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899 full-text articles. Page 6 of 39.

Lung Cytokines And Systemic Inflammation In Patients With Copd, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Stephen P. Furmanek, Andrea Reyes-Vega, Umair Gauhar, Hiram Rivas-Perez, Jesse Roman, Julio A. Ramirez, Rafael Fernandez-Botran 2017 University of Louisville School of Medicine Division of Pulmonary

Lung Cytokines And Systemic Inflammation In Patients With Copd, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Stephen P. Furmanek, Andrea Reyes-Vega, Umair Gauhar, Hiram Rivas-Perez, Jesse Roman, Julio A. Ramirez, Rafael Fernandez-Botran

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung and systemic inflammation. The role of cytokines in local and systemic inflammation in COPD is not well understood. This study aimed to compare plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytokine levels in COPD and non-COPD subjects with the intent of better understand their potential roles in driving local and systemic inflammation.

Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 65 subjects: 31 with COPD confirmed by spirometry and 34 non-COPD controls. All subjects underwent spirometry, plasma sample collection, and bronchoscopy/BAL. Levels of 21 inflammatory cytokines were measured in the plasma ...


Essential Newborn Care During Humanitarian Crises: Integration Of Low-Cost Interventions, Athena Wong 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Essential Newborn Care During Humanitarian Crises: Integration Of Low-Cost Interventions, Athena Wong

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Newborn healthcare has long been neglected on the international agenda despite neonatal death making up 44% of all under-five deaths. Neonates are newborns under 28 days of age and are the most vulnerable population with the highest risk of mortality during humanitarian emergencies. The common misconception that neonatal healthcare is very expensive and requires delivery from highly skilled healthcare professionals must be dismissed. There are many low-cost interventions that are highly effective at saving lives, the most notable ones being kangaroo mother care, bag and mask resuscitation, and basic immunizations. The leading causes of neonatal death are prematurity, intrapartum complications ...


Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf 2017 University of Louisville

Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae still occurs in at risk populations, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Laboratory confirmation of S. pneumoniae remains challenging in cases of CAP despite advances in blood culture techniques and the availability of nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR-based methods. Urine specimens are an attractive sample type because they are non-invasive compared to bronchial washes or whole blood specimens for patients with CAP. While urine specimens have been used successfully in antigen detection assays, they have not been extensively evaluated for PCR-based assays. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the potential ...


Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly PhD, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken PhD 2017 University of Louisville

Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly Phd, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken Phd

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Data sharing in clinical research is critical for increasing knowledge discovery. Data and software tools should be FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Inter-operable and Re-usable. Many bottlenecks exist in the process of a clinical investigator using shared data including data acquisition and statistical analysis. The objective of this project is to develop a structure for sharing data and providing rapid automated statistical analysis through creation of a pre-packaged, open-source software container.

Methods: We use the open source software container technologies VirtualBox and Vagrant to create a template for sharing clinical data and analysis scripts as a single container. We use a ...


Antimicrobial Stewardship In Hospitalized Patients With Respiratory Infections: Ten-Year Experience From The Robley Rex Louisville Va Medical Center, Leslie A. Beavin, Forest W. Arnold, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, David Newman, Ronald Smith, Carmen Sciortino, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth M. Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Antimicrobial Stewardship In Hospitalized Patients With Respiratory Infections: Ten-Year Experience From The Robley Rex Louisville Va Medical Center, Leslie A. Beavin, Forest W. Arnold, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, David Newman, Ronald Smith, Carmen Sciortino, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth M. Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Rationale: Antibiotic stewardship has been defined as coordinated interventions designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotic agents. Respiratory infections are the most common infectious reason for hospitalization in the United States. Therefore, one could extrapolate that respiratory infections are then also the most common reason for hospital antibiotic use and possess the highest potential for hospital antibiotic misuse. The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the role of antimicrobial stewardship on improving antibiotic use for respiratory infections in hospitalized patients on intravenous (IV) antibiotics at the Robley Rex Louisville VAMC over a 10-year period.

Methods ...


Using Steroids In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia At The University Of Louisville Hospital: Who, What, And When, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Disorders, University of Louisville

Using Steroids In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia At The University Of Louisville Hospital: Who, What, And When, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Pneumonia Pathogenesis And The Lung Microbiome: Back To The Drawing Board, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Pneumonia Pathogenesis And The Lung Microbiome: Back To The Drawing Board, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Level Of Recall Bias Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination History Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Results From The University Of Louisville Pneumonia Study, Sarah Van Heiden, Ruth Carrico, Timothy L. Wiemken, Ronika Alexander, John M. McLaughlin, Qin Jiang, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Senen Pena, Raul Isturiz, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Level Of Recall Bias Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination History Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Results From The University Of Louisville Pneumonia Study, Sarah Van Heiden, Ruth Carrico, Timothy L. Wiemken, Ronika Alexander, John M. Mclaughlin, Qin Jiang, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Senen Pena, Raul Isturiz, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Recall bias is likely to occur in vaccine effectiveness studies using self-reported vaccination history. The validity of patient-reported vaccination status for adults is not well defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported pneumococcal vaccination history among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: Prospective ancillary study of a population-based observational study of hospitalized patients with CAP in the city of Louisville. To be included in the analysis, patients had to (i) be reached by phone 30-days after discharge from the hospital and (ii) report that they remembered whether or not they received a ...


One-Year Mortality In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

One-Year Mortality In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumonia remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Although, communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) has traditionally been considered an acute process, more recently, data have emerged showing that patients surviving an episode of CAP are at increased risk of death long after hospital discharged. In this descriptive review, we examine the current knowledge of long-term mortality and propose a hypothesis explaining the pathogenesis of long-term mortality in patients with CAP.


Most Common Statistical Methodologies In Recent Clinical Studies Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Stephen Furmanek, Connor L. English, Thomas Chandler, Timothy L. Wiemken PhD 2017 Division of Infectious Diseases / University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA

Most Common Statistical Methodologies In Recent Clinical Studies Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Stephen Furmanek, Connor L. English, Thomas Chandler, Timothy L. Wiemken Phd

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Training new individuals in pneumonia research is imperative to produce a new generation of clinical investigators with the expertise necessary to fill gaps in knowledge. Clinical investigators are often intimidated by their unfamiliarity with statistics. The objective of this study is to define the most common statistical methodologies in recent clinical studies of CAP to inform teaching approaches in the field.

Methods: Articles met inclusion criteria if they were clinical research with an emphasis on incidence, epidemiology, or patient outcomes, searchable via PubMed or Google Scholar, published within the timeframe of January 1st 2012 to August 1st 2017, and ...


A Comparative Study Of The Barriers To Hiv Self-Management Among Myanmar Migrant And Han Chinese Women In Yunnan, China, Anna Gaden 2017 SIT Study Abroad

A Comparative Study Of The Barriers To Hiv Self-Management Among Myanmar Migrant And Han Chinese Women In Yunnan, China, Anna Gaden

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

HIV has transitioned from high-risk populations to the general population through sexual transmission – now the primary mode of transmission in China – and is currently the biggest public health crisis in China. Those who are not directly involved with commercial sex work (CSW) or intravenous drug use (IDU) are now vulnerable to contraction. Han Chinese women, especially young women, are generally more vulnerable to transmission than their male counterparts, both physically and socially, and the virus affects their lives more deeply. Myanmar migrant women are even more vulnerable, as their migrant status leaves them without support structures or protections for their ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 The George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


Refugee Policy Implications Of U.S. Immigration Medical Screenings: A New Era Of Inadmissibility On Health-Related Grounds., Mi-Kyung Hong, Reshma E Varghese, Charulata Jindal, Jimmy T Efird 2017 George Washington University

Refugee Policy Implications Of U.S. Immigration Medical Screenings: A New Era Of Inadmissibility On Health-Related Grounds., Mi-Kyung Hong, Reshma E Varghese, Charulata Jindal, Jimmy T Efird

Medicine Faculty Publications

Refugees frequently face extended delays in their efforts to enter the United States (U.S.) and those who are successful, in many cases, encounter overwhelming obstacles, inadequate resources, and a complex system of legal barriers. Travel restrictions based on equivocal health concerns and a drop in refugee admittance ceilings have complicated the situation. The authors retrieved and analyzed peer-reviewed journal articles, government agency press releases, media postings, epidemiologic factsheets, and relevant lay publications to critically assess U.S. policy regarding refugee resettlement based on health-related grounds. While refugees arguably exhibit an increased incidence of measles and tuberculosis compared with the ...


Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer 2017 George Washington University

Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer

Global Health Faculty Publications

Large-scale epidemiologic studies have been invaluable for elaboration of the causal relationship between persistent detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of invasive cervical cancer. However, these studies provide limited data to adequately inform models of the individual-level natural history of HPV infection over the course of a lifetime, and particularly ignore the biological distinction between HPV-negative tests and lack of infection (i.e., the possibility of latent, undetectable HPV infection). Using data from more recent epidemiological studies, this review proposes an alternative model of the natural history of genital HPV across the life span. We argue ...


Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku 2017 Western Washington University

Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku

Hilary Schwandt

Background Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians. Methods A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four ...


Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku 2017 Western Washington University

Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku

Fairhaven Faculty Publications

Background Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians.

Methods A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four ...


Mhealth Intervention Is Effective In Creating Smoke-Free Homes For Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study In China., Shaohua Yu, Zongshuan Duan, Pamela B Redmon, Michael P Eriksen, Jeffrey P Koplan, Cheng Huang 2017 George Washington University

Mhealth Intervention Is Effective In Creating Smoke-Free Homes For Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study In China., Shaohua Yu, Zongshuan Duan, Pamela B Redmon, Michael P Eriksen, Jeffrey P Koplan, Cheng Huang

Global Health Faculty Publications

Mobile-phone-based smoking cessation intervention has been shown to increase quitting among smokers. However, such intervention has not yet been applied to secondhand smoke (SHS) reduction programs that target smoking parents of newborns. This randomized controlled trial, undertaken in Changchun, China, assessed whether interventions that incorporate traditional and mobile-phone-based education will help create smoke-free homes for infants and increase quitting among fathers. The results showed that the abstinence rates of the fathers at 6 months (adjusted OR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.41-9.25; p = 0.008) and 12 months (adjusted OR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.24-6.94; p = 0 ...


Effectiveness Of Four-Decontamination Techniques On Bacterial Growth On Cpr Manikins After Use In A Cpr Course, Rachel K. Katch, David C. Berry 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Effectiveness Of Four-Decontamination Techniques On Bacterial Growth On Cpr Manikins After Use In A Cpr Course, Rachel K. Katch, David C. Berry

International Journal of First Aid Education

Context: The American Red Cross and American Heart Association are strong advocates of preventing disease transmission during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training by promoting careful and consistent manikin decontamination. Because CPR is taught worldwide, identifying low-cost, efficient, and effective means of decontamination is imperative. Objective: Determine the degree of contamination on CPR manikins after routine use, and evaluate the efficacy of four disinfecting methods to reduce bacterial growth. Design: Descriptive laboratory. Setting: CPR class; microbiology laboratory. Subjects Forty-eight Actar 911™ CPR manikins (Armstrong Medical Industries, Lincolnshire, IL). Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variable was bacterial colony growth (count); independent variable was ...


Refugee-Centered Medical Home:A New Approach To Care At The University Of Louisville Global Health Center, Rahel Bosson, Ruth M. Carrico, Anupama Raghuram, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Rebecca Ford, Stephen P. Furmanek, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Refugee-Centered Medical Home:A New Approach To Care At The University Of Louisville Global Health Center, Rahel Bosson, Ruth M. Carrico, Anupama Raghuram, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Rebecca Ford, Stephen P. Furmanek, Julio A. Ramirez

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Refugees arrive to the United States with a full spectrum of health conditions, many of which involve intense case management requiring significant financial investments and use of healthcare resources. Kentucky receives more than 3,000 new refugees each year and ranked 10th in the nation for numbers of new arrivals resettled during 2015. These refugees arrive from diverse countries representing different cultures and speaking different languages. In addition, they arrive with diverse health conditions and medical needs. The aims of this paper are to share experiences from the University of Louisville Global Health Center regarding conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of ...


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