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Prevalence And Associated Factors Of Illicit Drug Use Among University Students In The Association Of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), Siyan Yi, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid, Indri Hapsari Susilowati 2017 Touro University California

Prevalence And Associated Factors Of Illicit Drug Use Among University Students In The Association Of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), Siyan Yi, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid, Indri Hapsari Susilowati

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Illicit drug use among university students has been recognized as a global public health issue in recent years. It may lead to poor academic performance that in turn leads to poor productivity in their later life. This study explores prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among university students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Methods: This multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select undergraduate students from one or two universities in each country for ...


Health And Behavioral Factors Associated With Binge Drinking Among University Students In Nine Asean Countries, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid 2017 Touro University California

Health And Behavioral Factors Associated With Binge Drinking Among University Students In Nine Asean Countries, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Heavy drinking among university students has been globally recognized as a major public health burden. In the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, studies on this issue have been scant, country-specific and in different time frames. The aim of this study was to identify social and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 8809 undergraduate university students from 13 universities in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam using self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore ...


Experiences Of Students From The African Diaspora At Predominantly White Institutions (Pwi)., Sarah M. Ray 2017 Texas A & M University - College Station

Experiences Of Students From The African Diaspora At Predominantly White Institutions (Pwi)., Sarah M. Ray

Adult Education Research Conference

Experiences of profiling, racism and discrimination are a part of life for many students in America. Perceptions of non-white, African International students about African American students is influenced by stereotypes and inadequate historical context of Black American experiences. This qualitative study addresses Black students from various parts of the African diaspora's experiences of racism, and perceptions of race/ethnic-based biases during their educational experiences in a predominantly white institution (PWI), through semi-structured interviews.


Namibia : Hiv As A National Issue, Elisabeth Vlasak 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Namibia : Hiv As A National Issue, Elisabeth Vlasak

Global Public Health

Namibia is located on the southwestern coast of Africa, bordering Angola, Botswana, Zambia, South Africa, and the Atlantic Ocean. Namibia has a population of 2,265,000, as of 2016. Namibia has many challenges, including food insecurity and malnutrition, access to health services, unequal distribution of wealth, but HIV/AIDS is one of the country’s leading challenges. It is estimated that the overall adult infection rate of HIV/AIDS is 15.4% and it is the leading cause of death in Namibia. Adults ages 18-24 are the most at-risk for the disease. Some of the major risk factors are ...


Zimbabwe : Malaria, Ashton Hutcheson 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Zimbabwe : Malaria, Ashton Hutcheson

Global Public Health

Zimbabwe, a developing country in southeastern Africa, has a population of over 15 million people. The large majority of this population is at risk for various prevalent infectious disease including the significant threat that is Malaria. Zimbabwe is a country within what the World Health Organization determines as the “WHO African Region.” This region is where 90% of Malaria deaths occur worldwide. This brief provides reasons why malaria is such a major problem including the country’s general lack of clinics and key risk factors associated with contracting malaria. It was found that those most at-risk for malaria live in ...


Chad : Hepatitis E, Hanna Pegarsch 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Chad : Hepatitis E, Hanna Pegarsch

Global Public Health

Contaminated drinking water in Chad is the main source for a Hepatitis E outbreak, leading Chad citizens to develop severe illness including jaundice, liver-failure, miscarriage, and death. There are 0.4 physicians for every 10,000 people living in Chad needing healthcare. Of the citizens in Chad, only 42% have access to uncontaminated drinking water. With such a long incubation period for Hepatitis E, the citizens don’t know they are spreading the illness to the rest of their community. Even with the symptoms, the citizens don’t have the access or the capacity for treatment, making Hepatitis E an ...


Trinidad & Tobago : Hiv Epidemic, Madison Caldwell 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Trinidad & Tobago : Hiv Epidemic, Madison Caldwell

Global Public Health

Trinidad and Tobago are twin islands located in the Caribbean off the coast of Venezuela. In the recent years since about 1990, citizens of this country have been greatly affected by the HIV epidemic. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus and is spread through infected seman, blood, or vaginal fluids usually through sexual intercourse. As this virus continues to progress in the body, it will eventually turn into AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Once HIV progresses to AIDS, the outcome is ultimately fatal, hence why there is a dire need to promote awareness and methods of intervention to ...


The Gap In Human Resources To Deliver The Guaranteed Package Of Prevention And Health Promotion Services At Urban And Rural Primary Care Facilities In Mexico, Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde-Rabanal, Gustavo Nigenda, Till Bärnighausen, Hector Eduardo Velasco-Mondragon 2017 Touro University California

The Gap In Human Resources To Deliver The Guaranteed Package Of Prevention And Health Promotion Services At Urban And Rural Primary Care Facilities In Mexico, Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde-Rabanal, Gustavo Nigenda, Till Bärnighausen, Hector Eduardo Velasco-Mondragon

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the gap between the available and the ideal supply of human resources (physicians, nurses, and health promoters) to deliver the guaranteed package of prevention and health promotion services at urban and rural primary care facilities in Mexico.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a convenience sample. We selected 20 primary health facilities in urban and rural areas in 10 states of Mexico. We calculated the available and the ideal supply of human resources in these facilities using estimates of time available, used, and required to deliver health prevention and ...


Hiv Prevalence, Risky Behaviors, And Discrimination Experiences Among Transgender Women In Cambodia: Descriptive Findings From A National Integrated Biological And Behavioral Survey, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Srean Chhim, Khuondyla Pal, Gitau Mburu 2017 Touro University California

Hiv Prevalence, Risky Behaviors, And Discrimination Experiences Among Transgender Women In Cambodia: Descriptive Findings From A National Integrated Biological And Behavioral Survey, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Srean Chhim, Khuondyla Pal, Gitau Mburu

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016. Participants were recruited from 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Behavioral data were collected through structured ...


How Understanding And Application Of Drug-Related Legal Instruments Affects Harm Reduction Interventions In Cambodia: A Qualitative Study, Sovannary Tuot, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Sochenda Sou, Ghazal Sawez, Phylicia Morgan, Siyan Yi 2017 Touro University California

How Understanding And Application Of Drug-Related Legal Instruments Affects Harm Reduction Interventions In Cambodia: A Qualitative Study, Sovannary Tuot, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Sochenda Sou, Ghazal Sawez, Phylicia Morgan, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in the capital city of Phnom Penh in 2015. We held five focus group discussions (FGDs) with groups of PWID ...


Non-Communicable Diseases And Related Risk Behaviors Among Men And Women Living With Hiv In Cambodia: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Pheak Chhoun, Chanrith Ngin, Martin Steel, Jennifer Dionisio, Hattie Pearson, Carinne M. Brody, Siyan Yi 2017 Touro University California

Non-Communicable Diseases And Related Risk Behaviors Among Men And Women Living With Hiv In Cambodia: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Pheak Chhoun, Chanrith Ngin, Martin Steel, Jennifer Dionisio, Hattie Pearson, Carinne M. Brody, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: There is a growing concern for an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in people living with HIV. This concern is evident especially in developing countries where dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with NCDs are becoming more prominent. This study explored the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia and related risk factors in men and women living with HIV in Cambodia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 510 adult people living with HIV randomly selected from one city and four provinces in Cambodia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors ...


Awareness And Willingness To Use Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Grace W. Mwai, Chanrith Ngin, Kolab Chhim, Khoundyla Pal, Gitau Mburu 2017 Touro University California

Awareness And Willingness To Use Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Grace W. Mwai, Chanrith Ngin, Kolab Chhim, Khoundyla Pal, Gitau Mburu

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Introduction: To facilitate provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a better understanding of potential demand and user preferences is required. This review assessed awareness and willingness to use oral PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) in LMIC.

Methods: Electronic literature search of Cochrane library, Embase, PubMed, PsychINFO, CINHAL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was conducted between July and September 2016. Reference lists of relevant studies were searched, and three authors contacted for additional data. Non-peer reviewed publications were excluded. Studies were screened for inclusion, and relevant data abstracted, assessed for bias ...


Transition Into Adult Care: Factors Associated With Level Of Preparedness Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Cambodia, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Sovannary Tuot, Sokunmealiny Sau, Penhsun Ly 2017 Touro University California

Transition Into Adult Care: Factors Associated With Level Of Preparedness Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Cambodia, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Sovannary Tuot, Sokunmealiny Sau, Penhsun Ly

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia.

Methods: In August 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 adolescents living with HIV aged 15–17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy clinics, utilizing a structured questionnaire. The level of preparedness was determined using a pre-existing scale, and adolescents were categorized as having a high- ...


Hiv Prevalence And Factors Associated With Hiv Infection Among Transgender Women In Cambodia: Results From A National Integrated Biological And Behavioral Survey, Srean Chhim, Chanrith Ngin, Pheak Chhoun, Sovannary Tuot, Cheaty Ly, Phalkun Mun, Siyan Yi 2017 Touro University California

Hiv Prevalence And Factors Associated With Hiv Infection Among Transgender Women In Cambodia: Results From A National Integrated Biological And Behavioral Survey, Srean Chhim, Chanrith Ngin, Pheak Chhoun, Sovannary Tuot, Cheaty Ly, Phalkun Mun, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Objective To examine factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia.

Design Cross-sectional study.

Settings HIV high-burden sites including the capital city and 12 provinces.

Participants This study included 1375 sexually active transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD 7.1), recruited by using respondent-driven sampling for structured questionnaire interviews and rapid finger-prick HIV testing.

Primary outcome measure HIV infection detected by using Determine antibody test.

Results HIV prevalence among this population was 5.9%. After adjustment for other covariates, participants living in urban areas were twice as likely to be HIV infected as ...


Implementation Science To Accelerate Clean Cooking For Public Health., Joshua Rosenthal, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Nigel Bruce, David Chambers, Jay Graham, Darby Jack, Lydia Kline, Omar Masera, Sumi Mehta, Ilse Ruiz Mercado, Gila Neta, Subhrendu Pattanayak, Elisa Puzzolo, Helen Petach, Antonello Punturieri, Adolfo Rubinstein, Michael Sage, Rachel Sturke, Anita Shankar, Kenny Sherr, Kirk Smith, Gautam Yadama 2017 George Washington University

Implementation Science To Accelerate Clean Cooking For Public Health., Joshua Rosenthal, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Nigel Bruce, David Chambers, Jay Graham, Darby Jack, Lydia Kline, Omar Masera, Sumi Mehta, Ilse Ruiz Mercado, Gila Neta, Subhrendu Pattanayak, Elisa Puzzolo, Helen Petach, Antonello Punturieri, Adolfo Rubinstein, Michael Sage, Rachel Sturke, Anita Shankar, Kenny Sherr, Kirk Smith, Gautam Yadama

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the ...


The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study Of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements And Estimated Fetal Weight., Torvid Kiserud, Gilda Piaggio, Guillermo Carroli, Mariana Widmer, José Carvalho, Lisa Neerup Jensen, Sameera A Talegawkar, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study Of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements And Estimated Fetal Weight., Torvid Kiserud, Gilda Piaggio, Guillermo Carroli, Mariana Widmer, José Carvalho, Lisa Neerup Jensen, Sameera A Talegawkar, +Several Additional Authors

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle ...


Decentralised Training For Medical Students: Towards A South African Consensus, Marietjie de Villiers, Julia Blitz, I. Couper, Athol Kent, Kalavani Moodley, Zohray Talib, Susan van Schalkwyk, Taryn Young 2017 George Washington University

Decentralised Training For Medical Students: Towards A South African Consensus, Marietjie De Villiers, Julia Blitz, I. Couper, Athol Kent, Kalavani Moodley, Zohray Talib, Susan Van Schalkwyk, Taryn Young

Global Health Faculty Publications

Introduction: Health professions training institutions are challenged to produce greater numbers of graduates who are more relevantly trained to provide quality healthcare. Decentralised training offers opportunities to address these quantity, quality and relevance factors. We wanted to draw together existing expertise in decentralised training for the benefit of all health professionals to develop a model for decentralised training for health professions students.
Method: An expert panel workshop was held in October 2015 initiating a process to develop a model for decentralised training in South Africa. Presentations on the status quo in decentralised training at all nine medical schools in South ...


A Peer Evaluation Of The Community-Based Education Programme For Medical Students At The University Of Zimbabwe College Of Health Sciences: A Southern African Medical Education Partnership Initiative (Mepi) Collaboration, D. Michaels, I. Couper, M. Mogodi, J. Hakim, Zohray M. Talib, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

A Peer Evaluation Of The Community-Based Education Programme For Medical Students At The University Of Zimbabwe College Of Health Sciences: A Southern African Medical Education Partnership Initiative (Mepi) Collaboration, D. Michaels, I. Couper, M. Mogodi, J. Hakim, Zohray M. Talib, +Several Additional Authors

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background. The University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZCHS), Harare, which has a long tradition of community-based education (CBE), has not been evaluated since 1991. An innovative approach was used to evaluate the programme during 2015.

Objectives. To evaluate the CBE programme, using a peer-review model of evaluation and simultaneously introducing and orientating participating colleagues from other medical schools in southern Africa to this review process.

Methods. An international team of medical educators, convened through the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, worked collaboratively to modify an existing peer-review assessment method. Data collection took the form of pre-visit surveys, on-site and ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework, J. Jull, M. Whitehead, M. Petticrew, E. Kristjansson, D. Gough, Sarah Baird, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework, J. Jull, M. Whitehead, M. Petticrew, E. Kristjansson, D. Gough, Sarah Baird, +Several Additional Authors

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

Methods An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

Results A randomised trial can ...


Febrile Rhinovirus Illness During Pregnancy Is Associated With Low Birth Weight In Nepal., Erin K Philpott, Janet A Englund, Joanne Katz, James Tielsch, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Amalia S Magaret, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu 2017 George Washington University

Febrile Rhinovirus Illness During Pregnancy Is Associated With Low Birth Weight In Nepal., Erin K Philpott, Janet A Englund, Joanne Katz, James Tielsch, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C Leclerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Amalia S Magaret, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW), defined as <2500 >grams, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and prematurity, contribute to 60%-80% of infant mortality worldwide and may be related to infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess whether febrile human rhinovirus (HRV) illness is associated with adverse birth outcomes.

METHODS: Active household-based weekly surveillance was performed for respiratory illness episodes in pregnant women as part of a community-based, prospective, randomized trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural Nepal. Rhinovirus (HRV) febrile illness episodes were defined as fever plus cough, sore throat, runny nose, and/or myalgia with ...


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