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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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379 full-text articles. Page 5 of 7.

Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst 2015 Iowa State University

Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in pigs of different age groups, to determine if 25(OH)D concentrations varied with season, and to assess the quality of vitamin D supplements used in swine diets from multiple commercial suppliers. Serum samples (n = 1200) submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for routine surveillance were assayed for serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D premix samples were obtained from suppliers and analyzed at two laboratories over a 9-month period. In all age categories, 25(OH)D concentrations in numerous serum samples were lower ...


Synovial Fluid Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin And Florfenicol After A Single Subcutaneous Dose In Cattle, Meredyth L. Jones, Kevin E. Washburn, Virginia R. Fajt, Somchai Rice 2015 Texas A&M University

Synovial Fluid Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin And Florfenicol After A Single Subcutaneous Dose In Cattle, Meredyth L. Jones, Kevin E. Washburn, Virginia R. Fajt, Somchai Rice

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background
Deep digital septic conditions represent some of the most refractory causes of severe lameness in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of tulathromycin, gamithromycin and florfenicol into the synovial fluid of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of cattle after single subcutaneous administration of drug to evaluate the potential usefulness of these single-dose, long-acting antimicrobials for treating bacterial infections of the joints in cattle.

Results
Twelve cross-bred beef cows were randomly assigned to one of the drugs. Following subcutaneous administration, arthrocentesis of the left metatarsophalangeal joint was performed at various time points up to 240 hours ...


Glucocorticoid-Induced Chondrocyte Cytotoxicity At Doses Recommended For Intra-Articular Therapy In Horses, Wenying Zhu 2015 University of Kentucky

Glucocorticoid-Induced Chondrocyte Cytotoxicity At Doses Recommended For Intra-Articular Therapy In Horses, Wenying Zhu

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Intra-articular glucocorticoid injections are commonly used to treat synovitis and osteoarthritis in horses. These agents are highly effective at relieving pain, swelling, and other symptoms of joint inflammation. The drugs also have therapeutic benefits by down regulating the expression of cytokines and protease enzymes that participate in the degradation of articular cartilage. However, detrimental effects on chondrocyte function and cell viability that is independent of osteoarthritis pathogenesis have been described and linked to glucocorticoid use. These side effects are both drug- and dose-dependent. This study tested the hypothesis that manufacture recommended dosage levels of methylprednisolone, betamethasone, and triamcinolone that are ...


A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann 2014 Humane Society International

A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann

Troy Seidle, PhD

The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation mandates testing and evaluation of approximately 30,000 existing substances within a short period of time, beginning with the most widely used “high production volume” (HPV) chemicals. REACH testing requirements for the roughly 3000 HPV chemicals specify three separate tests for reproductive toxicity: two developmental toxicity studies on different animal species (OECD Test Guideline 414) and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD TG 416). These studies are highly costly in both economic and animal welfare terms. OECD TG 416 is a fertility study intended to evaluate reproductive performance ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Intravenous And Subcutaneous Cefovecin In Alpacas, S Cox, C Sommardahl, Reza Seddighi 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Intravenous And Subcutaneous Cefovecin In Alpacas, S Cox, C Sommardahl, Reza Seddighi

Reza Seddighi

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and ...


Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dosing interval on the efficacy of maropitant for prevention of opioid-induced vomiting and signs of nausea in dogs.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical study.

Animals—50 client-owned dogs that underwent an elective surgical procedure.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC), then hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM) at 0 (simultaneously; group 0; n = 10), 15 (group 15; 10), 30 (group 30; 10), 45 (group 45; 10), or 60 (group 60; 10) minutes later. Dogs were monitored for vomiting and signs of ...


Anticholinergic Drugs In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Anticholinergic Drugs In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Can I use anticholinergic drugs with dexmedetomidine in dogs?


T-61 Use In The Euthanasia Of Domestic Animals: A Survey, Andrew N. Rowan 2014 Tufts University

T-61 Use In The Euthanasia Of Domestic Animals: A Survey, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

A variety of techniques have been proposed and employed for the killing of domestic animals but relatively few have survived as suitable agents for euthanasia-namely, the induction of painless, suffering-free death. Some agents, such as strychnine, curariform agents, or potassium salts cause suffering while others have other disadvantages. 'lbday, dogs and cats are commonly euthanatized with sodium pentobarbital or with T-61 which is a mixture of a central nervous system narcotic, a paralytic agent, and a local anesthetic. The use of T-61 was first reported in the United States in 1963 (Quin 1963). The substance gradually became more popular because ...


Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of orally administered maropitant citrate in preventing vomiting after hydromorphone hydrochloride administration in dogs.

Design—Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical study.

Animals—40 dogs with American Society of Anesthesiologists status of I or II, > 6 months of age, and weighing between 24 and 58.2 kg (52.8 and 128.04 lb).

Procedures—Dogs were randomly selected to receive maropitant (2.0 to 4.0 mg/kg [0.9 to 1.8 mg/lb]) or placebo (lactose monohydrate) orally 2 hours prior to receiving hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM). A blinded ...


Target Optimization For Peptide Nucleic Acid (Pna)-Mediated Antisense Inhibition Of The Cmeabc Multidrug Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni, Euna Oh, Qijing Zhang, Byeonghwa Jeon 2014 University of Alberta

Target Optimization For Peptide Nucleic Acid (Pna)-Mediated Antisense Inhibition Of The Cmeabc Multidrug Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni, Euna Oh, Qijing Zhang, Byeonghwa Jeon

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Objectives

CmeABC is a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics in Campylobacter. This study aimed to identify the optimal target sites for the inhibition of CmeABC with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA).

Methods

Eighteen PNAs were designed to bind to the translational initiation regions of cmeABC, spanning the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and the start codon of the cmeABC genes. Campylobacter jejuni was treated with CmeABC-specific PNAs (CmeABC-PNAs) at various concentrations and subjected to western blotting to measure changes in the level of CmeABC expression. The MICs of ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were measured to ...


Impact Of Oral Meloxicam On Circulating Physiological Biomarkers Of Stress And Inflammation In Beef Steers After Long-Distance Transportation, Nicholas K. Van Engen, M. L. Stock, Terry Engelken, R. C. Vann, Larry W. Wulf, Locke A. Karriker, W. D. Busby, J. Lakritz, A. J. Carpenter, B. J. Bradford, Walter H. Hsu, Chong Wang, Johann F. Coetzee 2014 Iowa State University

Impact Of Oral Meloxicam On Circulating Physiological Biomarkers Of Stress And Inflammation In Beef Steers After Long-Distance Transportation, Nicholas K. Van Engen, M. L. Stock, Terry Engelken, R. C. Vann, Larry W. Wulf, Locke A. Karriker, W. D. Busby, J. Lakritz, A. J. Carpenter, B. J. Bradford, Walter H. Hsu, Chong Wang, Johann F. Coetzee

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Transportation stress can result in significant economic losses to producers due to decreased animal productivity and increased medication costs associated with sickness such as bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Meloxicam (MEL) provides pain relief and anti-inflammatory effects in cattle for several days after a single oral treatment. Our hypothesis was that MEL administration before shipping would reduce the impact of long-distance transportation on circulating physiological biomarkers of stress and inflammation in beef steers. Ninety-seven beef steers were blood sampled for baseline biomarker determination and then randomly assigned to receive either 1 mg/kg MEL (n = 49) or a placebo (CONT; n ...


Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2013 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Background

Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and veterinary communities, as well as animal agriculture and related industries. Currently accepted practices of harsh chemical treatments such as prolonged exposure to sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving are not suitable in many situations. Less caustic and more readily applicable treatments to contaminated environments are therefore desirable. We recently demonstrated that exposure of the RML scrapie agent to a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate (SPC-P) with or without sodium dodecyl ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Terbinafine After Oral Administration Of A Single Dose To Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), E Evans, L Emery, Sherry Cox, Marcy Souza 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Terbinafine After Oral Administration Of A Single Dose To Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), E Evans, L Emery, Sherry Cox, Marcy Souza

Sherry Cox

Objective-To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a ...


The Contribution Of Arsb To Arsenic Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Zhangqi Shen, Jing Han, Yang Wang, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2013 Iowa State University

The Contribution Of Arsb To Arsenic Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Zhangqi Shen, Jing Han, Yang Wang, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Arsenic, a toxic metalloid, exists in the natural environment and its organic form is approved for use as a feed additive for animal production. As a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin,Campylobacter is exposed to arsenic selection pressure in the food animal production environments. Previous studies showed that Campylobacter isolates from poultry were highly resistant to arsenic compounds and a 4-gene operon (containing arsP, arsR, arsC, and acr3) was associated with arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. However, this 4-gene operon is only present in some Campylobacter isolates and other arsenic resistance mechanisms in C. jejunihave not been characterized. In ...


Effects Of Intravenous Administration Of Polymyxin B In Neonatal Foals With Experimental Endotoxemia, David M. Wong, Brett A. Sponseller, Cody J. Alcott, Prince N. Agbedanu, Chong Wang, Walter H. Hsu 2013 Iowa State University

Effects Of Intravenous Administration Of Polymyxin B In Neonatal Foals With Experimental Endotoxemia, David M. Wong, Brett A. Sponseller, Cody J. Alcott, Prince N. Agbedanu, Chong Wang, Walter H. Hsu

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effect of IV administration of polymyxin B on clinical and serum biochemical variables in foals with experimental endotoxemia.

Design—Prospective experimental study.

Animals—14 healthy neonatal foals.

Procedures—Foals were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and were administered a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (0.5 μg/kg [0.23 μg/lb]) IV over 30 minutes. The treatment group received polymyxin B (6,000 U/kg [2,727 U/lb], IV) immediately after completion of lipopolysaccharide infusion; the control group was administered an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Subsequent doses of ...


Efficacy Of Maropitant In Preventing Vomiting In Dogs Premedicated With Hydromorphone, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2013 Iowa State University

Efficacy Of Maropitant In Preventing Vomiting In Dogs Premedicated With Hydromorphone, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of maropitant (Cerenia®) in preventing vomiting after premedication with hydromorphone.

Study design Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical study.

Animals Eighteen dogs ASA I/II admitted for elective orthopedic surgical procedures. The dogs were a mixed population of males and females, purebreds and mixed breeds, 1.0–10.2 years of age, weighing 3–49.5 kg.

Methods Dogs were admitted to the study if they were greater than 1 year of age, healthy and scheduled to undergo elective orthopedic surgery. Dogs were randomly selected to receive one of two treatments ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Terbinafine After Oral Administration Of A Single Dose To Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), E Evans, L Emery, Sherry Cox, Marcy Souza 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Terbinafine After Oral Administration Of A Single Dose To Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), E Evans, L Emery, Sherry Cox, Marcy Souza

Marcy J Souza

Objective-To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a ...


Anti-Campylobacter Activities And Resistance Mechanisms Of Natural Phenolic Compounds In Campylobacter, Anja Klančnik, Sonja Smole Možina, Qijing Zhang 2012 University of Ljubljana

Anti-Campylobacter Activities And Resistance Mechanisms Of Natural Phenolic Compounds In Campylobacter, Anja Klančnik, Sonja Smole Možina, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Background

Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Anti-Campylobacter activities were evaluated by an MIC assay using microdilution coupled with ATP measurement. Mutants of the cmeB and cmeF efflux genes and the cmeR transcriptional repressor gene were compared with the wild-type strain for ...


Development And Validation Of A Taqman Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr For Rapid Detection Of Feline Calicivirus, M Abd-Eldaim, Rebecca Wilkes, K Thomas, Melissa Kennedy 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Development And Validation Of A Taqman Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr For Rapid Detection Of Feline Calicivirus, M Abd-Eldaim, Rebecca Wilkes, K Thomas, Melissa Kennedy

Rebecca P. Wilkes DVM, PhD, DACVM

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats and is associated with interstitial pneumonia, oral ulceration and polyarthritis. Recently, outbreaks have involved a highly virulent FCV that leads to multisystemic signs. Virus isolation and conventional RT-PCR are the most common methods used for FCV diagnosis. However, real-time RT-PCR offers a rapid, sensitive, specific and easy tool for nucleic acid detection. The objective of this study was to design a TaqMan probe-based, real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of FCV. It was determined in our previous study that the first 120 nucleotides of the 5' region ...


A Toxicology And Clinical Study Of Post Race Epitaxis Associated With Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage In Thoroughbred Race Horses At The Racecourse Rinconada, Caracas, Venezuela, Abelardo Morales Briceno, Diana Villoria Leon, Kimberly Brewer, Thomas Tobin 2012 Central University of Venezuela, Venezuela

A Toxicology And Clinical Study Of Post Race Epitaxis Associated With Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage In Thoroughbred Race Horses At The Racecourse Rinconada, Caracas, Venezuela, Abelardo Morales Briceno, Diana Villoria Leon, Kimberly Brewer, Thomas Tobin

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

The aim of this study was to describe cases of epistaxis associated with post-race Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH) in Thoroughbred horses at the Hippodrome "La Rinconada", Caracas, Venezuela, through a clinic pathological study. We studied a total of 29 cases of epistaxis post-race in Thoroughbred horses at the Hippodrome La Rinconada, Caracas, Venezuela, which is 2,950 meters above sea level. The study included horses between the ages of 2-5 years, 16 stallions and 13 mares, weighing between 450-510 kg. They underwent a clinical examination, although horses presenting with epistaxis were in an emergency situation. Samples of blood and ...


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