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Interactions Of Compounds Containing Group 12 And 16 Elements, Daniel Burriss 2017 University of Kentucky

Interactions Of Compounds Containing Group 12 And 16 Elements, Daniel Burriss

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

The focus of this dissertation is on the interactions of compounds containing group 12 and 16 elements. This work is presented in three major parts. First, the interaction of the synthetic dithiol N,N’-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide), abbreviated BDTH2, with selenite. Second, the interaction of cysteine with Cd(II) and the biologically relevant Cd-Cysteine crystal structure. Third, the green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots (QDs).

The interaction of BDTH2 with selenite is different from the interactions with other metals and metalloids previously studied. Under ambient conditions, BDTH2 is oxidized to the disulfide, BDT(S-S), while selenite is ...


Kinetic Analysis And Mechanochemical Syntheses Of Palladium Complexes, Jonathon Zachary 2017 Murray State University

Kinetic Analysis And Mechanochemical Syntheses Of Palladium Complexes, Jonathon Zachary

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Mechanochemical synthesis is a rapidly developing, more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional solution based syntheses. Mechanochemical methods often result in higher overall yields, minimize undesirable side reactions, and present cleaner more concise methods for compound preparation. This work will address the syntheses of three dialkyl 2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylate complexes of palladium(II) iodide and the kinetics of these reactions. Then, this work will address the improved synthesis and purification of 1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazolium iodide and the synthesis of diiodo-bis(1,3-dimethyl benzimidazol-2-ylidene) palladium(II).

The successful synthesis of dialkyl 2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylate complexes of palladium(II) iodide ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Catalytic Studies Of N-Doped Ordered Mesoporous Carbons And Functionalized Periodic Mesoporous Organosilicas, Bosky Lalitkumar Parikh 2017 Iowa State University

Synthesis, Characterization And Catalytic Studies Of N-Doped Ordered Mesoporous Carbons And Functionalized Periodic Mesoporous Organosilicas, Bosky Lalitkumar Parikh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ordered porous materials are crucial and ubiquitous in fundamental research and many practical applications such as catalysis, adsorption, separation, and sensing due to their unique properties such as high surface areas, large pore volumes, and narrow and tunable pore size distributions. The primary focus of this work was the synthesis of two different types of mesoporous materials: nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC) and functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO), their characterization and their potential applications.

My research on N-OMC is focused on its synthesis, characterization, and its use as an active catalyst for hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. In this study, N-OMC were ...


Bond Length And Bond Valence Relationships For Chromium Oxides, Chromium Sulfides, Molybdenum Oxides, And Molybdenum Sulfides, J. Labrecque, F. D. Hardcastle 2017 Arkansas Tech University

Bond Length And Bond Valence Relationships For Chromium Oxides, Chromium Sulfides, Molybdenum Oxides, And Molybdenum Sulfides, J. Labrecque, F. D. Hardcastle

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Pauling determined an empirical logarithmic dependence of bond order (bond valence), s, to bond length, R, s = exp(R0 – R/ b), where R0 is unit bond length and b is a fitting parameter. Recently, an expression was derived for relating the b fitting parameter to theoretically derived atomic orbital exponents. With a method to calculate b, both R0 and atomic orbital exponents can be experimentally determined through optimized fitting for Cr-O, Cr-S, Mo-O, and Mo-S. In the present study, bond length – valence relationships are found for Cr-O, Cr-S, Mo-O, and Mo-S chemical bonds using published crystallographic data ...


Bond Length And Bond Valence For Tungsten-Oxygen And Tungsten-Sulfur Bonds, F. D. Hardcastle, R. Lykins 2017 Arkansas Tech University

Bond Length And Bond Valence For Tungsten-Oxygen And Tungsten-Sulfur Bonds, F. D. Hardcastle, R. Lykins

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

In 1947, Linus Pauling presented an “empirical” dependence of bond valence (s, also referred to as bond order) and bond length R: s = exp[(R0-R)/b], where R0 is bond length of unit valence and “b” is a fitting parameter. Recently, an expression was derived for relating the b fitting parameter to theoretically derived atomic orbital exponents. With a method to calculate b, both R0 and atomic orbital exponents can be experimentally determined through optimized fitting for W-O and W-S bonds. In the present study, bond length – valence relationships are found for W-O and W-S chemical ...


Sol-Gel Chemistry: An Advanced Technique To Produce Macroscopic Nanostructures Of Metal And Semiconductor Colloids, Lamia Nahar 2017 VCU

Sol-Gel Chemistry: An Advanced Technique To Produce Macroscopic Nanostructures Of Metal And Semiconductor Colloids, Lamia Nahar

Theses and Dissertations

The fascinating physical properties that arise in materials limited to dimensions of 1-100 nm have gained noteworthy interest from the scientific community. Accordingly, there has been a lot of attention paid to the synthesis of discrete nanoparticles (NPs) and they are being investigated for a range of advanced technologies. Nonetheless, efficient use of nanomaterials in device applications require them to be assembled into solid state macro-structures while retaining their unique, nanoparticulate properties. To date, most commonly investigated assembling techniques include: covalent coupling of NPs surface groups, control evaporation of the solvent to produce ordered supercrystals or non-ordered glassy films, and ...


Structural Diversity Of Nanocrystal Self-Assembly And Their Unique Optical Properties, Yaoting Wu 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Structural Diversity Of Nanocrystal Self-Assembly And Their Unique Optical Properties, Yaoting Wu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are nanometer-sized inorganic particles with distinctive properties from their extremely small size, high surface-to-volume ratio, and diverse morphologies. By tuning the assembly conditions, the NC will form diverse superstructures with specific crystalline lattices and precise chemical compositions. The interparticle coupling and collective physical phenomena that emerge makes these superstructures promising as novel optical and electrical materials. Understanding the driving force of assembly, crystal structure and defects of the superlattice, and their relationship with properties are still incomplete. In this work, we perform cation exchange, asymmetric modification, and oxidative etching to create distinctive NC building blocks for ...


Use Of Trispyrazolemethane In The Synthesis Of Organometallic Compounds, Claire Hazelton 2017 Butler University

Use Of Trispyrazolemethane In The Synthesis Of Organometallic Compounds, Claire Hazelton

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Trispyrazoleborate is a negatively charged facially coordinating tridentate ligand that has been highly researched and used in many metal complexes. The related ligand trispyrazolemethane has not been widely studied due to its difficult synthesis. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of the neutral nature of the trispyrazolemethane on the metal carbonyl complexes of molybdenum and tungsten. Besides the ligand tricarbonyl complex, iodide and hydride derivatives were synthesized. All compounds were characterized with IR and HNMR.


Reactivity And Electronic Structures Of Uranium Complexes With Nitrogen And Oxygen Donors In Axial Symmetries, Kimberly C. Mullane 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Reactivity And Electronic Structures Of Uranium Complexes With Nitrogen And Oxygen Donors In Axial Symmetries, Kimberly C. Mullane

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The effects of the ligand field are generally on the same order of magnitude as spin-orbit coupling for uranium complexes. However, significant impacts on the electronic structure, reactivity, and stability of uranium complexes have been observed as a result of changing the ligand framework. In the work presented here, uranium complexes in a variety of ligand frameworks are synthesized, and their unique electronic structures and reactivities are studied. Uranium imido complexes with varying substitution at the imido nitrogen are contrasted with uranium oxo complexes, showing that their ability to impart an inverse trans influence, a thermodynamic phenomenon in which strong ...


Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki 2017 Southern Cross University

Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki

Theses

Mercury is a toxic metal with a global distribution. Studies on waterborne exposure to inorganic mercury in aquatic organisms showed changes in biochemical markers and behaviour. Few studies have focused on the effects of inorganic mercury ingestion. This thesis investigated dietary exposure of mercuric chloride to post-larvae and juveniles of Penaeus monodon and juvenile Acanthopagrus australis and showed that biochemical marker response depends on the organism, age (post-larvae or juvenile), tissue analysed (e.g. muscle and neurologic tissue) and exposure period (up to 16 days). Additionally, swimming behaviour was a sensitive parameter for post-larvae prawn studies, but not for juvenile ...


Dopant-Defect Engineering In Strontium Titanate-Based Materials, Keith Lehuta 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Dopant-Defect Engineering In Strontium Titanate-Based Materials, Keith Lehuta

Doctoral Dissertations

Strontium titanate is a wide gap oxide perovskite that has been studied for numerous applications. Its potential use as a photocatalyst is limited due to only being able to utilize UV light. The introduction of metal dopant ions has been shown to alter the band structure to allow visible light photocatalysis, as well as alter the materials properties for other applications. This work will look to better explain the process of transition metal dopant ion incorporation and how the dopant ion can affect the defect chemistry of the material.

The use of dopant specific spectroscopies, such as electron paramagnetic resonance ...


Relationship Between Structure And Function In Nickel Proteins And Enzymes, Carolyn Carr 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Relationship Between Structure And Function In Nickel Proteins And Enzymes, Carolyn Carr

Doctoral Dissertations

Nickel is a rarely used but biologically important metal that is utilized in all three domains of life. In nickel utilizing organisms there is a corresponding trafficking system specifically designed to capture nickel, deliver, and export excess nickel to prevent toxic effects. It is critical to understand the mechanisms by which organisms achieve metal selectivity to duplicate or disrupt this process for the benefit of human health and to further understanding of regulation mechanisms in biology.

RcnR is a Ni(II) and Co(II) responsive transcriptional regulator in E. coli. The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the relationship ...


Aliovalent Dopants In Zno Nanocrystals: Synthesis To Electronic Structure, Dongming Zhou 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Aliovalent Dopants In Zno Nanocrystals: Synthesis To Electronic Structure, Dongming Zhou

Doctoral Dissertations

Semiconductor nanocrystal doping has stimulated broad interest for many applications including solar energy conversion, nanospintronics, and phosphors or optical labels. The study of the chemistry and physics of doped colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals has been dominated in the literature by isovalent dopants such as Mn2+ and Co2+ ions in II-VI semiconductors, in which the dopant oxidation state is the same as the cation ions. Until recently, aliovalent dopants has received much attention due to the plasmonic properties. Aliovalent is when the oxidation states of the dopant in the lattice differs from the cation ions. In the plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals ...


Real Time Monitoring Of Photocatalysis: An Application And Expansion Of The Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Perrin Godbold 2017 James Madison University

Real Time Monitoring Of Photocatalysis: An Application And Expansion Of The Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Perrin Godbold

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

There are many applications of photocatalytic chemistry, with hundreds of researchers investigating photocatalytic materials. Another method of investigation could aid these researchers and contribute significantly to this field. This study attempts to develop a new method of analysis by expanding the capabilities of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) into the realm of photocatalysis. We coated QCM crystals with the stable and well-known photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, and utilized these coated crystals to begin to develop an analysis procedure for our modified instrument. Some indication of the QCM’s sensitivity was seen, but the UV irradiation elicited a frequency change independent of ...


Exploring The Structure And Properties Of Nanomaterials Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques, Yao-Jen Chang 2017 University of Kentucky

Exploring The Structure And Properties Of Nanomaterials Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques, Yao-Jen Chang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Nowadays people are relying on all kinds of electronic devices in their daily life. All these devices are getting smaller and lighter with longer battery life due to the improvement of nanotechnology and materials sciences. Electron microscopy (EM) plays a vital role in the evolution of materials characterization which shapes the technology in today’s life. In electron microscopy, electron beam is used as the illumination source instead of visible light used in traditional optical microscopy, the wavelength of an electron is about 105 times shorter than visible light. By taking this advantage, the resolving power and magnification are ...


Heterogeneous Base Metal Catalyzed Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin And Lignin Model Compounds, John Adam Jennings 2017 University of Kentucky

Heterogeneous Base Metal Catalyzed Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin And Lignin Model Compounds, John Adam Jennings

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

With the dwindling availability of petroleum, focus has shifted to renewable energy sources such as lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Due to the low value of cellulosic ethanol, utilization of the lignin component is necessary for the realization of an economically sustainable biorefinery model. Once depolymerized, lignin has the potential to replace petroleum-derived molecules used as bulk and specialty aromatic chemicals. Numerous lignin depolymerization strategies focus on cleavage of β-aryl ether linkages, usually at high temperatures and under reductive conditions.

Alternatively, selective benzylic oxidation strategies have recently been explored for ...


Arsenic Removal With A Dithiol Ligand Supported On Magnetic Nanoparticles, John Hamilton Walrod II 2017 University of Kentucky

Arsenic Removal With A Dithiol Ligand Supported On Magnetic Nanoparticles, John Hamilton Walrod Ii

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Exposure to arsenic (As) in water, the ubiquitous toxin that poses adverse health risks to tens of millions, is the result of both anthropogenic and geochemical mobilization. Despite recent publicity and an increased public awareness, the dangers associated with arsenic exposure rank among the top priorities of public health agencies globally. Existing sequestration applications mainly include reductions and adsorption with zero-valent metals and their oxides. The performance of adsorption media is known to preferentially favor aqueous As(V) over As(III) due to the charge of the dissolved oxyanion. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) have been the focus of multidisciplinary research efforts ...


Investigation Of Host-Sensitized Luminescence Of Trivalent Lanthanide Doped Yttrium Phosphate Using Vuv Spectroscopy, Zachary Way 2017 Central Washington University

Investigation Of Host-Sensitized Luminescence Of Trivalent Lanthanide Doped Yttrium Phosphate Using Vuv Spectroscopy, Zachary Way

All Master's Theses

Host-sensitized luminescence of yttrium phosphate doped with trivalent lanthanide elements prepared via two synthetic approaches was studied using VUV spectroscopy. A correlation between an unusually intense 150 nm excitation intensity and the ground state energy level of select trivalent lanthanide elements was proposed. Using spectroscopy, the host-to-activator transfer efficiencies of YPO4:Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Sm3+, Eu3+ and Tb3+) were evaluated for two synthetic approaches. Electron-hole pair trapping efficiencies and Sloss values were calculated using published kinetic models.


Chemical Bonding In Solids, Gordon J. Miller, Yuemei Zhang, Frank R. Wagner 2017 Iowa State University

Chemical Bonding In Solids, Gordon J. Miller, Yuemei Zhang, Frank R. Wagner

Chemistry Publications

This chapter discusses the various classes of hydride compounds, with a special focus on saline and metallic hydrides as well as oxyhydrides. It includes the following topics: thermodynamic stability, crystal chemistry, synthesis, and physical properties. The chapter also highlights recent progress in understanding hydride ion mobility in alkaline earth hydrides. It further deals with hydride compounds and in particular those containing alkali, alkaline earth, and transition and rare earth metals. The saline hydrides, that is, AH and AeH2 (with A=Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; Ae=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) are proper ionic materials, in which hydrogen is ...


Dna Binding Modes Of Novel Terpyridine Ruthenium(Ii) Complexes Containing A Chloroquine Analogue, Kyle B. Arriola 2017 University of Redlands

Dna Binding Modes Of Novel Terpyridine Ruthenium(Ii) Complexes Containing A Chloroquine Analogue, Kyle B. Arriola

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The discovery of cis-platin as a chemotherapeutic agent has pioneered the search for superior anticancer drugs within the domain of inorganic chemistry. Ruthenium complexes have had quite the spotlight in this search due to their chemical and biological properties; NAMI-A and KP1019, two ruthenium anticancer drugs, have made it to clinical trials. Ligands of the polypyridyl class are known to be good intercalators. Chloroquine, aside from its antimalarial qualities, has induced apoptosis in several tumor cell lines of glioma and when combined with ruthenium, has exhibited the induction of apoptosis upon multiple cell lines. The synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and DNA ...


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