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Optical Discovery Of An Apparent Galactic Supernova Remnant G159.6+7.3, Robert A. Fesen, Dan Milisavljevic 2010 Dartmouth College

Optical Discovery Of An Apparent Galactic Supernova Remnant G159.6+7.3, Robert A. Fesen, Dan Milisavljevic

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Deep Hα images of portions of a faint 3° × 4° Hα shell centered at l = 1596, b = 73 seen on the Virginia Tech Spectral Line Survey images revealed the presence of several thin emission filaments along its eastern limb. Low-dispersion optical spectra of two of these filaments covering the wavelength range of 4500-7500 Å show narrow Hα line emissions with velocities around –170 ± 30 km s–1. Both the morphology and spectra of these filaments are consistent with a Balmer-dominated shock interpretation and we propose that these optical filaments indicate that the large Hα emission shell is a previously unrecognized ...


Quiescent X-Ray Emission From Cen X-4: A Variable Thermal Component, Edward M. Cackett, Edward F. Brown, Jon M. Miller, Rudy Wijnands 2010 University of Michigan

Quiescent X-Ray Emission From Cen X-4: A Variable Thermal Component, Edward M. Cackett, Edward F. Brown, Jon M. Miller, Rudy Wijnands

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Research Publications

The nearby neutron star low-mass X-ray binary, Cen X-4, has been in a quiescent state since its last outburst in 1979. Typically, quiescent emission from these objects consists of thermal emission (presumably from the neutron star surface) with an additional hard power-law tail of unknown nature. Variability has been observed during quiescence in Cen X-4 on both timescales as short as hundreds of seconds and as long as years. However, the nature of this variability is still unknown. Early observations seemed to show it was all due to a variable hard X-ray tail. Here, we present new and archival observations ...


Relativistic Lines And Reflection From The Inner Accretion Disks Around Neutron Stars, Edward M. Cackett, Jon M. Miller, David R. Ballantyne, Didier Barret, Sudip Bhattacharyya, Martin Boutelier, M. Coleman Miller, Tod E. Strohmayer, Rudy Wijnands 2010 University of Michigan

Relativistic Lines And Reflection From The Inner Accretion Disks Around Neutron Stars, Edward M. Cackett, Jon M. Miller, David R. Ballantyne, Didier Barret, Sudip Bhattacharyya, Martin Boutelier, M. Coleman Miller, Tod E. Strohmayer, Rudy Wijnands

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Research Publications

A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk where strong relativistic effects can broaden emission lines. We present a comprehensive, systematic analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra of 10 neutron star LMXBs, all of which display broad Fe K emission lines. Of the 10 sources, 4 are Z sources, 4 are atolls, and 2 are accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars ...


A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis Of Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Mukremin Kilic, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2010 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis Of Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 126 cool white dwarfs (WDs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our sample includes high proper motion targets selected using the SDSS and USNO-B astrometry and a dozen previously known ultracool WD candidates. Our optical spectroscopic observations demonstrate that a clean selection of large samples of cool WDs in the SDSS (and the SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope data sets) is possible using a reduced proper motion diagram and a tangential velocity cut-off (depending on the proper motion accuracy) of 30 km s–1. Our near-infrared observations reveal ...


The Impact Of Non-Equipartition On Cosmological Parameter Estimation From Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Surveys, Ka-Wah Wong, Craig L. Sarazin, Daniel R. Wik 2010 Minnesota State University Mankato

The Impact Of Non-Equipartition On Cosmological Parameter Estimation From Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Surveys, Ka-Wah Wong, Craig L. Sarazin, Daniel R. Wik

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The collisionless accretion shock at the outer boundary of a galaxy cluster should primarily heat the ions instead of electrons since they carry most of the kinetic energy of the infalling gas. Near the accretion shock, the density of the intracluster medium is very low and the Coulomb collisional timescale is longer than the accretion timescale. Electrons and ions may not achieve equipartition in these regions. Numerical simulations have shown that the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observables (e.g., the integrated Comptonization parameter Y) for relaxed clusters can be biased by a few percent. The Y versus mass relation can be biased ...


Swift Monitoring Of Cygnus X-2: Investigating The Near-Ultraviolet-X-Ray Connection, E. S. Rykoff, E. M. Cackett, J. M. Miller 2010 University of California at Santa Barbara

Swift Monitoring Of Cygnus X-2: Investigating The Near-Ultraviolet-X-Ray Connection, E. S. Rykoff, E. M. Cackett, J. M. Miller

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Research Publications

The neutron star X-ray binary (NSXRB) Cyg X-2 was observed by the Swift satellite 51 times over a 4 month period in 2008 with the X-ray Telescope (XRT), UV/optical telescope, and Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instruments. During this campaign, we observed Cyg X-2 in all three branches of the Z track (horizontal, normal, and flaring branches). We find that the NUV emission is uncorrelated with the soft X-ray flux detected with the XRT and is anticorrelated with the BAT X-ray flux and the hard X-ray color. The observed anticorrelation is inconsistent with simple models of reprocessing as the source ...


Towards Simulations Of Binary Neutron Star Mergers And Core-Collapse Supernovae With Genasis, Reuben Donald Budiardja 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Towards Simulations Of Binary Neutron Star Mergers And Core-Collapse Supernovae With Genasis, Reuben Donald Budiardja

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the current version of GenASiS and reports recent progress in its development. GenASiS is a new computational astrophysics code built for large-scale and multi-dimensional computer simulations of astrophysical phenomena, with primary emphasis on the simulations of neutron star mergers and core-collapse supernovae. Neutron star mergers are of high interest to the astrophysics community because they should be the prodigious source of gravitation waves and the most promising candidates for gravitational wave detection. Neutron star mergers are also thought to be associated with the production of short-duration, hard-spectral gamma-ray bursts, though the mechanism is not well understood. In ...


The First Vlbi Image Of The Young, Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant In Ngc 4449, M. F. Bietenholz, N. Bartel, D. Milisavljevic, R. A. Fesen 2010 York

The First Vlbi Image Of The Young, Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant In Ngc 4449, M. F. Bietenholz, N. Bartel, D. Milisavljevic, R. A. Fesen

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

We report on sensitive 1.4-GHz VLBI radio observations of the unusually luminous supernova remnant SNR 4449-1 in the galaxy NGC 4449, which gave us the first well-resolved image of this object. The remnant's radio morphology consists of two approximately parallel bright ridges, suggesting similarities to the barrel shape seen for many older Galactic supernova remnants or possibly to SN 1987A. The angular extent of the remnant is 65 × 40 mas, corresponding to (3.7 × 2.3) × 1018 (D/3.8 Mpc) cm. We also present a new, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectrum. By comparing the remnant's ...


Visitors From The Halo: 11 Gyr Old White Dwarfs In The Solar Neighborhood, Mukremin Kilic, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2010 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Visitors From The Halo: 11 Gyr Old White Dwarfs In The Solar Neighborhood, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We report the discovery of three nearby old halo white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including two stars in a common proper motion binary system. These candidates are selected from our 2800deg2 proper motion survey on the Bok and U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3 m telescopes, and they display proper motions of 0˝.4-0˝.5 yr¯1. Follow-up MMT spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry demonstrate that all three objects are hydrogen-dominated atmosphere WDs with T eff ≈ 3700-4100 K. For average mass WDs, these temperature estimates correspond to cooling ages of 9-10 Gyr, distances ...


Multiwavelength Observations Of 1rxh J173523.7-354013: Revealing An Unusual Bursting Neutron Star, N. Degenaar, P. G. Jonker, M. A. P. Torres, R. Kaur, N. Rea, G. L. Israel, A. Patruno, G. Trap, E. M. Cackett, P. D'Avanzo, G. Lo Curto, G. Novara, H. Krimm, S. T. Holland, A. De Luca, P. Esposito, R. Wijnands 2010 Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam

Multiwavelength Observations Of 1rxh J173523.7-354013: Revealing An Unusual Bursting Neutron Star, N. Degenaar, P. G. Jonker, M. A. P. Torres, R. Kaur, N. Rea, G. L. Israel, A. Patruno, G. Trap, E. M. Cackett, P. D'Avanzo, G. Lo Curto, G. Novara, H. Krimm, S. T. Holland, A. De Luca, P. Esposito, R. Wijnands

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Research Publications

On 2008 May 14, the Burst Alert Telescope onboard the Swift mission triggered on a type-I X-ray burst from the previously unclassified ROSAT object 1RXH J173523.7-354013, establishing the source as a neutron star X-ray binary. We report on X-ray, optical and near-infrared observations of this system. The X-ray burst had a duration of ~2 h and belongs to the class of rare, intermediately long type-I X-ray bursts. From the bolometric peak flux of ~3.5 × 10-8ergcm-2s-1, we infer a source distance of D <~ 9.5 kpc. Photometry of the field reveals an optical counterpart that declined from R = 15.9 during the X-ray burst to R = 18.9 thereafter. Analysis of post-burst Swift/X-ray Telescope observations as well as archival XMM-Newton and ROSAT data suggests that the system is persistent at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of ~2 × 1035 (D/9.5 kpc)2ergs-1. Optical and infrared ...


Rapid Cooling Of The Neutron Star In The Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient Xte J1701-462, Joel K. Fridriksson, Jeroen Homan, Rudy Wijnands, Mariano Méndez, Diego Altamirano, Edward M. Cackett, Edward F. Brown, Tomaso M. Belloni, Nathalie Degenaar, Walter H. G. Lewin 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Rapid Cooling Of The Neutron Star In The Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient Xte J1701-462, Joel K. Fridriksson, Jeroen Homan, Rudy Wijnands, Mariano Méndez, Diego Altamirano, Edward M. Cackett, Edward F. Brown, Tomaso M. Belloni, Nathalie Degenaar, Walter H. G. Lewin

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Research Publications

We present Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and Swift observations made during the final three weeks of the 2006-2007 outburst of the super-Eddington neutron star (NS) transient XTE J1701-462, as well as Chandra and XMM-Newton observations covering the first sime800 days of the subsequent quiescent phase. The source transitioned quickly from active accretion to quiescence, with the luminosity dropping by over 3 orders of magnitude in sime13 days. The spectra obtained during quiescence exhibit both a thermal component, presumed to originate in emission from the NS surface, and a non-thermal component of uncertain origin, which has shown large and irregular variability ...


Extrasolar Planet Detection Through Analysis Of K-Giant Radial Velocity Data, Floyd D. Linayao 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Extrasolar Planet Detection Through Analysis Of K-Giant Radial Velocity Data, Floyd D. Linayao

Physics

Extrasolar planet detection is an ongoing and growing field of scientific research. To date, there are over 400 planet candidates discovered by various means of detection. Currently, astronomers taking observations at Lick Observatory are searching for potential extrasolar planets around K-giant stars. The project was originally developed to monitor stars to be used in the astrometric grid for NASA’s Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). While using the radial velocity method to test if the astrometric centers of K-giants were stable, astronomers came to the realization that the same process could be used for extrasolar planet detection. Of the 373 K-giants ...


Pulsational Mapping Of Calcium Across The Surface Of A White Dwarf, Susan E. Thompson, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2010 University of Delaware

Pulsational Mapping Of Calcium Across The Surface Of A White Dwarf, Susan E. Thompson, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We constrain the distribution of calcium across the surface of the white dwarf star G29-38 by combining time-series spectroscopy from Gemini-North with global time-series photometry from the Whole Earth Telescope. G29-38 is actively accreting metals from a known debris disk. Since the metals sink significantly faster than they mix across the surface, any inhomogeneity in the accretion process will appear as an inhomogeneity of the metals on the surface of the star. We measure the flux amplitudes and the calcium equivalent width amplitudes for two large pulsations excited on G29-38 in 2008. The ratio of these amplitudes best fits a ...


Ion-Neutral Chemistry Of Importance To Astrophysical And Cosmological Environments, Oscar Martinez Jr. 2010 University of Colorado, Boulder

Ion-Neutral Chemistry Of Importance To Astrophysical And Cosmological Environments, Oscar Martinez Jr.

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Scientific studies have led to a more thorough understanding of processes directing the evolution of the Universe. In addition to observational studies with telescopes, terrestrial laboratory studies now contribute to the knowledge encompassed by astronomy and astrophysics. The laboratory-astrophysics experiments performed for this thesis focused on topics ranging from the birth of the first stars and galaxies to chemical processes important to the interstellar medium (ISM).

Models attempt to derive a better understanding of certain cosmological and astrophysical environments. Their reliability, however, depends heavily on the accuracy of data employed. Our contributions to laboratory astrophysics are based on the use ...


Hard X-Ray Emission From The Massive Star-Forming Region On 2: Discovery With Xmm-Newton., L. M. Oskinova, R. A. Gruendl, R. Ignace, Y.-H. Chu, W.-R. Hamann, A. Feldmeier 2010 East Tennessee State University

Hard X-Ray Emission From The Massive Star-Forming Region On 2: Discovery With Xmm-Newton., L. M. Oskinova, R. A. Gruendl, R. Ignace, Y.-H. Chu, W.-R. Hamann, A. Feldmeier

Richard Ignace

We obtained X-ray XMM-Newton observations of the open cluster Berkeley 87 and the massive star-forming region (SFR) ON 2. In addition, archival infrared Spitzer Space Telescope observations were used to study the morphology of ON 2, to uncover young stellar objects, and to investigate their relationship with the X-ray sources. It is likely that the SFR ON 2 and Berkeley 87 are at the same distance, 1.23 kpc, and hence are associated. The XMM-Newton observations detected X-rays from massive stars in Berkeley 87 as well as diffuse emission from the SFR ON 2. The two patches of diffuse X-ray ...


Death Of A Cluster: The Destruction Of M67 As Seen By The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, James R. A. Davenport, Eric L. Sandquist 2010 Western Washington University

Death Of A Cluster: The Destruction Of M67 As Seen By The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, James R. A. Davenport, Eric L. Sandquist

Physics & Astronomy

We probe the spatial and dynamical structure of the old open cluster M67 using photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's sixth data release. Making use of an optimal contrast, or matched filter, algorithm, we map the distribution of high probability members of M67. We find an extended and elongated halo of likely members to a radius of nearly 60'. Our measured core radius of R core = 824 ± 060 is somewhat larger than that of previous estimates. We attribute the larger core radius measurement to the SDSS probing lower mass main sequence stars than has been done before ...


Studying The Small Scale Ism Structure With Supernovae, F. Patat, N. L. J. Cox, J. Parrent, D. Branch 2010 European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere

Studying The Small Scale Ism Structure With Supernovae, F. Patat, N. L. J. Cox, J. Parrent, D. Branch

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In this work we explore the possibility of using the fast expansion of a Type Ia supernova photosphere to detect extra-galactic ISM column density variations on spatial scales of ∼100 AU on time scales of a few months. We constructed a simple model which describes the expansion of the photodisk and the effects of a patchy interstellar cloud on the observed equivalent width of Nai D lines. Using this model we derived the behavior of the equivalent width as a function of time, spatial scale and amplitude of the column density fluctuation


Optical/Infrared Observations Of The X-Ray Burster Ks1731-260 In Quiescence, C. Zurita, E. Kuulkers, R. M. Bandyopadhyay, E. M. Cackett, P. J. Groot, J. A. Orosz, M. A. P. Torres, R. Wijnands 2010 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

Optical/Infrared Observations Of The X-Ray Burster Ks1731-260 In Quiescence, C. Zurita, E. Kuulkers, R. M. Bandyopadhyay, E. M. Cackett, P. J. Groot, J. A. Orosz, M. A. P. Torres, R. Wijnands

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Research Publications

Aims. We performed an optical/infrared study of the counterpart of the low-mass X-ray binary KS 1731–260 to test its identification and obtain information about the donor.

Methods. Optical and infrared images of the counterpart of KS 1731–260 were taken in two different epochs (2001 and 2007) after the source returned to quiescence in X-rays. We compared these observations with those obtained when KS 1731–260 was still active.

Results. We confirm the identification of KS 1731–260 with the previously proposed counterpart and improve its position to α = 17:34:13.46 and δ = -26:05:18 ...


Central Compact Objects, Trevor Meek 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Central Compact Objects, Trevor Meek

Physics

Central compact objects (CCOs) are point-like sources found near the center of supernova remnants (SNRs). They emit X-rays, but show no radio or gamma ray counterpart. Typical CCO candidates have emission radii on the order of 0.2-3.0 km. This is much smaller than the typical radius of a neutron star, making CCOs a difficult astronomical phenomenon to identify.


Radio Emission From Substellar Companions Of Evolved Cool Stars., Richard Ignace, Mark L. Giroux, Donald G. Luttermoser 2010 East Tennessee State University

Radio Emission From Substellar Companions Of Evolved Cool Stars., Richard Ignace, Mark L. Giroux, Donald G. Luttermoser

Richard Ignace

A number of substellar companions to evolved cool stars have now been reported. Cool giants are distinct from their progenitor main-sequence low-mass stars in a number of ways. First, the mass loss rates of cool giant stars are orders of magnitude greater than for the late-type main-sequence stars. Secondly, on the cool side of the Linsky–Haisch ‘dividing line’, K and M giant stars are not X-ray sources, although they do show evidence for chromospheres. As a result, cool star winds are largely neutral for those spectral types, suggesting that planetary or brown dwarf magnetospheres will not be effective in ...


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