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All Articles in Cosmology, Relativity, and Gravity

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Understanding The Physics Of Galaxy Clusters Out To Their Virial Radii And Beyond, Arnab Sarkar 2022 University of Kentucky

Understanding The Physics Of Galaxy Clusters Out To Their Virial Radii And Beyond, Arnab Sarkar

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

In the hierarchical structure formation model, galaxy clusters grow and evolve via mergers and accretion from the surrounding cosmic web, leaving distinctive marks in the gas properties, metallicity, and dynamical state at the outskirts of clusters, which needs to be probed to better understand the growth of a cluster. I probed the gas properties of four nearby galaxy groups MKW4, Antlia, RXJ1159, and ESO3060170 out to their virial radii using deep Suzaku and mostly snapshot Chandra observations. I found the gas entropy profiles of MKW4 follow a power-law at its outskirts - as expected from purely gravitational structure formation model. …


Constraining The Star Formation Histories Of Galaxies In The Swift/Uvot + Manga (Swim) Value-Added Catalog, Nikhil Ajgaonkar 2022 University of Kentucky

Constraining The Star Formation Histories Of Galaxies In The Swift/Uvot + Manga (Swim) Value-Added Catalog, Nikhil Ajgaonkar

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

Although our understanding about galaxy evolution has improved in the past few
decades, we still do not understand how galaxies suddenly stop forming stars and move towards a quiescent phase. In order to do that, we must derive the Star Formation Histories (SFHs) of galaxies, that trace the change in Star Formation (SF) inside the galaxy over the cosmic timescale. This is achieved by using a set of spatially resolved near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical spectroscopic images of the galaxies. We generate the Swift/UVOT + MaNGA value added catalog (SwiM VAC; Molina et al., 2020b) which comprises 150 galaxies having a …


A New Non-Inheriting Homogeneous Solution Of The Einstein-Maxwell Equations With Cosmological Term, Charles G. Torre 2022 Department of Physics, Utah State University

A New Non-Inheriting Homogeneous Solution Of The Einstein-Maxwell Equations With Cosmological Term, Charles G. Torre

Research Vignettes

No abstract provided.


Accretion Onto A Black Hole At The Center Of A Neutron Star: Nuclear Equations Of State, Sophia Christina Schnauck 2022 Bowdoin College

Accretion Onto A Black Hole At The Center Of A Neutron Star: Nuclear Equations Of State, Sophia Christina Schnauck

Honors Projects

A recent re-examination of Bondi accretion (see Richards, Baumgarte and Shapiro (2021)) revealed that, for stiff equations of state (EOSs), steady-state accretion can only occur for accretion rates exceeding a certain minimum. To date, this result has been explored only for gamma-law equations of state. Instead, we consider accretion onto a small black hole residing at the center of a neutron star governed by a more realistic nuclear EOS. We generalize the relativistic Bondi solution for such EOSs, approximated by piecewise polytropes, and thereby obtain analytical expressions for the accretion rates which were reflected in our numerical simulations. After taking …


Studies Of Electromagnetic Counterparts To Gravitational-Wave Sources And The Nonlinear Gravitational-Wave Memory Effect, Ashok Choudhary 2022 West Virginia University

Studies Of Electromagnetic Counterparts To Gravitational-Wave Sources And The Nonlinear Gravitational-Wave Memory Effect, Ashok Choudhary

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In this dissertation, theoretical/computational results are presented from the investigations of three different topics within the general research areas of gravitational wave astrophysics and electromagnetic counterparts. First, general relativistic force-free electromagnetic theory and its application to black hole magnetospheres are discussed. In this connection, simulations of a binary black hole merger are examined using the open-source software, GiRaFFE, which is used to model black holes’ magnetospheres and to study supermassive black-hole binary mergers in an external magnetic field. In the simulations, a helical magnetic field structure around each black hole is observed. Electromagnetic energy flux is observed during the inspiral …


Bayesian Methods For Multi-Messenger Analysis Of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Pulsars And Quasars And Gravitational Waves, Oh My!, Caitlin A. Witt 2022 West Virginia University

Bayesian Methods For Multi-Messenger Analysis Of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Pulsars And Quasars And Gravitational Waves, Oh My!, Caitlin A. Witt

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) can lurk, often unseen, in the centers of post-merger galaxies, and pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are rapidly approaching the sensitivities required to detect nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs) from these giant pairs. Independently, numerous electromagnetic surveys are seeking evidence of these dynamic duos’ effects on their host galaxies by searching for periodicities in time-domain observations. Combining these two methods to use multi-messenger techniques allows us to learn more about these binaries than using one messenger alone. In this thesis, we have created Bayesian methods to search for SMBHBs using electromagnetic observations of quasars and through GW …


The Differentialgeometry Package, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre 2022 Utah State University

The Differentialgeometry Package, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre

Downloads

This is the entire DifferentialGeometry package, a zip file (DifferentialGeometry.zip) containing (1) a Maple Library file, DifferentialGeometryUSU.mla, (2) a Maple help file DifferentialGeometry.help, (3) a Maple Library file, DGApplicatons.mla. This is the latest version of the DifferentialGeometry software; it supersedes what is released with Maple.

Installation instructions


A New Non-Inheriting Homogeneous Solution Of The Einstein-Maxwell Equations With Cosmological Term, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre 2022 ian.anderson@usu.edu

A New Non-Inheriting Homogeneous Solution Of The Einstein-Maxwell Equations With Cosmological Term, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre

Publications

We find a new homogeneous solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations with a cos- mological term. The spacetime manifold is R × S3. The spacetime metric admits a simply transitive isometry group G = R × SU(2) and is Petrov type I. The spacetime is geodesically complete and globally hyperbolic. The electromagnetic field is non- null and non-inheriting: it is only invariant with respect to the SU(2) subgroup and is time-dependent in a stationary reference frame.


What's New In Differentialgeometry Release Dg2022, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre 2022 ian.anderson@usu.edu

What's New In Differentialgeometry Release Dg2022, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre

Tutorials on... in 1 hour or less

This Maple worksheet demonstrates the salient new features and functionalities of the 2022 release of the DifferentialGeometry software package.


Perturbative Unitarity And Nec Violation In Genesis Cosmology, Yong Cai, Ji Xu, Shuai Zhao, Siyi Zhou 2022 Old Dominion University

Perturbative Unitarity And Nec Violation In Genesis Cosmology, Yong Cai, Ji Xu, Shuai Zhao, Siyi Zhou

Physics Faculty Publications

Explorations of the violation of null energy condition (NEC) in cosmology could enrich our understanding of the very early universe and the related gravity theories. Although a fully stable NEC violation can be realized in the “beyond Horndeski” theory, it remains an open question whether a violation of the NEC is allowed by some fundamental properties of UV-complete theories or the consistency requirements of effective field theory (EFT). We investigate the tree-level perturbative unitarity for stable NEC violations in the contexts of both Galileon and “beyond Horndeski” genesis cosmology, in which the universe is asymptotically Minkowskian in the past. We …


𝒯, 𝒫-Odd Effects In The Luoh⁺ Cation, Daniel E. Maison, Leonid V. Skripnikov, Gleb Penyazkov, Matt Grau, Alexander N. Petrov 2022 Old Dominion University

𝒯, 𝒫-Odd Effects In The Luoh⁺ Cation, Daniel E. Maison, Leonid V. Skripnikov, Gleb Penyazkov, Matt Grau, Alexander N. Petrov

Physics Faculty Publications

The LuOH+ cation is a promising system to search for manifestations of time reversal and spatial parity violation effects. Such effects in LuOH+ induced by the electron electric dipole moment eEDM and the scalar-pseudoscalar interaction of the nucleus with electrons, characterized by ks constant, in LuOH+ are studied. The enhancement factors, polarization in the external electric field, hyperfine interaction, and rovibrational structure are calculated. The study is required for the experiment preparation and extraction of the eEDM and ks values from experimental data.


Superluminal Propagation On A Moving Braneworld, Brian Greene, Daniel Kabat, Janna Levin, Arjun S. Menon 2022 Columbia University

Superluminal Propagation On A Moving Braneworld, Brian Greene, Daniel Kabat, Janna Levin, Arjun S. Menon

Publications and Research

We consider a braneworld scenario in the simplest setting, M4 × S1, with a four-dimensional (4D) Minkowski metric induced on the brane, and establish the possibility of superluminal propagation. If the brane is at rest, the 4D Lorentz symmetry of the brane is exact, but if the brane is in motion, it is broken globally by the compactification. By measuring bulk fields, an observer on the brane sees a slice through a higher-dimensional field profile, which carries an imprint of the extra dimensions even when the brane is at rest. If the brane is in motion, we …


Toward Deep Learning Emulators For Modeling The Large-Scale Structure Of The Universe, Neerav Kaushal 2022 Michigan Technological University

Toward Deep Learning Emulators For Modeling The Large-Scale Structure Of The Universe, Neerav Kaushal

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Multi-billion dollar cosmological surveys are being conducted almost every decade in today’s era of precision cosmology. These surveys scan vast swaths of sky and generate tons of observational data. In order to extract meaningful information from this data and test these observations against theory, rigorous theoretical predictions are needed. In the absence of an analytic method, cosmological simulations become the most widely used tool to provide these predictions in order to test against the observations. They can be used to study covariance matrices, generate mock galaxy catalogs and provide ready-to-use snapshots for detailed redshift analyses. But cosmological simulations of matter …


Newgrange Skyscape In Stellarium, Frank Prendergast 2021 Technological University Dublin

Newgrange Skyscape In Stellarium, Frank Prendergast

Articles

Newgrange Skyscape in Stellarium is a new customised landscape planetarium model giving the user the unique ability to interrogate the dynamic sky above the Boyne Valley on any date of interest during the hours of daylight or darkness. Archaeological, astronomical and topographical points of interest are labelled in the model and visible even during the hours of darkness. These are summarily described in a short gazetteer appended at the end of the instruction document to encourage further exploration of the wonderful heritage found in the Boyne Valley and beyond.

Watch on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=aGPsVGBXkY4

Watch on Vimeo: https://vimeo.com/493351576


Dark Matter Detection Materials, James E. Harrison IV 2021 University of North Florida

Dark Matter Detection Materials, James E. Harrison Iv

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

The purpose of this paper is to review the different methods and materials used in the detection of dark matter. Special attention is given to materials in the solid state, but other materials are briefly mentioned for the sake of completeness. After a review, we discuss the viability of each material as a detector, and determine what advantages each material has, and what method of detection works best for each material. We conclude by discussing the potential outcomes of a null detection.


Impact Of Weak Gravitational Force In Sri Lanka, Periyandy Thunendran 2021 Syracuse University

Impact Of Weak Gravitational Force In Sri Lanka, Periyandy Thunendran

English Language Institute

Gravity studies explain about the sub surface features and shape of the earth, and show gravitational force is weak in the Sri Lanka region, which has positive and negative impacts. This poster argues further studies on gravity are needed to revise the global gravitational model of the region.


Population Properties Of Compact Objects From The Second Ligo-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, A. Adams, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, G. Allen, A. Allocca, Tiffany Z. Summerscales 2021 California Institute of Technology

Population Properties Of Compact Objects From The Second Ligo-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, A. Adams, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, G. Allen, A. Allocca, Tiffany Z. Summerscales

Faculty Publications

We report on the population of 47 compact binary mergers detected with a false-alarm rate of (BBH) population not discernible until now. First, the primary mass spectrum contains structure beyond a power law with a sharp high-mass cutoff; it is more consistent with a broken power law with a break at 39.7-+9.120.3 M? or a power law with a Gaussian feature peaking at 33.1-+5.64.0 M? (90% credible interval). While the primary mass distribution must extend to ~65 M? or beyond, only 2.9-+1.73.5% of systems have primary masses greater than 45 M?. Second, we find that a fraction of BBH systems …


Laplace's Equation In Fractional-Dimension Spaces, Kyle Schoener, Gabriele Varieschi 2021 Loyola Marymount University

Laplace's Equation In Fractional-Dimension Spaces, Kyle Schoener, Gabriele Varieschi

Honors Thesis

The correct way to model gravity is a question in physics whose answer continues to elude our understanding. One major difficulty is the dark matter problem, which exists due to the mass discrepancy between predicted and measured values in our universe. One possible solution to this problem is Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). MOND is an alternative gravity model that modifies Newtonian Dynamics with the hope to avoid the necessity of dark matter.

Dr. Varieschi has done work connecting MOND to Newtonian Fractional-Dimension Gravity—the application of fractional calculus and fractional mechanics to classical gravitation laws. In this formulation, we can consider …


Aztlán Del Sol, Marcus Zúñiga 2021 Art Center College of Design

Aztlán Del Sol, Marcus Zúñiga

Chamisa: A Journal of Literary, Performance, and Visual Arts of the Greater Southwest

An artistic writing developed from the themes and concepts of an of art installation made by a visual artist of Mexican-American descent from New Mexico. The work references the relationship of Aztec mythology to the American Southwest, art theoretical discourse in object oriented ontology and aesthetics, and key ideas in astronomy. Additionally interwoven is an expanded sense for interpreting ancestry and history under the constructs of multicultural conceptions of time, specifically cultures with notable spiritual rituals of Sun worship and observation.


Systematical Uncertainties In The Measurement Of A Gamma-Ray Burst’S Isotropic Equivalent Energy, Kimberly Zoldak 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Systematical Uncertainties In The Measurement Of A Gamma-Ray Burst’S Isotropic Equivalent Energy, Kimberly Zoldak

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic and luminous explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang, enabling them to be observed out to extremely large redshifts (z~9). Consequently, this makes them a promising cosmological standard candle candidate. Unfortunately, however, they have proven to be quite challenging to standardize. The GRB community has worked tirelessly at this task, and to date, has put forth several luminosity-distance relations, some more propitious than others. The most prevailing problem with these relations is in their sizable amount of scatter, likely due to measurement inconsistencies and errors in the variables they employ. This arises …


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