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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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Bioavailability And Pharmacokinetics Of Oral Meloxicam In Llamas, Amanda Kreuder, Johann F. Coetzee, Larry W. Wulf, Jennifer A. Schleining, Butch Kukanich, Lori L. Layman, Paul J. Plummer 2012 Iowa State University

Bioavailability And Pharmacokinetics Of Oral Meloxicam In Llamas, Amanda Kreuder, Johann F. Coetzee, Larry W. Wulf, Jennifer A. Schleining, Butch Kukanich, Lori L. Layman, Paul J. Plummer

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

South American camelids in the United States have rapidly developed into an important agricultural industry in need of veterinary services. Pain management is challenging in camelids because there are no drugs currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in these species. Dosage regimens used for many therapeutic drugs have been extrapolated from other ruminants; however, the pharmacokinetics, in camelids, may differ from those of other species. Studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in camelids are deficient in the published literature. Six adult llamas (121- 168 kg) were administered either a ...


Detection Of Feline Coronavirus In Captive Felidae In The Usa, Melissa Kennedy, S Citino, A McNabb, A Moffatt, K Gertz, Stephen Kania 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Detection Of Feline Coronavirus In Captive Felidae In The Usa, Melissa Kennedy, S Citino, A Mcnabb, A Moffatt, K Gertz, Stephen Kania

Stephen A Kania

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important pathogen of domestic and nondomestic Felidae. Investigation into the prevalence of FCoV in exotic Felidae has relied primarily on serology. The usefulness of genetic detection of FCoV using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT/nPCR) for viral screening was investigated. Seventy-five biologic samples, primarily feces, from captive felids from 11 institutions were tested using PCR. Serum samples collected from all but 12 of these animals were tested for antibodies to type I and type II FCoV by indirect immunofluorescence. Twenty-four animals were positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Twenty-nine animals were seropositive ...


Sensitivity And Specificity Of A Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction For Detection Of Lentivirus Infection In Lions (Panthera Leo), H Adams, M van Vuuren, Stephen Kania, A Bosman, D Keet, J New, Melissa Kennedy 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Sensitivity And Specificity Of A Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction For Detection Of Lentivirus Infection In Lions (Panthera Leo), H Adams, M Van Vuuren, Stephen Kania, A Bosman, D Keet, J New, Melissa Kennedy

Stephen A Kania

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus in the Retroviridae family that causes lifelong infection in domestic cats. The lentivirus of African lions (Panthera leo), referred to as FIVple, is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa. Lentivirus infection leads to immunologic dysfunction and immunosuppressive disease in domestic cats; however, little is known about the pathogenic effects of infection in lions, nor about the epidemiologic impact on free-ranging and captive populations. Whole blood and serum samples were collected opportunistically from free-ranging lions in Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa (RSA). Whole blood and serum samples were ...


Deletions In The 7a Orf Of Feline Coronavirus Associated With An Epidemic Of Feline Infectious Peritonitis, Melissa Kennedy, N Boedeker, P Gibbs, Stephen Kania 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Deletions In The 7a Orf Of Feline Coronavirus Associated With An Epidemic Of Feline Infectious Peritonitis, Melissa Kennedy, N Boedeker, P Gibbs, Stephen Kania

Stephen A Kania

A population of Persian cats experienced an epidemic of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) over 2 years. Twelve cases of FIP occurred in litters born during this period. Cats contracting FIP were all genetically related through the sire. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) genomic RNA was detected consistently in this study in biologic samples from adult cats, kittens suffering from FIP, and their siblings. Analysis of viral 7a/7b open reading frame (ORFs) were analyzed and revealed two distinct virus variants circulating in the population, one with an intact 7a ORF and one with two major deletions in the 7a ORF. The 7b ...


Detection Of Feline Coronavirus Infection In Captive Cheetahs (Acinonyx Jubatus) By Polymerase Chain Reaction, Melissa Kennedy, S Citino, T Dolorico, A McNabb, A Moffat, Stephen Kania 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Detection Of Feline Coronavirus Infection In Captive Cheetahs (Acinonyx Jubatus) By Polymerase Chain Reaction, Melissa Kennedy, S Citino, T Dolorico, A Mcnabb, A Moffat, Stephen Kania

Stephen A Kania

Feline coronavirus genetic elements were detected by polymerase chain reaction from blood, fecal samples, and effusive fluid collected from 33 cheetahs in the U.S.A. Feline coronavirus-specific serum antibodies were also measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Ten cheetahs were positive for viral shedding by polymerase chain reaction, whereas 13 were seropositive by immunofluorescence. Results of serology did not consistently correlate with shedding of virus, and the capture antigen used for detection of feline coronavirus-specific antibodies had a significant impact on results. Testing of samples from one population over a 1-yr period indicated chronic infection in some animals. These relatively healthy ...


Detection Of Feline Coronavirus Infection In Southern African Nondomestic Felids, Melissa Kennedy, Stephen Kania, E Stylianides, H Bertschinger, D Keet, M van Vuuren 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Detection Of Feline Coronavirus Infection In Southern African Nondomestic Felids, Melissa Kennedy, Stephen Kania, E Stylianides, H Bertschinger, D Keet, M Van Vuuren

Stephen A Kania

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infects members of the Felidae family with results ranging from seroconversion with no disease to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Infection of non-domestic felids with FCoV is of concern, particularly in endangered populations such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). In this investigation, we tested 342 animals in the Republic of South Africa and Namibia, including 140 animals from wild populations, for evidence of FCoV infection by serology and/or reverse transcription/nested polymerase chain reaction (RT/nPCR) on feces from 1999 through 2001. Past or current infection was evaluated. Of these, 195 animals had evidence of infection and ...


Development Of An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) For The Diagnosis Of Ophidian Paramyxovirus (Opv), Stephen Kania, Melissa Kennedy, N Nowlin, V Diderrich, Edward Ramsay 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Development Of An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) For The Diagnosis Of Ophidian Paramyxovirus (Opv), Stephen Kania, Melissa Kennedy, N Nowlin, V Diderrich, Edward Ramsay

Stephen A Kania

No abstract provided.


Pcr Prevalence Of Ranavirus In Free-Ranging Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene Carolina Carolina) At Rehabilitation Centers In Three Southeastern Us States, Matthew Allender, M Abd-Eldaim, Juergen Schumacher, D McRuer, L Christian, Melissa Kennedy 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pcr Prevalence Of Ranavirus In Free-Ranging Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene Carolina Carolina) At Rehabilitation Centers In Three Southeastern Us States, Matthew Allender, M Abd-Eldaim, Juergen Schumacher, D Mcruer, L Christian, Melissa Kennedy

Juergen P. Schumacher

Ranaviruses (genus Ranavirus) have been observed in disease epidemics and mass mortality events in free-ranging amphibian, turtle, and tortoise populations worldwide. Infection is highly fatal in turtles, and the potential impact on endangered populations could be devastating. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ranavirus DNA in blood and oral swabs, report associated clinical signs of infection, and determine spatial distribution of infected turtles. Blood and oral swabs were taken from 140 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) that were presented to the wildlife centers at the University of Tennessee (UT; n=39), Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; n ...


Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon 2012 University of Liverpool

Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

Fish have become a popular experimental model and companion animal, and are also farmed and caught for food. Thus, surgical and invasive procedures in this animal group are common, and this review will focus on the anesthesia and analgesia of fish. A variety of anesthetic agents are commonly applied to fish via immersion. Correct dosing can result in effective anesthesia for acute procedures as well as loss of consciousness for surgical interventions. Dose and anesthetic agent vary between species of fish and are further confounded by a variety of physiological parameters (e.g., body weight, physiological stress) as well as ...


The Toxicity Of Acetaminophen, Caffeine And Carbendazim In Earthworms (Eisenia Fetida), Matthew M. Bulman 2012 Eastern Illinois University

The Toxicity Of Acetaminophen, Caffeine And Carbendazim In Earthworms (Eisenia Fetida), Matthew M. Bulman

Masters Theses

There has been a need for the assessment of ground water contamination risk on terrestrial organisms. One terrestrial organism, Eisenia fetida, was chosen as a test species and exposed to three common pharmaceutical and/or pesticide related contaminants: acetaminophen (CAS#103-90-2), caffeine (CAS#58-08-2) and carbendazim (CAS#10605-21-7), respectively. Levels of contamination varied from grams per liter to micrograms per liter (ppb) using distilled water as the solvent. Eisenia fetida was examined through a 28 day range/index toxicity test. A Benchmark Dose (BMD) dichotomous probit analysis, using a 95% confidence interval, was calculated for all three contaminants. All three ...


Effect Of Oral Meloxicam On Health And Performance Of Beef Steers Relative To Bulls Castrated On Arrival At The Feedlot, Johann F. Coetzee, L. N. Edwards, Gretchen A. Mosher Dr., N. M. Bello, Annette M. O'Connor, Bing Wang, Butch Kukanich, D. A. Blasi 2012 Iowa State University

Effect Of Oral Meloxicam On Health And Performance Of Beef Steers Relative To Bulls Castrated On Arrival At The Feedlot, Johann F. Coetzee, L. N. Edwards, Gretchen A. Mosher Dr., N. M. Bello, Annette M. O'Connor, Bing Wang, Butch Kukanich, D. A. Blasi

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Castration in weaned calves is stressful and affects profitability by reducing ADG and increasing susceptibility to disease. This study evaluated the effect of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on performance and health of calves received as steers compared with bull calves surgically castrated on arrival at the feedlot. British × Continental bulls (n = 145) and steers (n = 113; BW = 193 to 285 kg) were transported for 12 h in 3 truckloads (d 0), weighed, and randomly assigned to receive either lactose placebo (CONT; 1 mg/kg) or meloxicam (MEL; 1 mg/kg) suspended in water and administered per os, 24 ...


The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. McCrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon 2011 University of Liverpool

The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

Recent research has shown the possibility of pain perception in fish; therefore, the use of analgesia or “painkillers” should be considered for invasive procedures. However, there is relatively little information on the effectiveness of analgesic drugs nor on the appropriate dose for fish. This study assessed the efficacy of three types of drug: an opioid, buprenorphine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), carprofen and a local anaesthetic, lidocaine. Each drug was tested at three doses on rainbow trout that were noxiously stimulated and the most effective dose was also given to fish experiencing no pain to investigate side-effects. Ventilation rate and ...


Assessment Of Heavy Metal Load In Chub Liver (Cyprinidae – Leuciscus Cephalus) From The Nišava River (Serbia), Boris Jovanović, Željko Mihaljev, Stevan Maletin, Dušan Palić 2011 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Heavy Metal Load In Chub Liver (Cyprinidae – Leuciscus Cephalus) From The Nišava River (Serbia), Boris Jovanović, Željko Mihaljev, Stevan Maletin, Dušan Palić

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The Nišava River plays an important role as the source for both drinking water and agricultural irrigation dueto its hydrological and geomorphological characteristics as the largest river in the region of southeast Serbia.In this study we used the liver of the chub (Leiciscus cephalus) as a tool for biomonitoring heavy metalaccumulation along the river. Chub specimens were sampled from two localities (one at the border withBulgaria and a second in the city of Niš). Concentrations were estimated for six heavy metals (iron,cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and manganese) in chub liver. Low bioconcentration level was observed formost of the ...


Pcr Prevalence Of Ranavirus In Free-Ranging Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene Carolina Carolina) At Rehabilitation Centers In Three Southeastern Us States, Matthew Allender, M Abd-Eldaim, Juergen Schumacher, D McRuer, L Christian, Melissa Kennedy 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pcr Prevalence Of Ranavirus In Free-Ranging Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene Carolina Carolina) At Rehabilitation Centers In Three Southeastern Us States, Matthew Allender, M Abd-Eldaim, Juergen Schumacher, D Mcruer, L Christian, Melissa Kennedy

Melissa A. Kennedy

Ranaviruses (genus Ranavirus) have been observed in disease epidemics and mass mortality events in free-ranging amphibian, turtle, and tortoise populations worldwide. Infection is highly fatal in turtles, and the potential impact on endangered populations could be devastating. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ranavirus DNA in blood and oral swabs, report associated clinical signs of infection, and determine spatial distribution of infected turtles. Blood and oral swabs were taken from 140 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) that were presented to the wildlife centers at the University of Tennessee (UT; n=39), Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; n ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Oral Tramadol In Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Marcy Souza, Tomas Martin-Jimenez, Michael Jones, Sherry Cox 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Oral Tramadol In Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Marcy Souza, Tomas Martin-Jimenez, Michael Jones, Sherry Cox

Sherry Cox

No abstract provided.


Determination Of Carboplatin In Canine Plasma By High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Nicolas Villarino, Sherry Cox, Jason Yarbrough, Tomas Martin-Jimenez 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Determination Of Carboplatin In Canine Plasma By High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Nicolas Villarino, Sherry Cox, Jason Yarbrough, Tomas Martin-Jimenez

Sherry Cox

Carboplatin is an antineoplastic drug administered to treat different tumoral conditions in canine oncology. The objective of this study was to validate a high-performance chromatographic (HPLC) method which could be applied in canine pharmacokinetic studies. Following ultrafiltration using a Centrifree device, standards, quality controls and plasma samples were separated by isocratic reversed-phase HPLC on an Inertsil ODS-2 (250 × 4.6 mm i.d.) analytical column and quantified using UV detection at 220 nm. The mobile phase was potassium phosphate (pH 4.5), with a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. The procedure produced a linear curve (r2 > 0.999) over ...


Evaluation Of Oral Itraconazole Administration In Captive Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti), Elizabeth Bunting, Noha Madi, Sherry Cox, Tomas Martin-Jimenez, Henry Fox, George Kollias 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Oral Itraconazole Administration In Captive Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti), Elizabeth Bunting, Noha Madi, Sherry Cox, Tomas Martin-Jimenez, Henry Fox, George Kollias

Sherry Cox

Aspergillus spp. fungal infections are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins. Itraconazole has been the drug of choice for both therapeutic and prophylactic treatment; however, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters can be highly variable in different species, and it has not been evaluated in penguins. In this study, four preliminary steady-state trials were performed to compare two oral formulations of itraconazole (commercial capsules compared with generic bulk compounded powder) at two different dosages (6 or 12 mg/kg once a day) administered in fish to small groups of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Building on ...


Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang 2011 Iowa State University

Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Background

Bacterial lipoproteins have important functions in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. In Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the majority of lipoproteins have not been functionally characterized. Previously, we showed by DNA microarray that CmeR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC, modulates the expression of a three-gene operon (cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091) encoding a cluster of lipoproteins in C. jejuni.

Methodology/Principal Findings

In this work, we characterized the function and regulation of the cj0089-cj0090-cj0091 operon. In contrast to the repression of cmeABC, CmeR activates the expression of the lipoprotein ...


A Prevalence Study Of Southeast Origin Sale Barn Beef Cattle, Comingled In Warren County, Kentucky, Persistently Infected With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Including The Effects Of Season And Body Weight, Sarah Elizabeth Thomas 2011 Western Kentucky University

A Prevalence Study Of Southeast Origin Sale Barn Beef Cattle, Comingled In Warren County, Kentucky, Persistently Infected With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Including The Effects Of Season And Body Weight, Sarah Elizabeth Thomas

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important disease of cattle. Calves persistently infected (PI) with the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are a powerful agent for spread of the virus. A total of 24,423 southeast origin beef cattle comingled at three Warren County, Kentucky locations were tested from November 2007 to June 2010 for PI BVDV. A total of 97 head tested positive for PI BVDV, giving an average overall prevalence of 0.397%.
Calves tested were subdivided into categories for additional calculations of dependence. A total of 8,910 were categorized by weight range upon testing (300-399 ...


Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon 2011 Center for Veterinary Biologics

Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fish vaccine testing; and c) to discuss the way forward and set out how the Three Rs may be implemented without jeopardizing the quality of the vaccines. The workshop participants -- experts from academia, regulatory authorities, a scientific animal welfare organization, and the fish vaccine industry ...


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