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1,973 full-text articles. Page 35 of 37.

Distribution Of Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) In Nebraska, South Dakota, And North Dakota: Clarifying The Epidemiology Of Bluetongue Disease In The Northern Great Plains Region Of The United States, E. T. Schmidtmann, M. V. Herrero, A. L. Green, D. A. Dargatz, J. M. Rodriquez, T. E. Walton 2011 Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit

Distribution Of Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) In Nebraska, South Dakota, And North Dakota: Clarifying The Epidemiology Of Bluetongue Disease In The Northern Great Plains Region Of The United States, E. T. Schmidtmann, M. V. Herrero, A. L. Green, D. A. Dargatz, J. M. Rodriquez, T. E. Walton

Other Publications in Zoonotics and Wildlife Disease

The presence or absence of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a primary vector of bluetongue viruses (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, BTV) in North America, was assessed on ranches and farms across the Northern Great Plains region of the United States, specifically Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, as part of a 2-yr regional study of BTV exposure among cattle. Blacklight/suction trap samples totaling 280 2-night intervals were taken at 140 aquatic sites (potential larval habitat for C. sonorensis) on 82 livestock operations (ranches and farms) that span a south-to-north gradient of expected decreasing risk for exposure to BTV. In Nebraska, C. sonorensis populations were common and widespread, present at 15 of 18 operations. Of 32 operations sampled in South Dakota, seven of which were sampled in successive years, 18 were positive for C. sonorensis; 13 of 14 operations located west of the Missouri River were positive, whereas 13 of 18 operations east of the river were negative. Of 32 operations sampled in North Dakota, seven of which were sampled both years, 12 were positive for C. sonorensis. Six of eight operations located west and south of the Missouri River in North Dakota were positive, whereas 18 of 24 operations east and north of the river were negative for C. sonorensis. These data illustrate a well-defined pattern of C. sonorensis spatial distribution, with populations ...


Bovine Tuberculosis In A Nebraska Herd Of Farmed Elk And Fallow Deer: A Failure Of The Tuberculin Skin Test And Opportunities For Serodiagnosis, W. Ray Waters, Gary E. Stevens, Mark A. Schoenbaum, Kathy A. Orloski, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, N. Beth Harris, S. Mark Hall, Bruce V. Thomsen, Arach J. Wilson, Roger E. Brannian, Jeffrey T. Nelson, Shawn Schafer, Javan Esfandiari, Meghan Dutton, Rena Greenwald, Konstantin P. Lyashchenko 2011 USDA-ARS

Bovine Tuberculosis In A Nebraska Herd Of Farmed Elk And Fallow Deer: A Failure Of The Tuberculin Skin Test And Opportunities For Serodiagnosis, W. Ray Waters, Gary E. Stevens, Mark A. Schoenbaum, Kathy A. Orloski, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, N. Beth Harris, S. Mark Hall, Bruce V. Thomsen, Arach J. Wilson, Roger E. Brannian, Jeffrey T. Nelson, Shawn Schafer, Javan Esfandiari, Meghan Dutton, Rena Greenwald, Konstantin P. Lyashchenko

Other Publications in Zoonotics and Wildlife Disease

In 2009, Mycobacterium bovis infection was detected in a herd of 60 elk (Cervus elaphus) and 50 fallow deer (Dama dama) in Nebraska, USA. Upon depopulation of the herd, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was estimated at ∼71–75%, based upon histopathology and culture results. Particularly with elk, gross lesions were often severe and extensive. One year ago, the majority of the elk had been tested for TB by single cervical test (SCT), and all were negative. After initial detection of a tuberculous elk in this herd, 42 of the 59 elk were tested by SCT. Of the 42 ...


Consensus-Based Reporting Standards For Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies For Paratuberculosis In Ruminants, Ian A. Gardner, Søren S. Nielsen, Richard J. Whittington, Michael T. Collins, Douwe Bakker, Beth Harris, Srinand Sreevatsan, Jason E. Lombard, Raymond Sweeney, David L. Smith, Jerie Gavalchin, Shigetoshi Eda 2011 University of California - Davis

Consensus-Based Reporting Standards For Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies For Paratuberculosis In Ruminants, Ian A. Gardner, Søren S. Nielsen, Richard J. Whittington, Michael T. Collins, Douwe Bakker, Beth Harris, Srinand Sreevatsan, Jason E. Lombard, Raymond Sweeney, David L. Smith, Jerie Gavalchin, Shigetoshi Eda

Other Publications in Zoonotics and Wildlife Disease

The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of key elements of test accuracy studies in human medicine. The statement was motivated by widespread evidence of bias in test accuracy studies and the finding that incomplete or absent reporting of items in the STARD checklist was associated with overly optimistic estimates of test performance characteristics. Although STARD principles apply broadly, specific guidelines do not exist to account for unique considerations in livestock studies such as herd tests, potential use of experimental challenge studies, a more diverse group of testing purposes and ...


Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho 2011 Iowa State University

Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater (P < 0.10) proportions of applied precipitation and amounts of sediment and P transported in runoff from bare sites than from vegetated sites across grazing treatments. Similar differences were observed comparing vegetated sites in CSU and RS pastures with vegetated sites in CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, andEscherichia coli O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces ...


Regulated Commercial Harvest To Manage Overabundant White-Tailed Deer: An Idea To Consider?, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Charles W. Anderson, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, W. David Walter, Stephen Vantassel, Scott E. Hygnstrom 2011 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Regulated Commercial Harvest To Manage Overabundant White-Tailed Deer: An Idea To Consider?, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Charles W. Anderson, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, W. David Walter, Stephen Vantassel, Scott E. Hygnstrom

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Declines in hunter recruitment coupled with dramatic growth in numbers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have challenged our ability to manage deer populations through regulated hunting. We review the efficacy of current regulated hunting methods and explain how they are unable to reduce deer numbers sufficiently in some environments. Regulated commercial harvest would provide an additional tool to help state wildlife agencies manage overabundant populations of white-tailed deer. We outline potential means to govern regulated commercial deer harvest and explain how it is compatible with the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation. We identified several benefits, including reduced overabundant populations ...


Identification Of A Key Amino Acid Of Luxs Involved In Ai-2 Production In Campylobacter Jejuni, Paul J. Plummer, Jinge Zhu, Masato Akiba, Dehua Pei, Qijing Zhang 2011 Iowa State University

Identification Of A Key Amino Acid Of Luxs Involved In Ai-2 Production In Campylobacter Jejuni, Paul J. Plummer, Jinge Zhu, Masato Akiba, Dehua Pei, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mediated quorum sensing has been associated with the expression of virulence factors in a number of pathogenic organisms and has been demonstrated to play a role in motility and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) production in Campylobacter jejuni. We have initiated the work to determine the molecular basis of AI-2 synthesis and the biological functions of quorum sensing in C. jejuni. In this work, two naturally occurring variants of C. jejuni 81116 were identified, one producing high-levels of AI-2 while the other is defective in AI-2 synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed a G92D mutation in the luxS gene of the ...


Static And Dynamic (18) Fdg-Pet In Normal Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), Marcy Souza, J Walls, A Stuckey, G Daniel 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Static And Dynamic (18) Fdg-Pet In Normal Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), Marcy Souza, J Walls, A Stuckey, G Daniel

Marcy J Souza

Positron emission tomography (PET) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-Deoxy-2-[(18) F]-Fluoro-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. We characterized the normal distribution of (18) F-FDG in 10 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by performing whole body PET scans at steady state, 60min after injection. Significant variability was found in the intestinal activity. Avian species are known to reflux fluid and electrolytes from their cloaca into ...


Ranavirus: Past, Present And Future., D. Lesbarrères, A. Balseiro, J. Brunner, V. Chinchar, A. Duffus, J. Kirby, Debra Miller, J. Robert, D. Schock, T. Waltzek, Matthew Gray 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Ranavirus: Past, Present And Future., D. Lesbarrères, A. Balseiro, J. Brunner, V. Chinchar, A. Duffus, J. Kirby, Debra Miller, J. Robert, D. Schock, T. Waltzek, Matthew Gray

Debra L Miller

Emerging infectious diseases are a significant threat to global biodiversity. While historically overlooked, a group of iridoviruses in the genus Ranavirus has been responsible for die-offs in captive and wild amphibian, reptile and fish populations around the globe over the past two decades. In order to share contemporary information on ranaviruses and identify critical research directions, the First International Symposium on Ranaviruses was held in July 2011 in Minneapolis, MN, USA. Twenty-three scientists and veterinarians from nine countries examined the ecology and evolution of ranavirus-host interactions, potential reservoirs, transmission dynamics, as well as immunological and histopathological responses to infection. In ...


Development And Disease: How Susceptibility To An Emerging Pathogen Changes Through Anuran Development., N. Haislip, Matthew Gray, J. Hoverman, Debra Miller 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development And Disease: How Susceptibility To An Emerging Pathogen Changes Through Anuran Development., N. Haislip, Matthew Gray, J. Hoverman, Debra Miller

Debra L Miller

Ranaviruses have caused die-offs of amphibians across the globe. In North America, these pathogens cause more amphibian mortality events than any other pathogen. Field observations suggest that ranavirus epizootics in amphibian communities are common during metamorphosis, presumably due to changes in immune function. However, few controlled studies have compared the relative susceptibility of amphibians to ranaviruses across life stages. Our objectives were to measure differences in mortality and infection prevalence following exposure to ranavirus at four developmental stages and determine whether the differences were consistent among seven anuran species. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that susceptibility to ranavirus would ...


Why Are Hatching And Emergence Success Low? Mercury And Selenium Concentrations In Nesting Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys Coriacea) And Their Young In Florida., J. Perrault, J. Wyneken, L. Thompson, C. Johnson, Debra Miller 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Why Are Hatching And Emergence Success Low? Mercury And Selenium Concentrations In Nesting Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys Coriacea) And Their Young In Florida., J. Perrault, J. Wyneken, L. Thompson, C. Johnson, Debra Miller

Debra L Miller

Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) have low hatching and emergence success compared to other sea turtle species. Postmortem examinations of hatchlings showed degeneration of heart and skeletal muscle that was similar to that found in other neonates with selenium deficient mothers. Selenium deficiency can result from elevated concentrations of bodily mercury. Ingested mercury is detoxified by the liver through mercury-selenium compound formation. In animals persistently exposed to mercury, the liver's ability to detoxify this element may decrease, especially if dietary selenium is insufficient. We measured mercury and selenium concentrations in nesting female leatherbacks and their hatchlings from Florida and ...


Isolation Of A Variant Porphyromonas Sp From Polymicrobial Infections In Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona Vitticeps), D Bernis, Cheryl Greenacre, M Bryant, R Jones, Stephen Kania 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Isolation Of A Variant Porphyromonas Sp From Polymicrobial Infections In Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona Vitticeps), D Bernis, Cheryl Greenacre, M Bryant, R Jones, Stephen Kania

Stephen A Kania

No abstract provided.


2011 International Ranavirus Symposium, R. Marschang, Debra Miller 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

2011 International Ranavirus Symposium, R. Marschang, Debra Miller

Debra L Miller

This article summarizes the state of Ranavirus knowledge, ongoing research, and future activities. Ranaviruses are large dsDNA viruses in the family Iridoviridae. They were originally detected in frogs (hence the name of the genus, Ranavirus) but are now known to infect and cause disease in fish and reptiles as well as in amphibians. Ranaviruses have been associated with numerous die-offs in amphibian populations and have also been increasingly found in fish and reptiles in recent years. Their role in amphibian declines and as emerging pathogens has led to increased awareness of the importance of these pathogens in conservation and ectothermic ...


Histological Findings In Free-Ranging Sarasota Bay Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Skin: Mercury, Selenium, And Seasonal Factors., Debra Miller, V. Woshner, E. Styer, S. Ferguson, K. Knott, Matthew Gray, R. Wells, T. O'Hara 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Histological Findings In Free-Ranging Sarasota Bay Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Skin: Mercury, Selenium, And Seasonal Factors., Debra Miller, V. Woshner, E. Styer, S. Ferguson, K. Knott, Matthew Gray, R. Wells, T. O'Hara

Debra L Miller

Full-thickness epidermal biopsy samples were collected from free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA. Season (summer or winter) of collection, mercury (Hg) concentration, and selenium (Se) concentration were compared to histologic parameters. Epidermal Hg concentration was positively related to age (P<0.001) and negatively related to height of the stratum spinosum (P<0.05). The mitotic index and heights of the stratum externum and intermedium were lower in summer than in winter (P<0.01). Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed variation in the diameters (60–138 nm) and arrangements of collagen fibers, regardless of age ...


Intersex Condition Of Shoal Bass In The Flint River, Georgia., D. Ingram, Debra Miller, T. Ingram, J. Tannehill 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Intersex Condition Of Shoal Bass In The Flint River, Georgia., D. Ingram, Debra Miller, T. Ingram, J. Tannehill

Debra L Miller

We examined male shoal bass Micropterus cataractae from the Flint River, Georgia, to determine the prevalence of intersex. During March and April 2010, we sampled 61 shoal bass from six sites along the Flint River. Testes were examined histologically and classified as intersex if the presence of oocytes was noted. Using a severity index, we compared samples collected on different dates and from different locations according to age and testis weight. No significant variations were noted among any of the groupings. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the intersex condition in shoal bass is severe enough to warrant concern ...


Phylogeny, Life History, And Ecology Contribute To Differences In Amphibian Susceptibility To Ranaviruses., J. Hoverman, Matthew Gray, Nathan Haislip, Debra Miller 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Phylogeny, Life History, And Ecology Contribute To Differences In Amphibian Susceptibility To Ranaviruses., J. Hoverman, Matthew Gray, Nathan Haislip, Debra Miller

Debra L Miller

Research that identifies the potential host range of generalist pathogens as well as variation in host susceptibility is critical for understanding and predicting the dynamics of infectious diseases within ecological communities. Ranaviruses have been linked to amphibian die-off events worldwide with the greatest number of reported mortality events occurring in the United States. While reports of ranavirus-associated mortality events continue to accumulate, few data exist comparing the relative susceptibility of different species. Using a series of laboratory exposure experiments and comparative phylogenetics, we compared the susceptibilities of 19 amphibian species from two salamander families and five anurans families for two ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Oral Tramadol In Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Marcy Souza, Tomas Martin-Jimenez, Michael Jones, Sherry Cox 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Oral Tramadol In Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Marcy Souza, Tomas Martin-Jimenez, Michael Jones, Sherry Cox

Marcy J Souza

Little research has been performed examining pain control in avian species, and analgesia is becoming increasingly important in veterinary medicine. Tramadol is a relatively new drug that provides analgesia by opioid (mu), serotonin and norepinephrine pathways, with minimal adverse effects. In this study, three red-tailed hawks were dosed orally (11 mg/kg) with tramadol. Blood was collected at various time points between 0 and 360 min and analyzed with HPLC to determine concentrations of tramadol and M1 (O-desmethyltramadol), the predominate active metabolite. Although plasma concentrations of tramadol and M1 associated with analgesia in any avian species is unknown, based on ...


Ecopathology Of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray, A. Storfer 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Ecopathology Of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray, A. Storfer

Debra L Miller

Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well ...


Detection Of Human Papillomavirus Dna In Feline Premalignant And Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma, SH O'Neill, Kim Newkirk, EA Anis, R Brahmbhatt, LA Frank, Stephen Kania 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Detection Of Human Papillomavirus Dna In Feline Premalignant And Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Sh O'Neill, Kim Newkirk, Ea Anis, R Brahmbhatt, La Frank, Stephen Kania

Stephen A Kania

No abstract provided.


Streptococcus Phocae Isolated From A Spotted Seal ( Phoca Largha) With Pyometra In Alaska., K. Hueffer, C. Lieske, L. McGilvary, R. Hare, Debra Miller, T. O'Hara 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Streptococcus Phocae Isolated From A Spotted Seal ( Phoca Largha) With Pyometra In Alaska., K. Hueffer, C. Lieske, L. Mcgilvary, R. Hare, Debra Miller, T. O'Hara

Debra L Miller

A spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (USA), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. Lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. This report is the first Streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as well as the first report of pyometra as the main pathologic finding associated with this pathogen. Isolation of this pathogen from Alaska expands the reported range to ...


Sensitivity And Specificity Of A Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction For Detection Of Lentivirus Infection In Lions (Panthera Leo), H Adams, M van Vuuren, Stephen Kania, A Bosman, D Keet, J New, Melissa Kennedy 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Sensitivity And Specificity Of A Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction For Detection Of Lentivirus Infection In Lions (Panthera Leo), H Adams, M Van Vuuren, Stephen Kania, A Bosman, D Keet, J New, Melissa Kennedy

Melissa A. Kennedy

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus in the Retroviridae family that causes lifelong infection in domestic cats. The lentivirus of African lions (Panthera leo), referred to as FIVple, is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa. Lentivirus infection leads to immunologic dysfunction and immunosuppressive disease in domestic cats; however, little is known about the pathogenic effects of infection in lions, nor about the epidemiologic impact on free-ranging and captive populations. Whole blood and serum samples were collected opportunistically from free-ranging lions in Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa (RSA). Whole blood and serum samples were ...


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