crust records billions of years of history of tectonic and dynamical changes. The western U.S. is currently experiencing a diverse array of dynamical processes including ...


De Paepe, Duane - Collector (Mss 625), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2017 Western Kentucky University

De Paepe, Duane - Collector (Mss 625), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 625. The Duane De Paepe Kentucky Cave Saltpetre History Research Collection, a collection of historical research, field notes, cave surveys, photographs, maps, reports, and scholarly writing on saltpetre mining in Kentucky, especially at Mammoth Cave. The collection was created under a research program sponsored by the Cave Research Foundation and the National Geographic Society in Kentucky, 1976-1980, and directed by De Paepe.


A Prograding Margin During Global Sea-Level Maxima: An Example From Mahajanga Basin, Northwest Madagascar, Jonathan Obrist-Farner, Philip J. Ball, Thomas A. (Mac) McGilvery, Raymond R. Rogers 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

A Prograding Margin During Global Sea-Level Maxima: An Example From Mahajanga Basin, Northwest Madagascar, Jonathan Obrist-Farner, Philip J. Ball, Thomas A. (Mac) Mcgilvery, Raymond R. Rogers

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The Mesozoic shelf margin in the Mahajanga Basin, northwest Madagascar, provides an example where inherited palaeobathymetry, coupled with sea-level changes, high sediment supply and fluctuations in accommodation influenced the stacking patterns and geometry of clinoforms that accreted onto a passive rifted margin. Two-dimensional (2D) seismic profiles are integrated with existing field data and geological maps to study the evolution of the margin. The basin contains complete records of transgression, highstand, regression and lowstand phases that took place from Jurassic to Cretaceous. Of particular interest is the Cretaceous, Albian to Turonian (ca. 113-93 Ma), siliciclastic shelf margin that prograded above a ...


A Framework For Incorporating The Impact Of Water Quality On Water Supply Stress: An Example From Louisiana, David M. Borrok, Jian Chen, Hisham Eldardiry, Emad Habib 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

A Framework For Incorporating The Impact Of Water Quality On Water Supply Stress: An Example From Louisiana, David M. Borrok, Jian Chen, Hisham Eldardiry, Emad Habib

David M. Borrok

Water of poor quality can directly impact the budget of water available for key user groups. Despite this importance, methods for quantifying the impact of water quality on water availability remain elusive. Here, we develop a new framework for incorporating the impact of water quality on water supply by modifying the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI). We demonstrate the usefulness of the framework by investigating the impact of high salinity waters on the availability of irrigation water for agriculture in Louisiana. The WaSSI was deconstructed into sectoral components such that the total available water supply could be reduced for a ...


Seismic Azimuthal Anisotropy Beneath The Eastern United States And Its Geodynamic Implications, Bin B. Yang, Yunhua Liu, Haider Dahm, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Seismic Azimuthal Anisotropy Beneath The Eastern United States And Its Geodynamic Implications, Bin B. Yang, Yunhua Liu, Haider Dahm, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao

Stephen S. Gao

Systematic spatial variations of anisotropic characteristics are revealed beneath the eastern U.S. using seismic data recorded between 1988 and 2016 by 785 stations. The resulting fast polarization orientations of the 5613 measurements are generally subparallel to the absolute plate motion (APM) and are inconsistent with the strike of major tectonic features. This inconsistency, together with the results of depth estimation using the spatial coherency of the splitting parameters, suggests a mostly asthenospheric origin of the observed azimuthal anisotropy. The observations can be explained by a combined effect of APM-induced mantle fabric and a flow system deflected horizontally around the ...


Seismic Anisotropy Beneath The Afar Depression And Adjacent Areas: Implications For Mantle Flow, Stephen S. Gao, Kelly H. Liu, Mohammed G. Abdel Salam 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Seismic Anisotropy Beneath The Afar Depression And Adjacent Areas: Implications For Mantle Flow, Stephen S. Gao, Kelly H. Liu, Mohammed G. Abdel Salam

Stephen S. Gao

Shear wave splitting is a robust tool to infer the direction and strength of seismic anisotropy in the lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere. Previous shear wave splitting studies in the Afar Depression and adjacent areas concluded that either Precambrian sutures or vertical magmatic dikes are mostly responsible for the observed anisotropy. Here we report results of a systematic analysis of teleseismic shear wave splitting using all the available broadband seismic data recorded in the Afar Depression, Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), and Ethiopian Plateau. We found that while the ~450 measurements on the Ethiopian Plateau and in the MER show insignificant azimuthal ...


Spatial Variations Of Crustal Characteristics Beneath The Hoggar Swell, Algeria, Revealed By Systematic Analyses Of Receiver Functions From A Single Seismic Station, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Spatial Variations Of Crustal Characteristics Beneath The Hoggar Swell, Algeria, Revealed By Systematic Analyses Of Receiver Functions From A Single Seismic Station, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao

Stephen S. Gao

The Hoggar swell in Algeria is one of the significant massifs of northwest Africa. The paucity of high-resolution geophysical studies of the crust and mantle beneath the massifs is mostly responsible for the heated debates about the depth of the source region of the Cenozoic volcanism and the closely related uncertainty about the mechanism that formed and maintains the high elevation of the swells. Here we report results from a systematic study of 1386 high-quality receiver functions (RFs) recorded by station TAM, the only permanent broadband seismic station on the Hoggar swell. The resulting crustal thickness is about 34 km ...


Reply [To “Comment On “Sks Splitting Beneath Continental Rifts Zones” By Gao Et Al.”], Stephen S. Gao, Paul M. Davis, Kelly H. Liu, Philip D. Slack, Andrew W. Rigor, Yu A. Zorin, Valentina V. Mordvinova, Vladimir M. Kozhevnikov, Nikolai A. Logatchev 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Reply [To “Comment On “Sks Splitting Beneath Continental Rifts Zones” By Gao Et Al.”], Stephen S. Gao, Paul M. Davis, Kelly H. Liu, Philip D. Slack, Andrew W. Rigor, Yu A. Zorin, Valentina V. Mordvinova, Vladimir M. Kozhevnikov, Nikolai A. Logatchev

Stephen S. Gao

No abstract provided.


Making Reliable Shear-Wave Splitting Measurements, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Making Reliable Shear-Wave Splitting Measurements, Kelly H. Liu, Stephen S. Gao

Stephen S. Gao

Shear-wave splitting (SWS) analysis using SKS, SKKS, and PKS (hereafter collectively called XKS) phases is one of the most commonly used techniques in structural seismology. In spite of the apparent simplicity in performing SWS measurements, large discrepancies in published SWS parameters (fast direction and splitting time) suggest that a significant portion of splitting parameters has been incorrectly determined. Here, based on the popularly used minimization of transverse energy technique, we present a procedure that combines automatic data processing and careful manual screening, which includes adjusting the XKS window used for splitting analysis, modifying band-pass filtering corner frequencies, and verifying and ...


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