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Learning Author’S Writing Pattern System By Automata, Qun Yu 2011 San Jose State University

Learning Author’S Writing Pattern System By Automata, Qun Yu

Master's Projects

The purpose of the report is to document our project’s theory, implementation and test results. The project works on an automata-based learning system which models authors’ writing characters with automatons. Since there were pervious works done by Dr. T.Y. Lin and Ms. S.X. Zhang, we continue on ALERGIA algorithm analysis and initial common pattern study in this project. Although every author has his/her own writing style, such as sentence length and word frequency etc, there are always some similarities in writing style. We hypothesize that common strings fogged the expected test result, just like the noise in radio wave. This …


Finding Robust-Under-Risk Solutions For Flowshop Scheduling, Steven O. Kimbrough, Ann KUO, Hoong Chuin LAU 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Finding Robust-Under-Risk Solutions For Flowshop Scheduling, Steven O. Kimbrough, Ann Kuo, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We propose and explore, in the context of benchmark problems for flowshop scheduling, a risk-based concept of robustness for optimization problems. This risk-based concept is in distinction to, and complements, the uncertainty-based concept employed in the field known as robust optimization. Implementation of our concept requires problem solution methods that sample the solution space intelligently and that produce large numbers of distinct sample points. With these solutions to hand, their robustness scores are easily obtained and heuristically robust solutions found. We find evolutionary computation to be effective for this purpose on these problems.


Solution Pluralism And Metaheuristics, Steven O. Kimbrough, Ann KUO, Hoong Chuin LAU, Frederic H. Murphy, David Harlan Wood 2011 Singapore Management University

Solution Pluralism And Metaheuristics, Steven O. Kimbrough, Ann Kuo, Hoong Chuin Lau, Frederic H. Murphy, David Harlan Wood

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Solution pluralism is an approach to problem solving and deliberation. It employs a plurality of distinct solutions for a decision problem for aiding decision making. The concept is well established in existing practice, although perhaps not recognized as such. This paper: (1) presents the concept as a generalization of established practice, (2) briefly describes successful uses of the concept in practice, and (3) presents several areas that appear would benefit from application of the concept. Throughout, the role of metaheuristics in finding the pluralities of solutions is emphasized.


A Novel Methodology For Evaluating User Interfaces In Health Care, Luca Longo, Bridget Kane 2011 Technological University Dublin

A Novel Methodology For Evaluating User Interfaces In Health Care, Luca Longo, Bridget Kane

Conference papers

A pilot study is reported to identify an improved method of evaluating digital user interfaces in health care. Experience and developments from the aviation industry and the NASA-TLX mental workload assessment tools are applied in conjunction with Nielsen heuristics for evaluating an Electronic Health Record System in an Irish hospital. The NASA-TLX performs subjective workload assessments on operators working with various human-computer systems. Results suggest that depending on the cognitive workload and the working context of users, the usability will differ for the same digital interface. We conclude that incorporating the NASA-TLX with Nielsen's heuristics offers a more reliable method …


Diagnosis Of Skin Diseases Using Online Expert System, Dr. Muhammad Zubair Asghar, Muhammad Junaid Asghar 2011 Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan

Diagnosis Of Skin Diseases Using Online Expert System, Dr. Muhammad Zubair Asghar, Muhammad Junaid Asghar

Dr. Muhammad Zubair Asghar

This paper describes Expert System (ES) for diagnosis and management of skin diseases. More than 13 types of skin diseases can be diagnosed and treated by our system. It is rule based web-supported expert system, assisting skin specialists, medical students doing specialization in dermatology, researchers as well as skin patients having computer know-how. System was developed with Java Technology. The expert rules were developed on the symptoms of each type of skin disease, and they were presented using tree-graph and inferred using forward-chaining with depth-first search method. User interaction with system is enhanced with efficient user interfaces. The web based …


Simplified Neural Network Design For Hand Written Digit Recognition, Dr. Muhammad Zubair Asghar 2011 ICIT, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan

Simplified Neural Network Design For Hand Written Digit Recognition, Dr. Muhammad Zubair Asghar

Dr. Muhammad Zubair Asghar

In this work a very simple and flexible neural network scheme is proposed and implemented for handwritten digit recognition, which will assist beginners and A.I students who want to understand perceptive capability of neural network. In the proposed system, a very simple design of artificial neural networks is implemented. First of all learning mechanism of the neural network is described and then its architecture is discussed. Proposed network is trained in supervised manner using various (approx: 250) patterns /fonts of handwritten digits. Unique token is allocated to digit when it is made input to the system. Network becomes adaptive when …


Intelligent Systems Development In A Non Engineering Curriculum, Emily A. Brand, William L. Honig, Matthew Wojtowicz 2011 Loyola University Chicago

Intelligent Systems Development In A Non Engineering Curriculum, Emily A. Brand, William L. Honig, Matthew Wojtowicz

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Much of computer system development today is programming in the large - systems of millions of lines of code distributed across servers and the web. At the same time, microcontrollers have also become pervasive in everyday products, economical to manufacture, and represent a different level of learning about system development. Real world systems at this level require integrated development of custom hardware and software.

How can academic institutions give students a view of this other extreme - programming on small microcontrollers with specialized hardware? Full scale system development including custom hardware and software is expensive, beyond the range of any …


Effects Of Appearance And Functions On Likability And Perceived Occupational Suitability Of Robots, Sau-Lai LEE, Ivy Yee-Man LAU, Ying-Yi HONG 2011 Nanyang Technological University

Effects Of Appearance And Functions On Likability And Perceived Occupational Suitability Of Robots, Sau-Lai Lee, Ivy Yee-Man Lau, Ying-Yi Hong

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This article reports three experiments that examined the association between (a) appearances and perceived capabilities of robots, (b) appearance and capabilities of robots and liking for the robots, and (c) perceived capabilities of robots and judgments concerning their suitability for different occupations. In Experiment 1, the authors found that participants perceived human- and animal-like robots to have relatively more warmth-related (e.g., emotion) capabilities than machinelike robots have. In Experiment 2, the authors found that liking for robots was not affected by their human likeness or their having warmth or competence capabilities. In Experiment 3, participants generally thought that robots should …


Holistic Shape-Based Object Recognition Using Bottom-Up Image Structures, Praveen Srinivasan 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Holistic Shape-Based Object Recognition Using Bottom-Up Image Structures, Praveen Srinivasan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Object recognition performance that rivals human ability is one of the primary goals of computer vision research. While recognition may take many forms, key tasks include detection, estimating object pose, and segmenting the object from the background. This thesis explores the use of holistic shape matching for recognition using bottom-up image structures such as image segments and contours for all of these tasks. Holistic shape matching utilizes global information about object shape for matching, rather than local image features which often contain too little information to match reliably to the object model.
By examining different tasks related to object recognition, …


Shape Detection By Packing Contours And Regions, Qihui Zhu 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Shape Detection By Packing Contours And Regions, Qihui Zhu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Humans have an amazing ability to localize and recognize object shapes from nat-
ural images with various complexities, such as low contrast, overwhelming background
clutter, large shape deformation and significant occlusion. We typically recognize object shape as a whole - the entire geometric configuration of image tokens and the context they are in. Detecting shape as a global pattern involves two key issues: model representation and bottom-up grouping. A proper model captures long range geometric constraints among image tokens. Contours or regions that are grouped from bottom-up often appear as half complete shapes that are easily recognizable. The main challenge …


Modeling Memes: A Memetic View Of Affordance Learning, Benjamin D. Nye 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Modeling Memes: A Memetic View Of Affordance Learning, Benjamin D. Nye

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This research employed systems social science inquiry to build a synthesis model that would be useful for modeling meme evolution. First, a formal definition of memes was proposed that balanced both ontological adequacy and empirical observability. Based on this definition, a systems model for meme evolution was synthesized from Shannon Information Theory and elements of Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory. Research in perception, social psychology, learning, and communication were incorporated to explain the cognitive and environmental processes guiding meme evolution. By extending the PMFServ cognitive architecture, socio-cognitive agents were created who could simulate social learning of Gibson affordances. The PMFServ …


Shape Representations For Object Recognition, Alexander Toshev 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Shape Representations For Object Recognition, Alexander Toshev

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The problem of object recognition has been at the forefront of computer vision research in the last decade. The most successful approaches have used mainly edge- or texture-based representations. The shape of the object outline, albeit widely used for pre-segmented objects, has found limited applicability to the detection problem in real images. The fact that shape is a truly holistic global percept is challenging because background structure and interior object contours can easily clutter a global shape descriptor and render it unusable. Therefore, figure-ground organization, which segments the object of interest and removes the cluttering contours, is of paramount importance. …


Autonomous Robot Skill Acquisition, George D. Konidaris 2011 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Autonomous Robot Skill Acquisition, George D. Konidaris

Open Access Dissertations

Among the most impressive of aspects of human intelligence is skill acquisition—the ability to identify important behavioral components, retain them as skills, refine them through practice, and apply them in new task contexts. Skill acquisition underlies both our ability to choose to spend time and effort to specialize at particular tasks, and our ability to collect and exploit previous experience to become able to solve harder and harder problems over time with less and less cognitive effort.

Hierarchical reinforcement learning provides a theoretical basis for skill acquisition, including principled methods for learning new skills and deploying them during problem solving. …


Multiagent Coalition Formation In Uncertain Environments With Type-Changing Influences And Its Application Towards Forming Human Coalitions, Nobel A. Khandaker 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multiagent Coalition Formation In Uncertain Environments With Type-Changing Influences And Its Application Towards Forming Human Coalitions, Nobel A. Khandaker

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

We aim to solve the problem forming multiagent coalitions in uncertain environments where the coalition members’ capability of solving tasks change due to their learning. The MCFP-Mproblem for the agents refers to forming or joining coalitions on behalf of a set of human users so that those human users can solve tasks and improve their types (expertise) to improve their performances over time. MCFP-A problem for a set of agents refers to their forming or joining coalitions so that they are able to solve a set of assigned tasks while optimize their performance over time. We propose the Integrated Human …


Message-Passing Algorithms For Large Structured Decentralized Pomdps, Akshat KUMAR, Shlomo ZILBERSTEIN 2011 Singapore Management University

Message-Passing Algorithms For Large Structured Decentralized Pomdps, Akshat Kumar, Shlomo Zilberstein

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Decentralized POMDPs provide a rigorous framework for multi-agent decision-theoretic planning. However, their high complexity has limited scalability. In this work, we present a promising new class of algorithms based on probabilistic inference for infinite-horizon ND-POMDPs---a restricted Dec-POMDP model. We first transform the policy optimization problem to that of likelihood maximization in a mixture of dynamic Bayes nets (DBNs). We then develop the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for maximizing the likelihood in this representation. The EM algorithm for ND-POMDPs lends itself naturally to a simple message-passing paradigm guided by the agent interaction graph. It is thus highly scalable w.r.t. the number of …


Incremental Dcop Search Algorithms For Solving Dynamic Dcop Problems, William YEOH, Pradeep VARAKANTHAM, Xiaoxun SUN, Sven KOENIG 2011 New Mexico State University

Incremental Dcop Search Algorithms For Solving Dynamic Dcop Problems, William Yeoh, Pradeep Varakantham, Xiaoxun Sun, Sven Koenig

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Distributed constraint optimization problems (DCOPs) are well-suited for modeling multi-agent coordination problems. However, most research has focused on developing algorithms for solving static DCOPs. In this paper, we model dynamic DCOPs as sequences of (static) DCOPs with changes from one DCOP to the next one in the sequence. We introduce the ReuseBounds procedure, which can be used by any-space ADOPT and any-space BnB-ADOPT to find cost-minimal solutions for all DCOPs in the sequence faster than by solving each DCOP individually. This procedure allows those agents that are guaranteed to remain unaffected by a change to reuse their lower and upper …


A Simple Curious Agent To Help People Be Curious, Han YU, Zhiqi SHEN, Chunyan MIAO, Ah-hwee TAN 2011 Singapore Management University

A Simple Curious Agent To Help People Be Curious, Han Yu, Zhiqi Shen, Chunyan Miao, Ah-Hwee Tan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Curiosity is an innately rewarding state of mind that, over the millennia, has driven the human race to explore and discover. Many researches in pedagogical science have confirmed the importance of being curious to the students' cognitive development. However, in the newly popular virtual world-based learning environments (VLEs), there is currently a lack of attention being paid to enhancing the learning experience by stimulating the learners' curiosity. In this paper, we propose a simple model for curious agents (CAs) which can be used to stimulate learners' curiosity in VLEs. Potential future research directions will be discussed.


Distributed Model Shaping For Scaling To Decentralized Pomdps With Hundreds Of Agents, Prasanna VELAGAPUDI, Pradeep Reddy VARAKANTHAM, Katia Sycara, Paul Scerri 2011 Carnegie Mellon University

Distributed Model Shaping For Scaling To Decentralized Pomdps With Hundreds Of Agents, Prasanna Velagapudi, Pradeep Reddy Varakantham, Katia Sycara, Paul Scerri

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

The use of distributed POMDPs for cooperative teams has been severely limited by the incredibly large joint policy- space that results from combining the policy-spaces of the individual agents. However, much of the computational cost of exploring the entire joint policy space can be avoided by observing that in many domains important interactions between agents occur in a relatively small set of scenarios, previously defined as coordination locales (CLs) [11]. Moreover, even when numerous interactions might occur, given a set of individual policies there are relatively few actual interactions. Exploiting this observation and building on an existing model shaping algorithm, …


Decentralized Decision Support For An Agent Population In Dynamic And Uncertain Domains, Pradeep Reddy VARAKANTHAM, Shih-Fen CHENG, Thi Duong NGUYEN 2011 Singapore Management University

Decentralized Decision Support For An Agent Population In Dynamic And Uncertain Domains, Pradeep Reddy Varakantham, Shih-Fen Cheng, Thi Duong Nguyen

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

This research is motivated by problems in urban transportation and labor mobility, where the agent flow is dynamic, non-deterministic and on a large scale. In such domains, even though the individual agents do not have an identity of their own and do not explicitly impact other agents, they have implicit interactions with other agents. While there has been much research in handling such implicit effects, it has primarily assumed controlled movements of agents in static environments. We address the issue of decision support for individual agents having involuntary movements in dynamic environments . For instance, in a taxi fleet serving …


Adaptive Decision Support For Structured Organizations: A Case For Orgpomdps, Pradeep Reddy VARAKANTHAM, Nathan Schurr, Alan Carlin, Christopher Amato 2011 Singapore Management University

Adaptive Decision Support For Structured Organizations: A Case For Orgpomdps, Pradeep Reddy Varakantham, Nathan Schurr, Alan Carlin, Christopher Amato

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

In today's world, organizations are faced with increasingly large and complex problems that require decision-making under uncertainty. Current methods for optimizing such decisions fall short of handling the problem scale and time constraints. We argue that this is due to existing methods not exploiting the inherent structure of the organizations which solve these problems. We propose a new model called the OrgPOMDP (Organizational POMDP), which is based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). This new model combines two powerful representations for modeling large scale problems: hierarchical modeling and factored representations. In this paper we make three key contributions: …


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