Elevated Calcium Levels In Kentucky Lake: A Possible Emerging Problem With An Invasive Species, 2018 Murray State University
Elevated Calcium Levels In Kentucky Lake: A Possible Emerging Problem With An Invasive Species, Adam T. Martin
Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are an exotic and invasive mollusk that have spread extensively through various rivers and lakes in the United States. These mussels are notorious for their “biofouling” capabilities costing billions of dollars in their removal from industrial, public, and power plant water supply lines. While having been present in the Tennessee River drainage with occasional small reproducing populations since the early 1990s, zebra mussels were never abundant or widespread. In 2017, high densities were found on structures and solid substrates throughout the lower portion of Kentucky Lake. Calcium is one of the essential elements that contributes to ...
Consumption Profiles Of Illicit And Neuropsychiatric Drugs In Urban And Rural Communities In Kentucky Using Sewage Epidemiology, Tara Croft, Katelyn Foppe, Rhiannon Huffines, Bikram Subedi
The drug overdose deaths in the USA increased by ~20% from 2015 to 2016 to the total >63,600 drug overdose deaths in 2016. Kentucky is among the highest rate of drug overdose death states in the USA. The current estimates of the prevalence of substance abuse are based on the self-reported surveys, overdose/toxicological reports, and drug-related crime statistics. Survey-based conventional approaches are not only cost and time-intensive but also underestimate the actual consumption of drugs. As “wastewater never lie,” the drug residues in raw wastewater collected from the centralized wastewater treatment plants were utilized to determine the consumption ...
Aptamer-Based Assay For Detection Of Ochratoxin A, 2018 Florida International University
Aptamer-Based Assay For Detection Of Ochratoxin A, Amanda Nicole Bartley
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent mycotoxin found in a wide range of agricultural products that has been linked to mitochondrial damage and renal disease. The standard methods for OTA analysis currently rely on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection or mass spectrometry. Toward a highthroughput analysis of OTA, a single-stranded DNA aptamer, modified with a fluorophore, coupled to a complementary sequence, modified with a FRET-based quencher that dissociates in the presence of the target toxin, is proposed. In order to integrate “target trapping,” aptamer immobilization methods were explored to mediate interference issues. Assays were ...
Catalytic Deoxygenation Of Model And Realistic Feeds To Fuel-Like Hydrocarbons Over Supported Nickel-Copper Catalysts, 2018 Kentucky State University
Catalytic Deoxygenation Of Model And Realistic Feeds To Fuel-Like Hydrocarbons Over Supported Nickel-Copper Catalysts, Deyshon Ward, Kazi Javed
The goal was to make a renewable fuel by using catalysts to remove oxygen molecules from fats. This is a current issue that society faces today because nonrenewable fossil fuels hurt the environment more than they help it. There are two components that make up a heterogeneous catalyst, a support and a reduced metal active phase. The active metal phases Nickel, Palladium, Platinum have been studied in the past on an alumina and carbon supports. We were investigating other supports using Nickel as the active phase component to determine the effect the support has on the catalyst removing oxygen of ...
Eddy Flux Measurements Of Sulfur Dioxide Deposition To The Sea Surface, 2018 University of California, Irvine
Eddy Flux Measurements Of Sulfur Dioxide Deposition To The Sea Surface, Jack G. Porter, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman
Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research
Deposition to the sea surface is a major atmospheric loss pathway for many important trace gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2). The air–sea transfer of SO2 is controlled entirely on the atmospheric side of the air–sea interface due to high effective solubility and other physical– chemical properties. There have been few direct field measurements of such fluxes due to the challenges associated with making fast-response measurements of highly soluble trace gases at very low ambient levels. In this study, we report direct eddy covariance air–sea flux measurements of SO2, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum. The measurements ...
Photocatalytic Activity: Experimental Features To Report In Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, 2018 University of Kentucky
Photocatalytic Activity: Experimental Features To Report In Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Md. Ariful Hoque, Marcelo I. Guzman
Chemistry Faculty Publications
Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a prominent area of research with major applications in solar energy conversion, air pollution mitigation, and removal of contaminants from water. A large number of scientific papers related to the photocatalysis field and its environmental applications are published in different journals specializing in materials and nanomaterials. However, many problems exist in the conception of papers by authors unfamiliar with standard characterization methods of photocatalysts as well as with the procedures needed to determine photocatalytic activities based on the determination of “apparent quantum efficiencies” within a wavelength interval or “apparent quantum yields” in the case of using monochromatic ...
An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, 2018 University of Kentucky
An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman
Chemistry Faculty Publications
Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...
High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, Yuyang He
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
High-dimensional isotope relationships describes the relationships of two or more element or position-specific (PS) elements in the same molecule or ion. It provides us more powerful tools to study reaction mechanisms and dynamics. Chapter 1 is about dual or multiple stable isotope relationship on δ-δ (or δ'-δ') space. While temporal data sampled from a closed-system can be treated by a Rayleigh Distillation Model (RDM), spatial data should be treated by a Reaction-Transport Model (RTM). Here we compare the results of a closed-system RDM to a RTM for systems with diffusional mass transfer by simulating the trajectories on nitrate's ...
Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, 2018 University of Kentucky
Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman
Chemistry Faculty Publications
Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...
Novel Relative Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Determination Using Carbon Dioxide Onset With Sta/Ir, 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University
Novel Relative Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Determination Using Carbon Dioxide Onset With Sta/Ir, Antonio David Trevino
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Simultaneous thermal analysis, coupled with infrared spectroscopy (STA/IR), was utilized to monitor the evolution of gaseous products during the thermal degradation of samples from Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow), Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet), and Ilex vomitoria (yaupon) plants. Identification of carbon dioxide was successful with a spectral match of 90.2 percent and further used in the determination of relative spontaneous ignition temperature, or RSIT. The RSIT value during the growing season for Chinese tallow, Chinese tallow stem, Chinese privet, and Yaupon were 208.4°C, 250.3°C, 210.1°C, and 232.3°C respectively. During the dormant ...
The Effects Of Cold Plasma Treatment On Sweet Basil (Ocimum Basilicum), 2018 Seton Hall University
The Effects Of Cold Plasma Treatment On Sweet Basil (Ocimum Basilicum), Sauvelson Auguste
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
The study discussed herein looks both to continue and to expand upon previous work conducted here at Seton Hall University, which investigated the effect of cold plasma processing on sweet basil and their essential oils. It was found that the application of cold plasma treatment increases plant growth and eugenol concentration, which is an essential oil component and one of the potential natural antioxidants used in food preservation. In this study, we considered methods for increasing the production and harvesting of plants that produce essential oils such as sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). The study also incorporated more controls than the ...
The Fate Of Arsenic In Noah’S Flood, 2018 Cedarville University
The Fate Of Arsenic In Noah’S Flood, Aaron R. Hutchison, Campbell F. Bortel
The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism
One potential consequence of Noah’s Flood would be the mobilization of toxic elements such as arsenic (As), a group 15 metalloid with a significant solubility and redox chemistry in water and a high toxicity to human beings. This paper discusses the likely chemistry of arsenic during the Flood. The Flood would have released arsenic through hydrothermal activity, volcanic eruptions, and weathering of crustal rock. Arsenic in hydrothermal fluid would likely be rapidly precipitated by sulfides. Likewise, much of the arsenic in volcanoes would actually be deposited sub-surface as sulfides. In the presence of oxygen-rich waters, these sulfide minerals can ...
Removal Of Acid Yellow 25 From Aqueous Solution By Chitin Prepared From Waste Snow Crab Legs, 2018 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Removal Of Acid Yellow 25 From Aqueous Solution By Chitin Prepared From Waste Snow Crab Legs, Chin-Chuan Wei, Inoka K. Pathiraja, Emily Fabry, Kyle Schafer, Nick Schimp, Tuo-Ping Hu, Lawrence P. Norcio
SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity
Acid Yellow 25 (AY25) is used in the textile industry for dyeing of natural and synthetic fibers, and is also used as a coloring agent in paints, inks, plastics, and leathers. Effluents from such industries are major sources of water pollution. Hence, it is important to find simple, efficient, and inexpensive ways to remove these dyes from wastewater. Here, we determined the suitability of chitin extracted from waste crab legs as an adsorbent for removing AY25 dye. The adsorption kinetics was modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion equations to determine the rate controlling step. Results showed that ...
Characterization Of The Uranium-Bearing Phases Produced By Novel Remediation Technologies For Sequestration Of Mobile Radiological Contaminants In The Hanford 200 Area Vadose Zone, 2018 Florida International University
Characterization Of The Uranium-Bearing Phases Produced By Novel Remediation Technologies For Sequestration Of Mobile Radiological Contaminants In The Hanford 200 Area Vadose Zone, Robert Michael Lapierre
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Of the many toxic chemicals released into the Hanford vadose zone over the decades of nuclear weapons production, uranium has emerged as a contaminant of significant interest. The ammonia gas injection remediation method has been identified as a promising approach towards mitigating the risks to the ecosystem by limiting the mobility of the radionuclide in the vadose zone. The remediation method was replicated using synthetic porewater solutions with a range of constituent concentrations equal to that of the Hanford 200 Area vadose zone. The uranium-bearing products of the remediation method were characterized using kinetic phosphorescence analysis for aqueous uranium, scanning ...
A System For Conducting Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements On Gas Mixtures Exposed To Alpha Radiation, 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi
A System For Conducting Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements On Gas Mixtures Exposed To Alpha Radiation, Patrick Ables
This paper documents modifications to an existing vacuum system to allow laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy measurements within simulated atmospheres under a variety of conditions. This added capability will expand the laboratory’s ability to experimentally validate a computational model that calculates the effects of radiation within the atmosphere. The computational model could reveal radiation-induced chemical products that can be used to develop an alternative detection method that can be implemented from a safe distance. The selection of molecules for experimental validation has been limited to those which can be detected utilizing cavity ringdown spectroscopy. The current model indicates nitric oxide and ...
Utilization Of Papaya’S Sap (Carica Papaya L.) And Water Lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes) To Reduce Protein Amount On Liquid Tofu Waste, Muhammad Dzulfikar Farkhan, Naila Aliyahandra Anzani, Nabila Fikria Santoso
The International Student Science Fair 2018
Liquid waste from tofu production is one of the causes of environmental pollution. This condition happens because liquid tofu waste contain protein. Protein is metabolized by bacteria formed ammonia which emits foul odor. On this research, the protein amount in liquid tofu waste is reduced by the application of papaya’s sap and water lettuce. This research is divided into several steps. First, collecting the liquid tofu waste. second, tapping the papaya’s sap. Third, poured the papaya’s sap into the tofu waste. the next step is keep the mixture between tofu waste and papaya’s sap rest for ...
Steric Effects Of Alkyl Ammonium Salts On The Combustion Of Exchanged Smectite Clays, 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University
Steric Effects Of Alkyl Ammonium Salts On The Combustion Of Exchanged Smectite Clays, Celeste A. Keith
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Bomb calorimetry was explored as a new method for determining the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of clays. Smectite clays were modified with several alkyl ammonium salts varying in number of carbons and the spatial orientation of the carbons about the central nitrogen atom. The clays used, standards purchased from the Source Clay Repository, have CECs of 44, 80, 88, and 120 meq/100 g. Theoretically, the combustion energy of the organo-clays should be approximately the same for each salt. Any differences in energy would be due to the different structures of the salts and how they are oriented in the ...
Heavy Metal Accumulation In Seagrasses In Southeastern Florida, 2018 Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography
Heavy Metal Accumulation In Seagrasses In Southeastern Florida, Erin Smith
HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations
Seagrass beds are among the most ecologically important systems in the marine environment. They provide the primary production to nearby coral reef and mangrove communities, and seagrasses comprise a large component of the diets of many marine organisms including fishes, small invertebrate species, and many protected species such as manatees and sea turtles. This consumption provides a pathway for many contaminants to enter the marine food web via the seagrasses. The coastal location of seagrass beds causes them to be especially susceptible to anthropogenic pollution, including accumulation of heavy metals, which has been shown to have many adverse health effects ...
Synthesis And Characterization Of Organically Modified Hectorites For Sequestration Of Pfaas From Contaminated Drinking Water, Alexandra Pagano
Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs), a family of industrial chemicals, are found in household products such as pizza boxes, microwave popcorn bags, and non-stick pans. PFAAs of different carbon chain lengths and ionic head groups exist, such as PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid). Used without regulation in industry for decades, PFAAs only recently became recognized as contaminants of emerging concern, since they are bioaccumulative in organisms, persistent in the environment, and toxic. PFAAs are known to accumulate in the blood, liver and kidneys, and drinking water contaminated with PFAAs has been linked to certain types of cancer. Therefore, it ...
Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Ecological Effects And Sustainable Solutions, 2018 University of Washington – Tacoma
Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Ecological Effects And Sustainable Solutions, Ryan Hanley
Global Honors Theses
Freshwater availability is a growing global concern, and desalination is often presented as the solution, but from this important technology comes issues of toxic waste. Ecosystems are delicate areas that contain species adapted to that specific location, and any chemical or physical changes can disrupt the fitness of species. The concentrate byproduct waste from desalination plants is toxic to species if the concentrate is not compatible with the receiving water body. A critical review of scientific articles, industry-leading books, conversations with industry experts, and information from the American Membrane Technology Association conference was used to analyze the current knowledge. Species ...