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A Preliminary Examination Of Elevated Blood Lead Levels In A Rural Georgia County, R. Christopher Rustin, Yu Sun, Chris Calhoun, Christy Kuriatnyk 2017 Georgia Southern University

A Preliminary Examination Of Elevated Blood Lead Levels In A Rural Georgia County, R. Christopher Rustin, Yu Sun, Chris Calhoun, Christy Kuriatnyk

R. Christopher Rustin

Background: Rural areas are often viewed as lower risk for lead poisoning and toxic exposures seriously impacting development of the brain and central nervous system; this report examines the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels for children <6 years of age in rural Ben Hill County, GA. Methods: Lead surveillance data from the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) were analyzed using SAS®v-9.3 to calculate the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (≥5ug/dL) among those children in Ben Hill County who had been tested for lead; the results were compared to Georgia and national data. Results: A ...


Georgia’S Rapid Expansion Of Mosquito Surveillance In Response To Zika Virus, R. Christopher Rustin, Deonte Martin, Rosmarie Kelly 2017 Georgia Southern University

Georgia’S Rapid Expansion Of Mosquito Surveillance In Response To Zika Virus, R. Christopher Rustin, Deonte Martin, Rosmarie Kelly

R. Christopher Rustin

Objective: To describe the Georgia Department of Public Health’s (DPH) mosquito surveillance capacity before and after Zika virus was declared a public health emergency, review and compare mosquito surveillance results from 2015 to 2016, and evaluate the risk of autochthonous vector transmission of Zika virus based on 2016 surveillance data of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Introduction: Zika virus was declared an international public health emergency by the World Health Organization on February 1, 2016. With Georgia hosting the world’s busiest international airport and a sub-tropical climate that can support the primary Zika virus vector, Aedes aegypti ...


Estimation Of P(X > Y) When X And Y Are Dependent Random Variables Using Different Bivariate Sampling Schemes, Hani M. Samawi, Amal Helu, Haresh Rochani, Jingjing Yin, Daniel Linder 2017 Georgia Southern University

Estimation Of P(X > Y) When X And Y Are Dependent Random Variables Using Different Bivariate Sampling Schemes, Hani M. Samawi, Amal Helu, Haresh Rochani, Jingjing Yin, Daniel Linder

Haresh Rochani

The stress-strength models have been intensively investigated in the literature in regards of estimating the reliability θ = P (X > Y) using parametric and nonparametric approaches under different sampling schemes when X and Y are independent random variables. In this paper, we consider the problem of estimating θ when (X, Y) are dependent random variables with a bivariate underlying distribution. The empirical and kernel estimates of θ = P (X > Y), based on bivariate ranked set sampling (BVRSS) are considered, when (X, Y) are paired dependent continuous random variables. The estimators obtained are compared to their counterpart, bivariate simple random sampling (BVSRS ...


Using Ranked Auxiliary Covariate As A More Efficient Sampling Design For Ancova Model: Analysis Of A Psychological Intervention To Buttress Resilience, Rajai Jabrah, Hani Samawi, Robert Vogel, Haresh Rochani, Daniel Linder 2017 Georgia Southern University

Using Ranked Auxiliary Covariate As A More Efficient Sampling Design For Ancova Model: Analysis Of A Psychological Intervention To Buttress Resilience, Rajai Jabrah, Hani Samawi, Robert Vogel, Haresh Rochani, Daniel Linder

Haresh Rochani

Drawing a sample can be costly or time consuming in some studies. However, it may be possible to rank the sampling units according to some baseline auxiliary covariates, which are easily obtainable, and/or cost efficient. Ranked set sampling (RSS) is a method to achieve this goal. In this paper, we propose a modified approach of the RSS method to allocate units into an experimental study that compares L groups. Computer simulation estimates the empirical nominal values and the empirical power values for the test procedure of comparing L different groups using modified RSS based on the regression approach in ...


The Impact Of State Mandated Healthcare-Associated Infection Reporting On Infection Prevention And Control Departments In Acute Care Hospitals: Results From A National Survey, Carolyn T. A. Herzig, Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Julie Reagan, Elaine Larson, Patricia W. Stone 2017 Columbia University Medical Center

The Impact Of State Mandated Healthcare-Associated Infection Reporting On Infection Prevention And Control Departments In Acute Care Hospitals: Results From A National Survey, Carolyn T. A. Herzig, Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Julie Reagan, Elaine Larson, Patricia W. Stone

Julie Reagan

Background: In addition to federally mandated reporting, most US states have adopted legislation requiring hospitals to submit healthcare-associated infection (HAI) data. Evidence that state HAI laws have increased patient safety and reduced HAI rates is inconsistent, however, and resources needed to comply are considerable. We evaluated the impact of state HAI laws on infection prevention and control departments (IPCD).

Methods: Web-based survey of a national sample of hospital IPCD was conducted in Fall 2011; all non-VA hospitals enrolled in the National Healthcare Safety Network were eligible to participate. States with HAI laws effective prior to Fall 2011 were identified using ...


Impact Of Laws Aimed At Healthcare-Associated Infection Reduction: A Qualitative Study, Patrica W. Stone, Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Julie Reagan, Jacqueline A. Merrill, Brad Sperber, Catherine Cairns, Matthew Penn, Tara Ramanathan, Elizabeth Mothershed, Elizabeth Skillen 2017 Columbia University Medical Center

Impact Of Laws Aimed At Healthcare-Associated Infection Reduction: A Qualitative Study, Patrica W. Stone, Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Julie Reagan, Jacqueline A. Merrill, Brad Sperber, Catherine Cairns, Matthew Penn, Tara Ramanathan, Elizabeth Mothershed, Elizabeth Skillen

Julie Reagan

Background Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable. Globally, laws aimed at reducing HAIs have been implemented. In the USA, these laws are at the federal and state levels. It is not known whether the state interventions are more effective than the federal incentives alone. Objective The aims of this study were to explore the impact federal and state HAI laws have on state departments of health and hospital stakeholders in the USA and to explore similarities and differences in perceptions across states. Methods A qualitative study was conducted. In 2012, we conducted semistructured interviews with key stakeholders from states with and ...


The Impact Of Emotional Intelligence On Conditions Of Trust Among Leaders At The Kentucky Department For Public Health, Jennifer Redmond Knight, Heather M. Bush, William A. Mase, Martha Cornwell Riddell, Meng Liu, James W. Holsinger 2017 University of Kentucky-College of Public Health

The Impact Of Emotional Intelligence On Conditions Of Trust Among Leaders At The Kentucky Department For Public Health, Jennifer Redmond Knight, Heather M. Bush, William A. Mase, Martha Cornwell Riddell, Meng Liu, James W. Holsinger

William A. Mase

There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH). The KDPH serves as Kentucky’s state governmental health department. KDPH is led by a Commissioner and composed of seven primary divisions and 25 branches within those divisions. The study was a non-randomized cross-sectional study utilizing electronic surveys that evaluated conditions of trust among staff members and emotional intelligence among supervisors. Pearson ...


The Impact Of Emotional Intelligence On Conditions Of Trust Among Leaders At The Kentucky Department For Public Health, Jennifer Redmond Knight, Heather M. Bush, William A. Mase, Martha Cornwell Riddell, Meng Liu, James W. Holsinger 2017 University of Kentucky

The Impact Of Emotional Intelligence On Conditions Of Trust Among Leaders At The Kentucky Department For Public Health, Jennifer Redmond Knight, Heather M. Bush, William A. Mase, Martha Cornwell Riddell, Meng Liu, James W. Holsinger

William A. Mase

There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH). The KDPH serves as Kentucky’s state governmental health department. KDPH is led by a Commissioner and composed of seven primary divisions and 25 branches within those divisions. The study was a non-randomized cross-sectional study utilizing electronic surveys that evaluated conditions of trust among staff members and emotional intelligence among supervisors. Pearson ...


Georgia’S Rural Hospital Closures: The Common-Good Approach To Ethical Decision-Making, Randi G. Bastain, Marcus Garner, John S. Barron, Emmanuel A. Akowuah, William A. Mase 2017 Georgia Southern University

Georgia’S Rural Hospital Closures: The Common-Good Approach To Ethical Decision-Making, Randi G. Bastain, Marcus Garner, John S. Barron, Emmanuel A. Akowuah, William A. Mase

William A. Mase

Background: Critical access hospitals provide several essential services to local communities. Along with the functions associated with providing necessary medical care, they also offer employment opportunities and other economic benefits to the communities they serve. Since 2010, the number of rural hospitals closures has steadily increased. The common-good approach to ethical decision-making provides a framework that aids in evaluation of the effects that hospital closures have on rural residents and communities.

Methods: This analysis includes results of a systematic overview of peer-reviewed literature to address the following research questions: 1) How have state policies and the adoption of Medicaid expansion ...


Geographic Variation Within The Military Health System, Linda Kimsey, Samuel Olaiya, Chad Smith, Andrew Hoburg, Stuart R. Lipsitz, Tracey Koehlmoos, Louis L. Nguyen, Joel S. Weissman 2017 Georgia Southern University

Geographic Variation Within The Military Health System, Linda Kimsey, Samuel Olaiya, Chad Smith, Andrew Hoburg, Stuart R. Lipsitz, Tracey Koehlmoos, Louis L. Nguyen, Joel S. Weissman

Linda Kimsey

Background: This study seeks to quantify variation in healthcare utilization and per capita costs using system-defined geographic regions based on enrollee residence within the Military Health System (MHS).

Methods: Data for fiscal years 2007 – 2010 were obtained from the Military Health System under a data sharing agreement with the Defense Health Agency (DHA). DHA manages all aspects of the Department of Defense Military Health System, including TRICARE. Adjusted rates were calculated for per capita costs and for two procedures with high interest to the MHS- back surgery and Cesarean sections for TRICARE Prime and Plus enrollees. Coefficients of variation (CoV ...


Racial Disparities In Emergency General Surgery: Do Differences In Outcomes Persist Among Universally Insured Military Patients?, Cheryl Zogg, Wei Jiang, Muhammed Ali Chaudhary, John Scott, Adil A. Shah, Stuart R. Lipsitz, Joel S. Weissman, Zara Cooper, Ali Salim, Stephanie L. Nitzschke, Louis L. Nguyen, Lorens A. Helmchen, Linda Kimsey, Samuel Olaiya, Peter A. Learn, Adil H. Haider 2017 Harvard Medical School

Racial Disparities In Emergency General Surgery: Do Differences In Outcomes Persist Among Universally Insured Military Patients?, Cheryl Zogg, Wei Jiang, Muhammed Ali Chaudhary, John Scott, Adil A. Shah, Stuart R. Lipsitz, Joel S. Weissman, Zara Cooper, Ali Salim, Stephanie L. Nitzschke, Louis L. Nguyen, Lorens A. Helmchen, Linda Kimsey, Samuel Olaiya, Peter A. Learn, Adil H. Haider

Linda Kimsey

Research Objective: Described as one of the most serious health problems affecting the nation, racial disparities are estimated to account for >83,000 deaths, >$57 billion per year. They have been identified in multiple surgical settings, including differences in outcomes by race among emergency general surgery(EGS) patients. As many minority patients are uninsured, increasing access to care is thought to be a viable solution to mitigate inequities. The objectives of this study were to determine whether racial disparities in 30/90/180day outcomes exist within a universally-insured population of military/civilian-dependent EGS patients and whether differences in outcomes differentially ...


Differences In Health Literacy Knowledge And Experiences Among Senior Nursing Students, Sharon S. Williamson, Joanne Chopak-Foss 2017 Georgia Southern University

Differences In Health Literacy Knowledge And Experiences Among Senior Nursing Students, Sharon S. Williamson, Joanne Chopak-Foss

Joanne Chopak-Foss

Background: Low health literacy has been identified as a significant public health problem. Also, higher expenditures due to longer hospital stays have been reported for persons with low health literacy. Nurses can assist patients with low health literacy to reduce their hospital stays and increase compliance with discharge instructions. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive research design was employed to assess knowledge and experiences of 192 senior nursing students. These students were administered the Health Literacy Knowledge and Experiences Survey (HL-KES), a 2- part survey that included assessment of knowledge about health literacy and experience in working with populations of low health ...


An Analysis Of The Sleep Quality Of Undergraduate Students, Brianna N. Carter, Joanne Chopak-Foss 2017 Georgia Southern University

An Analysis Of The Sleep Quality Of Undergraduate Students, Brianna N. Carter, Joanne Chopak-Foss

Joanne Chopak-Foss

Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was to measure the sleep quality of a sample of undergraduate students and compare it to the recommendations for young adults from the National Sleep Foundation. Methods: A sample of undergraduate students from a mid-sized public university in the Southeast were recruited for this study (N=86). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess sleep quality of the students. Results: Frequency analysis found that most students did not get the minimum amount of sleep as recommended by the National Sleep Foundation. A nonparametric correlation (listwise) analysis found a positive ...


Working With An Aboriginal Community To Understand Drinking Water Perceptions And Acceptance In Rural New South Wales, Fidelis G. Jaravani, Peter D. Massey, Jenni Judd, Kylie A. Taylor, Jason Allan, Natalie Allan, David N. Durrheim, Michael Oelgemoeller 2017 Population Health, Hunter New England Local Health District, NSW, Australia; Centre for Biodiversity and Molecular Development of Therapeutics, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia

Working With An Aboriginal Community To Understand Drinking Water Perceptions And Acceptance In Rural New South Wales, Fidelis G. Jaravani, Peter D. Massey, Jenni Judd, Kylie A. Taylor, Jason Allan, Natalie Allan, David N. Durrheim, Michael Oelgemoeller

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

This study explored the Walhallow Aboriginal community’s experiences with drinking water to gain a shared understanding about community concerns and to develop ways to address these concerns together. There is a strong connection between people and water, as well as a need to appreciate the social factors associated with the unique cultural and socioeconomic factors that the provision of drinking water has for Aboriginal communities. We used a mixed method design within a community-based participatory action Research (PAR) framework. Water hardness and parental influence were the key factors associated with participants’ decisions to drink rainwater. This study provides important ...


Connecting Resources To A Community In Need: Worcester Police Addiction Recovery (Wpar) Program Webinar, Susan Halpin, Patricia Joy Cummings, Rebecca Zwicker 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Connecting Resources To A Community In Need: Worcester Police Addiction Recovery (Wpar) Program Webinar, Susan Halpin, Patricia Joy Cummings, Rebecca Zwicker

National Network of Libraries of Medicine New England Region (NNLM NER) Repository

Learn how to recognize the signs of substance use that are often overlooked. Communities often have resources available to help those with substance use disorder, as well as help for their families. Because of the stigma this disease carries, many people do not talk about their struggles or how they found help. A city police officer and a recovery coach from the city of Worcester will share the program they have developed to help those in need to find the pathway to recovery. Learn what you can do to alleviate the stigma associated with this disease.

Learning Objectives: Connecting Resources ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 The George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer 2017 George Washington University

Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer

Global Health Faculty Publications

Large-scale epidemiologic studies have been invaluable for elaboration of the causal relationship between persistent detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of invasive cervical cancer. However, these studies provide limited data to adequately inform models of the individual-level natural history of HPV infection over the course of a lifetime, and particularly ignore the biological distinction between HPV-negative tests and lack of infection (i.e., the possibility of latent, undetectable HPV infection). Using data from more recent epidemiological studies, this review proposes an alternative model of the natural history of genital HPV across the life span. We argue ...


Aiha White Paper: Electronic Cigarettes In The Indoor Environment, Cheri Marcham 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Aiha White Paper: Electronic Cigarettes In The Indoor Environment, Cheri Marcham

Cheri Marcham

This presentation covers the effects of different volatile organic compounds released by electronic cigarettes which can cause health problems. More research on the effects of electronic "smoke" should be conducted on the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredients in electronic cigarette exhaust.


Using Ranked Auxiliary Covariate As A More Efficient Sampling Design For Ancova Model: Analysis Of A Psychological Intervention To Buttress Resilience, Rajai Jabrah, Hani Samawi, Robert Vogel, Haresh Rochani, Daniel Linder 2017 Georgia Southern University

Using Ranked Auxiliary Covariate As A More Efficient Sampling Design For Ancova Model: Analysis Of A Psychological Intervention To Buttress Resilience, Rajai Jabrah, Hani Samawi, Robert Vogel, Haresh Rochani, Daniel Linder

Hani M. Samawi

Drawing a sample can be costly or time consuming in some studies. However, it may be possible to rank the sampling units according to some baseline auxiliary covariates, which are easily obtainable, and/or cost efficient. Ranked set sampling (RSS) is a method to achieve this goal. In this paper, we propose a modified approach of the RSS method to allocate units into an experimental study that compares L groups. Computer simulation estimates the empirical nominal values and the empirical power values for the test procedure of comparing L different groups using modified RSS based on the regression approach in ...


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