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Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine Commons

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Hypothalamic Integration Of Nutrient Status And Reproduction In The Sheep, Joseph Daniel, Chad Foradori, Brian Whitlock, James Sartin 2012 Berry College

Hypothalamic Integration Of Nutrient Status And Reproduction In The Sheep, Joseph Daniel, Chad Foradori, Brian Whitlock, James Sartin

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Nutrient availability is a determinant of reproductive success. It is well known that inadequate nutrition results in reproductive failure due to a number of factors including delay of puberty or anoestrous in post-pubertal animals. The lack of nutrients is detected primarily by changes in circulating nutrient molecules and hormones and communicated directly or indirectly to the hypothalamus and brain stem for integration. The general effect is that low nutrition leads to increased appetite stimulation and reduced reproductive performance. When nutrition is adequate, the reverse is true. Both aspects will be the focus of this review. One result of the lack ...


Reproductive Tract Vasculature Of The Female Emu ( Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Robert Reed, L Cope, James Blackford 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Reproductive Tract Vasculature Of The Female Emu ( Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Robert Reed, L Cope, James Blackford

James T. Blackford DVM, MS, DACVS

The arterial supply of the ovary and oviduct is provided by the ovarian artery, cranial oviductal artery, accessory cranial oviductal artery, middle oviductal artery, caudal oviductal artery and the medial and lateral vaginal arteries. These arteries supply various regions of the oviduct and are branches of either the left cranial renal artery, left external iliac artery, left middle renal artery, left lateral caudal artery or the left pudendal artery. The veins that drain the reproductive tract are satellite vessels to each artery that supplied the tract.


Macroscopic Anatomy Of The Reproductive Tract Of The Reproductively Quiescent Female Emu ( Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Robert Reed, L Cope, James Blackford 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Macroscopic Anatomy Of The Reproductive Tract Of The Reproductively Quiescent Female Emu ( Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Robert Reed, L Cope, James Blackford

James T. Blackford DVM, MS, DACVS

Three reproductively quiescent female emus ( Dromaius novaehollandiae) were embalmed with 10% formalin solution. The reproductive tract was dissected and described. The reproductive tract consists of an ovary and oviduct situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The left ovary is dark brown to black in colour with follicles covering the ventral surface. The ovary is located medial to the spleen and closely associated with the ventral surface of the cranial and middle lobes of the left kidney. The oviduct is a relatively straight tube that extends from the level of the cranial extent of the left ilium to ...


Silicone Casting Of The Chambers Of The Heart And The Great Vessels, Robert Henry, Gregory Daniel, Robert Reed 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Silicone Casting Of The Chambers Of The Heart And The Great Vessels, Robert Henry, Gregory Daniel, Robert Reed

Robert W Henry

No abstract provided.


Microscopic Anatomy Of The Lower Respiratory Tract Of The Grey Short-Tailed Opossum ( Monodelphis Domestica), L Cope, Robert Henry, Robert Reed 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microscopic Anatomy Of The Lower Respiratory Tract Of The Grey Short-Tailed Opossum ( Monodelphis Domestica), L Cope, Robert Henry, Robert Reed

Robert W Henry

The respiratory tracts of seven grey short-tailed opossums were histologically examined. Six opossums were prepared by perfusion with buffered formalin. Opossum seven was perfused with gluteraldehyde. Samples taken from the respiratory passages and lungs of specimens 1-6 were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. A mixture of methylene and azure blue was used for specimen 7. The trachea and right and left principal bronchi are lined with a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with occasional goblet cells. The secondary and tertiary bronchi and the primary and secondary bronchioles are lined by a simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The terminal bronchioles and a portion ...


Anatomy Of Structures Associated With The Lower Respiratory Tract Of The Gray, Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), L Cope, Robert Henry, Robert Reed 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Anatomy Of Structures Associated With The Lower Respiratory Tract Of The Gray, Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), L Cope, Robert Henry, Robert Reed

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Improved Method For Dried Anatomical Specimen Preparation, I Arnautovic, Robert Henry, H Pobric, R Avdic, V Cutahija, M Tabakovic, Robert Reed 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improved Method For Dried Anatomical Specimen Preparation, I Arnautovic, Robert Henry, H Pobric, R Avdic, V Cutahija, M Tabakovic, Robert Reed

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

Dessicated organs used for teaching purposes are susceptible to insect damage as well as damage due to improper handling. Injection of expanding foam products into the lumen of dessicated organs followed by varnishing produces anatomical specimens resistant to insect damage and more resilient to the strains of handling. This study will describe the production of such specimens.


Epoxy Impregnation Without Hardener: To Decrease Yellowing, To Delay Casting, And To Aid Bubble Removal, RM Latorre, Robert Reed, F Gil, O Lopez-Albors, MD Ayala, F Martinez-Gomariz, Robert Henry 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Epoxy Impregnation Without Hardener: To Decrease Yellowing, To Delay Casting, And To Aid Bubble Removal, Rm Latorre, Robert Reed, F Gil, O Lopez-Albors, Md Ayala, F Martinez-Gomariz, Robert Henry

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

Epoxy slices often yellow shortly after casting and the few hours following impregnation can be overwhelming as all slices need to be cast in a short period of time. A modified technique for producing epoxy slices was developed as a measure to address these problems. Tissue slices were impregnated using only epoxy polymer; no hardener was used during impregnation. The impregnated tissue slices were cast using modified casting-mixtures of epoxy polymer, hardener and glass separator. This modification of the classic E12 method (Biodurâ„¢) was done to determine: 1. If it is possible to indefinitely extend the casting time after impregnation ...


Silicone Plastination Of Biological Tissue: Room-Temperature Technique - Dow/CorcoranTm Technique And Products, A Raoof, Robert Reed, Robert Henry 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Silicone Plastination Of Biological Tissue: Room-Temperature Technique - Dow/CorcoranTm Technique And Products, A Raoof, Robert Reed, Robert Henry

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Macroscopic Anatomy Of The Great Vessels Of The Ringed Seal (Phoca Hispida), H Smodlaka, Robert Henry, Robert Reed 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Macroscopic Anatomy Of The Great Vessels Of The Ringed Seal (Phoca Hispida), H Smodlaka, Robert Henry, Robert Reed

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

The ringed seal [Pusa (Phoca) hispida], as well as other seals, exhibits unique anatomical properties when compared to its terrestrial counterparts. In the ringed seal, the most conspicuous marine adaptation is the aortic bulb. This large dilatation of the ascending aorta is comparable to that found in other seal species and marine mammals. The branches of the ascending aorta (brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery) are similar to those of higher primates and man. The peculiarities of the venous system are: three pulmonary veins, a pericardial venous plexus, a caval sphincter, a hepatic sinus with paired ...


Correlation Of Computed Tomographic Images With Anatomic Features Of The Abdomen Of Ringed Seals (Phoca Hispida), H Smodlaka, Robert Henry, GB Daniel, Robert Reed 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Correlation Of Computed Tomographic Images With Anatomic Features Of The Abdomen Of Ringed Seals (Phoca Hispida), H Smodlaka, Robert Henry, Gb Daniel, Robert Reed

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

OBJECTIVE: To correlate anatomic features of the abdomen of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida) identified in plastinated cross-sections with images obtained via computed tomography (CT) and thereby establish reference standards for normal abdominal organ size and position in this species. SAMPLE POPULATION: 2 adult male ringed seal cadavers. PROCEDURE: With the seal in sternal recumbency, CT images of the abdomen were acquired by use of a 4th-generation CT scanner. Image slice thickness was 1 cm, with no interslice gap. After imaging, the abdominal region was sectioned transversely into 4-cm slices, which were plastinated and photographed. Plastinated slices were matched to ...


Effects Of Dehydration Mediums And Temperature On Total Dehydration Time And Tissue Shrinkage, MA Brown, Robert Reed, Robert Henry 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effects Of Dehydration Mediums And Temperature On Total Dehydration Time And Tissue Shrinkage, Ma Brown, Robert Reed, Robert Henry

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

To assess the efficacy of current popular plastination dehydration techniques, a variety of organs were dehydrated to: 1. Determine the minimal length of time necessary to thoroughly dehydrate specimens for impregnation and 2. Measure tissue shrinkage during dehydration. Dehydrating agents commonly used for plastination (both room and cold temperature acetone and room temperature methanol) were evaluated. Cold acetone dehydration produced the least amount of tissue shrinkage. Shrinkage was greatest in the graded methanol series. Minimal length of time necessary for acetone dehydration was five days for both cold and room-temperature acetone dehydration.


Macroscopic Anatomy Of The Ringed Seal (Phoca Hispida) Lower Respiratory System., H Smodlaka, Robert Henry, Robert Reed 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Macroscopic Anatomy Of The Ringed Seal (Phoca Hispida) Lower Respiratory System., H Smodlaka, Robert Henry, Robert Reed

Robert B. Reed, Jr., DVM, Ph.D.

This investigation serves to document the normal anatomical features of the lower respiratory tract of the ringed seal [ Pusa ( phoca) hispida]. Evaluation of embalmed specimens and tracheobronchial casts showed that the right lung of this seal consists of four lobes while the left has only three lobes. The ventral margins of the lungs do not reach the sternum causing them to form the boundary of the broad recessus costomediastinalis. Lung lobation corresponds with bronchial tree division. Pulmonary venous drainage includes right and left common veins draining ipsilateral cranial and middle lung lobes, and one common caudal vein draining both caudal ...


South Dakota Animal Disease Research & Diagnostic Laboratory User's Guide, Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, South Dakota State University 2012 South Dakota State University

South Dakota Animal Disease Research & Diagnostic Laboratory User's Guide, Animal Disease Research And Diagnostic Laboratory, South Dakota State University

South Dakota Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL)

The ADRDL is an accredited AAVLD laboratory and a member of the USDA National Animal Health Network. This document is user's guide for the services provided by the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory.


A Description Of The Movement Of The Canine Pelvic Limb In Three Dimensions Using An Inverse Dynamics Method, And A Comparison Of Two Techniques To Surgically Repair A Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficient Stifle, Jason Headrick 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Description Of The Movement Of The Canine Pelvic Limb In Three Dimensions Using An Inverse Dynamics Method, And A Comparison Of Two Techniques To Surgically Repair A Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficient Stifle, Jason Headrick

Doctoral Dissertations

The purposes of the dissertation were: 1) to describe three-dimensional (3D) motion of the canine pelvic limb using an inverse dynamics method, and 2) to compare these motion patterns between normal, healthy dogs and those that have had their stifles stabilized by one of two surgical methods approximately five years earlier.

Twenty-five dogs were allocated to three groups; healthy control dogs, dogs that had received the tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and dogs that had received the lateral fabellar suture (LFS) stabilization technique. Both surgical techniques were performed approximately five years prior on stifles with surgically induced cranial cruciate ligament ...


Intervention Of Human Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Chronically Induced By 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-B]Pyridine, Shambhunath Choudhary, Hwa-Chain Wang, Shilpa Sood, Robert Donnell 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Intervention Of Human Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Chronically Induced By 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-B]Pyridine, Shambhunath Choudhary, Hwa-Chain Wang, Shilpa Sood, Robert Donnell

Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multi-step disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP's mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically-achievable, pico- to nano-molar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of ...


Diagnosis Of Aeromonas Hydrophila, Mycobacterium Species, And Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis In An African Clawed Frog (Xenopus Laevis)., William Hill, Shelley Newman, Linden Craig, Chris Carter, Jane Czarra, Julie Brown 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Diagnosis Of Aeromonas Hydrophila, Mycobacterium Species, And Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis In An African Clawed Frog (Xenopus Laevis)., William Hill, Shelley Newman, Linden Craig, Chris Carter, Jane Czarra, Julie Brown

Linden E. Craig DVM, Ph.D., DACVP, College of Veterinary Medicine

Here we describe diagnosis of concurrent infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium spp., and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a wild female Xenopus laevis captured in Chile and transported to the United States. After approximately 130 d in the laboratory, the frog was presented for dysecdysis and obtundation. After euthanasia, tissues were submitted for histopathologic evaluation and PCR analysis for B. dendrobatidis and Ranavirus. Clinically significant gross lesions included cutaneous ulcerations on the lip, right forelimb, and ventral chest. Microscopic findings included regionally extensive splenic necrosis, diffuse pneumonia, and fibrinous coelomitis all containing intralesional bacteria. PCR analysis yielded positive results for B. dendrobatidis ...


Fk228 And Oncogenic H-Ras Synergistically Induce Mek1/2 And Nox-1 To Generate Reactive Oxygen Species For Differential Cell Death, SHAMBHUNATH CHOUDHARY, Kusum Rathore, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Fk228 And Oncogenic H-Ras Synergistically Induce Mek1/2 And Nox-1 To Generate Reactive Oxygen Species For Differential Cell Death, Shambhunath Choudhary, Kusum Rathore, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Kusum Rathore MS, PhD, College of Veterinary Medicine

To investigate the mechanism behind the pro-apoptotic ability of oncogenic H-Ras to enhance FK228-induced apoptosis, we primarily used the 10T1/2-TR-H-Ras cell line, in which ectopic expression of oncogenic H-Ras(V12) is controlled by the addition of tetracycline into cultures, and secondarily used oncogenic H-Ras-expressing MCF10A cells in our studies. Our results showed the pro-apoptotic roles of Mek1/2 activation, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase 1 (Nox-1) elevation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in FK228-induced selective cell death of oncogenic H-Ras-expressing cells versus counterpart cells. We found that although Nox-1 elevation and ROS production played essential roles in oncogenic H-Ras-induced ...


Intervention Of Human Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Chronically Induced By 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-B]Pyridine, Shambhunath Choudhary, Hwa-Chain Wang, Shilpa Sood, Robert Donnell 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Intervention Of Human Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Chronically Induced By 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-B]Pyridine, Shambhunath Choudhary, Hwa-Chain Wang, Shilpa Sood, Robert Donnell

Shambhunath Choudhary DVM, PhD

More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multi-step disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP's mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically-achievable, pico- to nano-molar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of ...


Green Tea Catechin Intervention Of Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Erk Pathway Activation And Chronically Induced Breast Cell Carcinogenesis., Kusum Rathore, Shambhunath Choudhary, Agricola Odoi, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Green Tea Catechin Intervention Of Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Erk Pathway Activation And Chronically Induced Breast Cell Carcinogenesis., Kusum Rathore, Shambhunath Choudhary, Agricola Odoi, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Shambhunath Choudhary DVM, PhD

Long-term exposure to low doses of environmental carcinogens contributes to sporadic human breast cancers. Epidemiologic and experimental studies indicate that green tea catechins (GTCs) may intervene with breast cancer development. We have been developing a chronically induced breast cell carcinogenesis model wherein we repeatedly expose non-cancerous, human breast epithelial MCF10A cells to bioachievable picomolar concentrations of environmental carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), to progressively induce cellular acquisition of cancer-associated properties, as measurable end points. The model is then used as a target to identify non-cytotoxic preventive agents effective in ...


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