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Biocompatible And Multifunctional Trityl Spin Probes For Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Teresa D. Gluth 2021 West Virginia University

Biocompatible And Multifunctional Trityl Spin Probes For Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Teresa D. Gluth

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The primary objective of my thesis was to develop and utilize a biocompatible multifunctional trityl spin probe for concurrent measurement of pO2, pHe, and [Pi] in vivo by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (Chapter 2). My first goal was to synthesize the proposed probe we are terming HOPE71. Secondly, HOPE71 was characterized by X-band and L-band EPR spectroscopy. Next, the biocompatibility of HOPE71 was assessed through an albumin binding test, cytotoxicity assays, and in vivo intravenous tolerance. Then, the use of HOPE71 to measure the target parameters was demonstrated in a breast cancer …


Recent Advances In Supramolecular Affinity Separations: Affinity Chromatography And Related Methods, Ashley G. Woolfork, Sazia Iftekhar, Susan Ovbude, Kyungah Suh, Sadia Sharmeen, Isaac Kyei, Jacob Jones, David S. Hage 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Recent Advances In Supramolecular Affinity Separations: Affinity Chromatography And Related Methods, Ashley G. Woolfork, Sazia Iftekhar, Susan Ovbude, Kyungah Suh, Sadia Sharmeen, Isaac Kyei, Jacob Jones, David S. Hage

David Hage Publications

Contents

1 Introduction

2 Supports for Affinity Chromatography

 2.1 Natural Supports and Related Materials

 2.2 Inorganic Supports

 2.3 Synthetic Supports

 2.4 Magnetic Beads and Particles

 2.5 Smart Materials

 2.6 Nanomaterials

 2.7 Support Formats

3 Immobilization Methods

 3.1 Non-Covalent Immobilization

 3.2 Covalent Immobilization

4 Binding Agents Used in Affinity Chromatography

 4.1 Biological Agents as Affinity Ligands

4.1.1 Immunoaffinity Chromatography

4.1.2 Immunoglobulin-Binding Proteins

4.1.3 Lectins

4.1.4 Enzymes

4.1.5 Serum Proteins

4.1.6 Biotin, Avidin, and Streptavidin

4.1.7 Carbohydrates

4.1.8 Lipids

4.1.9 Nucleic Acids

 4.2 Non-Biological Agents as Affinity Ligands

4.2.1 Boronates and Related Mixed Ligands

4.2.2 Dye-Ligands

4.2.3 Immobilized Metal-Ion Chelates

4.2.4 Molecularly …


Enabling Technologies For Medicinal Chemistry And Synthesis: I. Cannabinoids; Ii. Illudalic Acid; Iii. Microwave Chemistry, Harvey Fulo 2021 West Virginia University

Enabling Technologies For Medicinal Chemistry And Synthesis: I. Cannabinoids; Ii. Illudalic Acid; Iii. Microwave Chemistry, Harvey Fulo

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Innovations in synthetic organic chemistry such as methodology improvements, new chemical transformations and technology development significantly impact medicinal chemistry and continue to drive the drug discovery process. Here, new cyclization strategies to the pharmaceutically underexplored 3,3-dimethylcyclopentane-fused aromatic rings are described. One approach highlighted oxidative cycloisomerization, intermolecular [2+2+2] cyclotrimerization and 5-exo-dig cyclization providing indanoylindole cannabinoids that possess high affinity for human CB2 receptors at nanomolar concentration and good selectivity index. Another featured a [4+2]-type benzannulation reaction which enabled the 5-step synthesis of illudalic acid — compared to the current available sequences (≥16 steps) — and its equipotent and LAR-selective analogs. …


Structure Formation And Coupling Reactions Of Hexaphenylbenzene And Its Brominated Analog, Jacob D Teeter, Paulo S. Costa, Christoph Dobner, Mamun Sarker, Alexander Sinitskii, Axel Enders 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Structure Formation And Coupling Reactions Of Hexaphenylbenzene And Its Brominated Analog, Jacob D Teeter, Paulo S. Costa, Christoph Dobner, Mamun Sarker, Alexander Sinitskii, Axel Enders

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The on-surface coupling of the prototypical precursor molecule for graphene nanoribbon synthesis, 6,11-dibromo-1,2,3,4-tetraphenyltriphenylene (C42Br2H26, TPTP), and its non-brominated analog hexaphenylbenzene (C42H30, HPB), was investigated on coinage metal substrates as a function of thermal treatment. For HPB, which forms non-covalent 2D monolayers at room temperature, a thermally induced transition of the monolayer’s structure could be achieved by moderate annealing, which is likely driven by π-bond formation. It is found that the dibrominated carbon positions of TPTP do not guide the coupling if the growth occurs on a substrate at temperatures that …


Bayesian-Derived Vancomycin Auc24h Threshold For Nephrotoxicity In Special Populations, Dan Ho 2021 University of the Pacific

Bayesian-Derived Vancomycin Auc24h Threshold For Nephrotoxicity In Special Populations, Dan Ho

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

A Bayesian-derived 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve over minimum inhibitory concentration from broth microdilution (AUC24h/MICBMD) ratio of 400 to 600 is recommended as the new monitoring parameter for vancomycin to optimize efficacy and minimize nephrotoxicity. The AUC24h threshold of 600 mg*h/L for nephrotoxicity was extrapolated from studies that assessed the general population. It is unclear if this upper threshold is consistent or varies when used in special populations such as critically ill patients, obese patients, patients with preexisting renal disease, and patients on concomitant nephrotoxins.The purpose of this study is to investigate the generalizability of the proposed vancomycin AUC24h …


Online Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Charge Transfer Dissociation-Mass Spectrometry (Uhplc-Ctd-Ms) Of Complex Mixtures Of Oligosaccharides, Praneeth M. Mendis 2021 West Virginia University

Online Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Charge Transfer Dissociation-Mass Spectrometry (Uhplc-Ctd-Ms) Of Complex Mixtures Of Oligosaccharides, Praneeth M. Mendis

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Abstract

Online Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Charge Transfer Dissociation-Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-CTD-MS) of Complex Mixtures of Oligosaccharides

Praneeth M. Mendis

Complex carbohydrates make up more than half the biomass on earth, and they are crucial to a wide range of processes in living organisms. When polysaccharides and glycans are enzymatically digested into manageable units called oligosaccharides, they typically consist of 2-20 linear or branched sugar units. The detailed structural analysis of oligosaccharides assists in the identification of structural and chemical properties of the polymers from which they derive. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a key technique used in oligosaccharides structural characterization. Within …


Melanogenesis, Its Regulatory Process, And Insights On Biomedical, Biotechnological, And Pharmacological Potentials Of Melanin As Antiviral Biochemical, Toluwase Hezekiah Fatoki, Omodele Ibraheem, Catherine Joke Adeseko, Boluwatife Lawrence Afolabi, Daniel Uwaremhevho Momodu, David Morakinyo Sanni, Jesupemi Mercy Enibukun, Ibukun Oladejo Ogunyemi, Akinwunmi Oluwaseun Adeoye, Harriet U. Ugboko, Amoge Chidinma Ogu, Abiodun Samuel Oyedele, Adejoju Omodolapo Adedara, Abiodun Joseph Jimoh, Oluwakemi Ruth Ogundana, Oritsetimeyin Eworitse Ebosa 2020 Federal University Oye

Melanogenesis, Its Regulatory Process, And Insights On Biomedical, Biotechnological, And Pharmacological Potentials Of Melanin As Antiviral Biochemical, Toluwase Hezekiah Fatoki, Omodele Ibraheem, Catherine Joke Adeseko, Boluwatife Lawrence Afolabi, Daniel Uwaremhevho Momodu, David Morakinyo Sanni, Jesupemi Mercy Enibukun, Ibukun Oladejo Ogunyemi, Akinwunmi Oluwaseun Adeoye, Harriet U. Ugboko, Amoge Chidinma Ogu, Abiodun Samuel Oyedele, Adejoju Omodolapo Adedara, Abiodun Joseph Jimoh, Oluwakemi Ruth Ogundana, Oritsetimeyin Eworitse Ebosa

Chemistry Student Research

Melanin is s most widely distributed pigment and is found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents interacting through pathways activated by hormonal and receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. There are about 20 genes that are involved in the biochemical pathway of melanogenesis and its regulation, which include: tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, melanocortin1 receptor, adenylate cyclase, protein kinase A. Human melanogenesis regulatory proteins such as MAPK1, CREB3, and CREBP, have binary interaction with the protein of herpesvirus, hepatitis C virus, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, Simian virus 40, and Human adenovirus A and …


Applied Molecular Dynamics: From Targeting Viral Helicases, To Understanding The Interactions Of Cucurbituril Complexes In Ionic Solutions, Bryan Raubenolt 2020 University of New Orleans

Applied Molecular Dynamics: From Targeting Viral Helicases, To Understanding The Interactions Of Cucurbituril Complexes In Ionic Solutions, Bryan Raubenolt

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Molecular Dynamics simulations are a highly useful tool in helping understand the fundamental interactions present in a variety of chemical systems. The work discussed here illustrates it’s use in determining the conformational dynamics of the Zika and SARS-Cov-2 helicase in a physiological environment, largely in an effort to discover inhibitors capable of rendering the protein inert. Additionally, we show how it can be used to understand paradoxical trends in the anion-induced precipitation of Cucurbituril cavitands.

Viral helicases are motor proteins tasked with unwinding the viral dsRNA, a crucial step in preparing the strand to be translatable by host cells. By …


Synthesis Of Nickel Phosphide/Nitrogen Phosphorus Co-Doped Carbon And Its Application In Lithium Ion Batteries, Jian Hu, Yan-Shuang Meng, Qian-Ru Hu 2020 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology,Lanzhou 730000, Gansu China;

Synthesis Of Nickel Phosphide/Nitrogen Phosphorus Co-Doped Carbon And Its Application In Lithium Ion Batteries, Jian Hu, Yan-Shuang Meng, Qian-Ru Hu

Journal of Electrochemistry

In recent years, the nickel-based phosphide has drawn great attention because of its low intercalation/deintercalation platform and lower polarization compared to sulfides and oxides as anodes for next-generation high-energy lithium-ion batteries. The Ni2P anode can deliver high theoretical specific capacity of 542 mAh·g-1, but it subject to a conversion reaction mechanism, which make them unsuitable for commercial applications. The agglomeration of Ni2P nanoparticles during material fabrication and the structural deterioration of electrode associated with large volume change during charge-discharge process lead to poor cycle stability and low utilization of active materials. Meanwhile, the low intrinsic conductivity …


Electrochemical Engineering Of Carbon Nanodots, Lei BAO, Dai-Wen PANG 2020 1. School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, 3001, Australia;

Electrochemical Engineering Of Carbon Nanodots, Lei Bao, Dai-Wen Pang

Journal of Electrochemistry

Carbon nanodots (CNDs), as zero-dimensional carbonaceous fluorescent nanomaterials, are valuable add-ons to the current cohorts of fluorescent nanoparticles. The fine control over the size and the surface is the key to gain designated photophysical properties of CNDs as well as empowers CNDs in many applications. Herein, a series of electrochemical strategies to manipulate the size and the surface of CNDs and to identify the surface structures was presented. Accordingly, the understandings on the originals of photoluminescence as well as the pathways of electrochemiluminescence of CNDs were revealed. These studies demonstrated that electrochemical methods were easy to operate, cost-effective and efficient …


Nuclear-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Enhance The Effects Of Radiation Therapy With And Without Liposomal Delivery, Maureen Aliru 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Nuclear-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Enhance The Effects Of Radiation Therapy With And Without Liposomal Delivery, Maureen Aliru

Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Less that 10% of pancreatic cancer patients are eligible for curative resection, and clinical trials evaluating chemoradiation in locally advanced patients with unresectable disease have been largely disappointing. New and creative therapeutic approaches are needed to address the unment need for treatment options. The objective of this thesis is to advance radiosensitization of treatment-resistant densely desmoplastic pancreatic cancer using nanoparticles to surmount biological barriers to effective particle distribution for DNA-targeting.

Clinical translation of radiosensitizing nanoparticles has stalled owing to technical challenges. Current strategies to use AuNPs for radiosensitization require large quantities of gold, kilovoltage x-rays, immediate irradiation after intravenous administration, …


Coevolution, Dynamics And Allostery Conspire In Shaping Cooperative Binding And Signal Transmission Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein With Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2020 Chapman University

Coevolution, Dynamics And Allostery Conspire In Shaping Cooperative Binding And Signal Transmission Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein With Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Binding to the host receptor is a critical initial step for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to enter into target cells and trigger virus transmission. A detailed dynamic and energetic view of the binding mechanisms underlying virus entry is not fully understood and the consensus around the molecular origins behind binding preferences of SARS-CoV-2 for binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor is yet to be established. In this work, we performed a comprehensive computational investigation in which sequence analysis and modeling of coevolutionary networks are combined with atomistic molecular simulations and comparative binding free energy analysis of …


Synthesis, In Vitro, And In Vivo Evaluation Of Novel N-Phenylindazolyl Diarylureas As Potential Anti-Cancer Agents., Lucas N Solano, Grady L Nelson, Conor T Ronayne, Shirisha Jonnalagadda, Sravan K Jonnalagadda, Kaija Kottke, Robert Chitren, Joseph L Johnson, Manoj K Pandey, Subash C. Jonnalagadda, Venkatram R Mereddy 2020 Rowan University

Synthesis, In Vitro, And In Vivo Evaluation Of Novel N-Phenylindazolyl Diarylureas As Potential Anti-Cancer Agents., Lucas N Solano, Grady L Nelson, Conor T Ronayne, Shirisha Jonnalagadda, Sravan K Jonnalagadda, Kaija Kottke, Robert Chitren, Joseph L Johnson, Manoj K Pandey, Subash C. Jonnalagadda, Venkatram R Mereddy

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Novel N-phenylindazole based diarylureas have been designed, synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. In vitro cell viability studies of these derivatives illustrate good potency with IC50 values in the range of 0.4–50 μM in several cancer cell lines including murine metastatic breast cancer 4T1, murine glioblastoma GL261, human triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, human pancreatic cancer MIAPaCa-2, and human colorectal cancer cell line WiDr. The ester group in the lead compound 8i was modified to incorporate amino-amides to increase solubility and stability while retaining biological activity. Further in vitro studies reveal that lead candidates inhibit tube length in HUVEC …


Design And Synthesis Of Core–Shell Microgels With One‐Step Clickable Crosslinked Cores And Ultralow Crosslinked Shells, Molla R. Islam, Chelsea Nguy, Sanika Pandit, L. Andrew Lyon 2020 Chapman University

Design And Synthesis Of Core–Shell Microgels With One‐Step Clickable Crosslinked Cores And Ultralow Crosslinked Shells, Molla R. Islam, Chelsea Nguy, Sanika Pandit, L. Andrew Lyon

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The present study is conducted to explore the engineering of core–shell microgels such that the core can be rapidly labeled with a variety of fluorophores, while the shell retains the softness needed in specific biomedical applications. Azide containing crosslinked core particles based on a crosslinked poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) particle, using a one‐pot, multistep polymerization is synthesized. A core–shell microgel is then synthesized by growing a crosslinker‐free poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide)‐co‐acrylic acid (ULC10AAc) shell through a two‐step seed and feed polymerization. A simple “click” reaction between the azide present on the core and dibenzocyclooctyne containing fluorophores to make dyed core–shell …


Isolation, Structure Elucidation, And Synthesis Of Natural Products From Marine Cyanobacteria, Keren Solomon 2020 Duquesne University

Isolation, Structure Elucidation, And Synthesis Of Natural Products From Marine Cyanobacteria, Keren Solomon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the isolation, structure elucidation, and synthesis of natural products from marine cyanobacteria. A crude extract from a cyanobacterium collected in Curacao showed selective affinity for the dopamine D5 receptor in a screen against a panel of CNS receptors. Due to the high similarity of the D5 and D1 receptor, to date there are no known ligands that differentiate them. Attempts to purify the compound responsible for this affinity led to the isolation of the known compound caylobolide A. A second extract from a cyanobacterium collected in Panama underwent bioassay-guided fractionation and yielded the novel …


Machine Learning Approaches For Improving Prediction Performance Of Structure-Activity Relationship Models, Gabriel Idakwo 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Machine Learning Approaches For Improving Prediction Performance Of Structure-Activity Relationship Models, Gabriel Idakwo

Dissertations

In silico bioactivity prediction studies are designed to complement in vivo and in vitro efforts to assess the activity and properties of small molecules. In silico methods such as Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationship (QSAR) are used to correlate the structure of a molecule to its biological property in drug design and toxicological studies. In this body of work, I started with two in-depth reviews into the application of machine learning based approaches and feature reduction methods to QSAR, and then investigated solutions to three common challenges faced in machine learning based QSAR studies.

First, to improve the prediction accuracy of learning …


Directed Evolution Of Macrocyclic Peptides For Inhibition Of Autophagy, Joshua Gray 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Directed Evolution Of Macrocyclic Peptides For Inhibition Of Autophagy, Joshua Gray

Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In recent decades it has become increasingly clear that induction of autophagy plays an important role in the development of treatment resistance and dormancy in many cancer types. Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), two autophagy inhibitors in clinical trials, suffer from poor pharmacokinetics and high toxicity at therapeutic dosages. This has prompted intense interest in the development of targeted autophagy inhibitors to re-sensitize disease to treatment with minimal impact on normal tissue. We utilized Scanning Unnatural Protease Resistant (SUPR) mRNA display to develop macrocyclic peptides targeting the autophagy protein LC3. The resulting peptides bound LC3A and LC3B—two essential components of …


Investigating Chitosan Modified With Triethylammonium Butanamide And Triethylphosphonium Butanamide As Non-Viral Gene Delivery Vectors By Examining Cytotoxicity And Transfection Efficiency, Deborah C. Ehie 2020 Missouri State University

Investigating Chitosan Modified With Triethylammonium Butanamide And Triethylphosphonium Butanamide As Non-Viral Gene Delivery Vectors By Examining Cytotoxicity And Transfection Efficiency, Deborah C. Ehie

MSU Graduate Theses

Gene therapy is a very challenging field, especially with new emerging genetic disorders. Chitosan (CS), due to chitosan’s flexibility, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, has been of interest in the world of gene therapy especially as researchers are gravitating towards non-viral vectors due to the problems caused by viral vectors. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding solubility, cellular uptake of cargos being transported in vitro or in vivo, increased cytotoxicity levels, as well as many other things that prevent chitosan from being an efficient gene delivery agent. Here I present five derivatives of chitosan, which were all modified with either triethylphosphonium …


Visualization Without Vision – How Blind And Visually Impaired Students And Researchers Engage With Molecular Structures, Croix J. Laconsay, Henry B. Wedler, Dean J. Tantillo 2020 University of California, Davis

Visualization Without Vision – How Blind And Visually Impaired Students And Researchers Engage With Molecular Structures, Croix J. Laconsay, Henry B. Wedler, Dean J. Tantillo

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

This article examines the tools and techniques currently available that enable blind and visually impaired (BVI) individuals to visualize three-dimensional objects used in learning chemistry concepts. How BVI individuals engage with and visualize molecular structure is discussed and recent tactile (or haptic) and auditory methods for visualization of various chemistry concepts are summarized. Remaining challenges for chemistry education researchers are described with the aim of highlighting the potential value of educational research in further enabling BVI students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.


Chemical Manipulation Of Macrophages: Nanomaterial And Molecular Approaches, Joseph Hardie 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemical Manipulation Of Macrophages: Nanomaterial And Molecular Approaches, Joseph Hardie

Doctoral Dissertations

Macrophages, phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, are the body’s first line of defense against pathogens and are responsible for tissue maintenance. Macrophages are capable of sensing and internalizing external stimuli, and in response change their morphology and phenotype accordingly. Because macrophages are integral to immune function and tissue maintenance, dysregulation of macrophage behavior is associated with a range of diseases including infections, cancer, autoimmune disorders, atherosclerosis, and more. Because of the implications of macrophage failure, there is interest in creating new materials to manipulate macrophage behavior for a therapeutic effect. In this thesis, I describe the application of …


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