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Building A More Sustainable And Accessible Internet: Lightweight Web Design With Html And Css, Chelsea Thompto 2021 San Jose State University

Building A More Sustainable And Accessible Internet: Lightweight Web Design With Html And Css, Chelsea Thompto

Assignment Prompts

While the internet has great potential to bring people together, if the internet was a country, it would be the 7th largest energy consumer on the planet. This is set to increase in years to come moving the internet even higher on this list to become the 4th largest energy consumer if it were to be a country. So, as artists and digital citizens it is imperative that we understand how to create and display the content we produce online in ways that are sustainable and accessible.
This assignment, while slated for Art 109, may be slotted into an earlier …


Qlens: Visual Analytics Of Multi-Step Problem-Solving Behaviors For Improving Question Design, Meng XIA, Reshika P. VELUMANI, Yong WANG, Huamin QU, Xiaojuan MA 2021 Singapore Management University

Qlens: Visual Analytics Of Multi-Step Problem-Solving Behaviors For Improving Question Design, Meng Xia, Reshika P. Velumani, Yong Wang, Huamin Qu, Xiaojuan Ma

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

With the rapid development of online education in recent years, there has been an increasing number of learning platforms that provide students with multi-step questions to cultivate their problem-solving skills. To guarantee the high quality of such learning materials, question designers need to inspect how students’ problem-solving processes unfold step by step to infer whether students’ problem-solving logic matches their design intent. They also need to compare the behaviors of different groups (e.g., students from different grades) to distribute questions to students with the right level of knowledge. The availability of fine-grained interaction data, such as mouse movement trajectories from …


Target-Guided Emotion-Aware Chat Machine, Wei WEI, Xianling MAO, Guibing GUO, Feida ZHU, Feida ZHU, Yuchong HU, Shanshan FENG 2021 Singapore Management University

Target-Guided Emotion-Aware Chat Machine, Wei Wei, Xianling Mao, Guibing Guo, Feida Zhu, Feida Zhu, Yuchong Hu, Shanshan Feng

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

The consistency of a response to a given post at the semantic level and emotional level is essential for a dialogue system to deliver humanlike interactions. However, this challenge is not well addressed in the literature, since most of the approaches neglect the emotional information conveyed by a post while generating responses. This article addresses this problem and proposes a unified end-to-end neural architecture, which is capable of simultaneously encoding the semantics and the emotions in a post and leveraging target information to generate more intelligent responses with appropriately expressed emotions. Extensive experiments on real-world data demonstrate that the proposed …


What Is The Relationship Between Language And Thought?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

What Is The Relationship Between Language And Thought?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

To date, copyright scholarship has almost completely overlooked the linguistics and cognitive psychology literature exploring the connection between language and thought. An exploration of the two major strains of this literature, known as universal grammar (associated with Noam Chomsky) and linguistic relativity (centered around the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis), offers insights into the copyrightability of constructed languages and of the type of software packages at issue in Google v. Oracle recently decided by the Supreme Court. It turns to modularity theory as the key idea unifying the analysis of both languages and software in ways that suggest that the information filtering associated …


The Development Of Teaching Case Studies To Explore Ethical Issues Associated With Computer Programming, Michael Collins, Damian Gordon, Dympna O'Sullivan 2021 Technological University Dublin

The Development Of Teaching Case Studies To Explore Ethical Issues Associated With Computer Programming, Michael Collins, Damian Gordon, Dympna O'Sullivan

Conference papers

In the past decade software products have become pervasive in many aspects of people’s lives around the world. Unfortunately, the quality of the experience an individual has interacting with that software is dependent on the quality of the software itself, and it is becoming more and more evident that many large software products contain a range of issues and errors, and these issues are not known to the developers of these systems, and they are unaware of the deleterious impacts of those issues on the individuals who use these systems. The authors of this paper are developing a new digital …


Injecting Descriptive Meta-Information Into Pre-Trained Language Models With Hypernetworks, Wenying DUAN, Xiaoxi HE, Zimu ZHOU, Hong RAO, Lothar THIELE 2021 Singapore Management University

Injecting Descriptive Meta-Information Into Pre-Trained Language Models With Hypernetworks, Wenying Duan, Xiaoxi He, Zimu Zhou, Hong Rao, Lothar Thiele

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Pre-trained language models have been widely adopted as backbones in various natural language processing tasks. However, existing pre-trained language models ignore the descriptive meta-information in the text such as the distinction between the title and the mainbody, leading to over-weighted attention to insignificant text. In this paper, we propose a hypernetwork-based architecture to model the descriptive meta-information and integrate it into pre-trained language models. Evaluations on three natural language processing tasks show that our method notably improves the performance of pre-trained language models and achieves the state-of-the-art results on keyphrase extraction.


Learning And Evaluating Chinese Idiom Embeddings, Minghuan TAN, Jing JIANG 2021 Singapore Management University

Learning And Evaluating Chinese Idiom Embeddings, Minghuan Tan, Jing Jiang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We study the task of learning and evaluating Chinese idiom embeddings. We first construct a new evaluation dataset that contains idiom synonyms and antonyms. Observing that existing Chinese word embedding methods may not be suitable for learning idiom embeddings, we further present a BERT-based method that directly learns embedding vectors for individual idioms. We empirically compare representative existing methods and our method. We find that our method substantially outperforms existing methods on the evaluation dataset we have constructed.


Does Bert Understand Idioms? A Probing-Based Empirical Study Of Bert Encodings Of Idioms, Minghuan TAN, Jing JIANG 2021 Singapore Management University

Does Bert Understand Idioms? A Probing-Based Empirical Study Of Bert Encodings Of Idioms, Minghuan Tan, Jing Jiang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Understanding idioms is important in NLP. In this paper, we study to what extent pre-trained BERT model can encode the meaning of a potentially idiomatic expression (PIE) in a certain context. We make use of a few existing datasets and perform two probing tasks: PIE usage classification and idiom paraphrase identification. Our experiment results suggest that BERT indeed can separate the literal and idiomatic usages of a PIE with high accuracy. It is also able to encode the idiomatic meaning of a PIE to some extent.


A Survey On Complex Knowledge Base Question Answering: Methods, Challenges And Solutions, Yunshi LAN, Gaole HE, Jinhao JIANG, Jing JIANG, Wayne Xin ZHAO, Ji-Rong WEN 2021 Singapore Management University

A Survey On Complex Knowledge Base Question Answering: Methods, Challenges And Solutions, Yunshi Lan, Gaole He, Jinhao Jiang, Jing Jiang, Wayne Xin Zhao, Ji-Rong Wen

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Knowledge base question answering (KBQA) aims to answer a question over a knowledge base (KB). Recently, a large number of studies focus on semantically or syntactically complicated questions. In this paper, we elaborately summarize the typical challenges and solutions for complex KBQA. We begin with introducing the background about the KBQA task. Next, we present the two mainstream categories of methods for complex KBQA, namely semantic parsing-based (SP-based) methods and information retrieval-based (IR-based) methods. We then review the advanced methods comprehensively from the perspective of the two categories. Specifically, we explicate their solutions to the typical challenges. Finally, we conclude …


Teaching Students How To Code Qualitative Data: An Experiential Activity Sequence For Training Novice Educational Researchers, Jennifer E. Lineback 2021 Point Loma Nazarene University

Teaching Students How To Code Qualitative Data: An Experiential Activity Sequence For Training Novice Educational Researchers, Jennifer E. Lineback

University of South Florida (USF) M3 Publishing

Coursework on qualitative research methods is common in many collegiate departments, including psychology, nursing, sociology, and education. Instructors for these courses must identify meaningful activities to support their students’ learning of the domain. This paper presents the components of an experiential activity sequence centered on coding and coding scheme development. Each of the three component activities of this sequence is elaborated, as are the students’ experiences during their participation in the activities. Additionally, the issues concerning coding and coding scheme development that typically emerge from students’ participation in these activities are discussed. Results from implementations of both in-person (face-to-face) and …


Privacy-Preserving Cloud-Assisted Data Analytics, Wei Bao 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Privacy-Preserving Cloud-Assisted Data Analytics, Wei Bao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nowadays industries are collecting a massive and exponentially growing amount of data that can be utilized to extract useful insights for improving various aspects of our life. Data analytics (e.g., via the use of machine learning) has been extensively applied to make important decisions in various real world applications. However, it is challenging for resource-limited clients to analyze their data in an efficient way when its scale is large. Additionally, the data resources are increasingly distributed among different owners. Nonetheless, users' data may contain private information that needs to be protected.

Cloud computing has become more and more popular in …


Teaching Coding In A Virtual Environment: Overcoming Challenges, Marion S. Smith 2021 Texas Southern University

Teaching Coding In A Virtual Environment: Overcoming Challenges, Marion S. Smith

Southwestern Business Administration Journal

Educational research suggests that teaching techniques are subject matter specific. Teaching techniques in introductory programming classes are centered around two approaches used by students in learning. One approach is where students develop a thorough understanding of what they are learning. This is referred to as “deep learning”. Other students use a “surface approach” where they perform the tasks required from them. The persona of the instructor and the choice of instructional materials used within a class determines which approach the student will adopt. Active teaching techniques fosters “deep learning”. With the need to adapt active teaching techniques to a virtual …


Optimization Of Station-Skip In A Cyclic Express Subway Service, Jingfeng YANG, Hai WANG, Jiangang JIN 2021 Singapore Management University

Optimization Of Station-Skip In A Cyclic Express Subway Service, Jingfeng Yang, Hai Wang, Jiangang Jin

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

With rapid population growth and increasing demand for urban mobility, metropolitan areas such as Singapore, Tokyo, and Shanghai are increasingly dependent on public transport systems. Various strategies are proposed to improve the service quality and capacity of bus and subway systems. Express trains—i.e., trains that skip certain stations—are commonly used because they can travel at higher speeds, potentially reduce travel time, and serve more passengers. In this paper, we study cyclic express subway service (CESS), in which express trains provide routine transport service with cyclic (periodic) station-skip patterns that can be used in daily service. We propose an exact Mixed …


Incorrectness Logic For Graph Programs, Christopher M. POSKITT 2021 Singapore Management University

Incorrectness Logic For Graph Programs, Christopher M. Poskitt

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Program logics typically reason about an over-approximation of program behaviour to prove the absence of bugs. Recently, program logics have been proposed that instead prove the presence of bugs by means of under-approximate reasoning, which has the promise of better scalability. In this paper, we present an under-approximate program logic for a nondeterministic graph programming language, and show how it can be used to reason deductively about program incorrectness, whether defined by the presence of forbidden graph structure or by finitely failing executions. We prove this 'incorrectness logic' to be sound and complete, and speculate on some possible future applications …


An Empirical Study Of Refactorings And Technical Debt In Machine Learning Systems, Yiming Tang, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Mehdi Bagherzadeh, Rhia Singh, Ajani Stewart, Anita Raja 2021 CUNY Graduate Center

An Empirical Study Of Refactorings And Technical Debt In Machine Learning Systems, Yiming Tang, Raffi T. Khatchadourian, Mehdi Bagherzadeh, Rhia Singh, Ajani Stewart, Anita Raja

Publications and Research

Machine Learning (ML), including Deep Learning (DL), systems, i.e., those with ML capabilities, are pervasive in today’s data-driven society. Such systems are complex; they are comprised of ML models and many subsystems that support learning processes. As with other complex systems, ML systems are prone to classic technical debt issues, especially when such systems are long-lived, but they also exhibit debt specific to these systems. Unfortunately, there is a gap of knowledge in how ML systems actually evolve and are maintained. In this paper, we fill this gap by studying refactorings, i.e., source-to-source semantics-preserving program transformations, performed in real-world, open-source …


Asynchronous Validations Using Programming Contracts In Java, Rahul Shukla 2021 San Jose State University

Asynchronous Validations Using Programming Contracts In Java, Rahul Shukla

Master's Projects

Design by Contract is a software development methodology based on the idea of having contracts between two software components. Programming contracts are invariants specified as pre-conditions and post-conditions. The client component must ensure that all the pre-conditions are satisfied before calling the server component. The server component must guarantee the post-conditions are met before the call returns to the client component. Current work in Design by Contract in Java focuses on writing shorthand contracts using annotations that are processed serially.

Modern software systems require a lot of business rules validations on complicated domain objects. Often, such validations are in the …


A Zenith Z-100 Emulator, Joseph Matta 2021 Bridgewater State University

A Zenith Z-100 Emulator, Joseph Matta

Master’s Theses and Projects

The Zenith Z-100 computer was released by the Zenith Data Systems Corporation in 1982 as a competitor to the IBM PC. There are no known complete software emulations of the system. A Z-100 emulator is considered to be complete if it runs all functions of its monitor ROM BIOS program and is able to boot and run its two operating systems. One reason previous emulation attempts are not complete is that they ineffectively implement the floppy disk controller, preventing a proper transfer of the operating system from disk into memory. This project is an attempt to write a complete emulation …


City Goers: An Exploration Into Creating Seemingly Intelligent A.I. Systems, Matthew Brooke 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

City Goers: An Exploration Into Creating Seemingly Intelligent A.I. Systems, Matthew Brooke

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Artificial Intelligence systems have come a long way over the years. One particular application of A.I. is its incorporation in video games. A key goal of creating an A.I. system in a video game is to convey a level of intellect to the player. During playtests for Halo: Combat Evolved, the developers at Bungie noticed that players deemed tougher enemies as more intelligent than weaker ones, despite the fact that there were no differences in behavior in the enemies. The tougher enemies provided a greater illusion of intelligence to the players. Inspired by this, I set out to create a …


Visual Analysis Of Historical Lessons Learned During Exercises For The United States Air Force Europe (Usafe), Samantha O'Rourke 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Visual Analysis Of Historical Lessons Learned During Exercises For The United States Air Force Europe (Usafe), Samantha O'Rourke

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Within the United States Air Force, there are repeated patterns of differences observed during exercises. After an exercise is completed, forms are filled out detailing observations, successes, and recommendations seen throughout the exercise. At the most, no two reports are identical and must be analyzed by personnel and then categorized based on common themes observed. Developing a computer application will greatly reduce the time and resources used to analyze each After Action Report. This application can visually represent these observations and optimize the effectiveness of these exercises. The visualization is done through graphs displaying the frequency of observations and recommendations. …


Sguard: Towards Fixing Vulnerable Smart Contracts Automatically, Tai D. NGUYEN, Long H. PHAM, Jun SUN 2021 Singapore Management University

Sguard: Towards Fixing Vulnerable Smart Contracts Automatically, Tai D. Nguyen, Long H. Pham, Jun Sun

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Smart contracts are distributed, self-enforcing programs executing on top of blockchain networks. They have the potential to revolutionize many industries such as financial institutes and supply chains. However, smart contracts are subject to code-based vulnerabilities, which casts a shadow on its applications. As smart contracts are unpatchable (due to the immutability of blockchain), it is essential that smart contracts are guaranteed to be free of vulnerabilities. Unfortunately, smart contract languages such as Solidity are Turing-complete, which implies that verifying them statically is infeasible. Thus, alternative approaches must be developed to provide the guarantee. In this work, we develop an approach …


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