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Essential Newborn Care During Humanitarian Crises: Integration Of Low-Cost Interventions, Athena Wong 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Essential Newborn Care During Humanitarian Crises: Integration Of Low-Cost Interventions, Athena Wong

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Newborn healthcare has long been neglected on the international agenda despite neonatal death making up 44% of all under-five deaths. Neonates are newborns under 28 days of age and are the most vulnerable population with the highest risk of mortality during humanitarian emergencies. The common misconception that neonatal healthcare is very expensive and requires delivery from highly skilled healthcare professionals must be dismissed. There are many low-cost interventions that are highly effective at saving lives, the most notable ones being kangaroo mother care, bag and mask resuscitation, and basic immunizations. The leading causes of neonatal death are prematurity, intrapartum complications ...


Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf 2017 University of Louisville

Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae still occurs in at risk populations, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Laboratory confirmation of S. pneumoniae remains challenging in cases of CAP despite advances in blood culture techniques and the availability of nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR-based methods. Urine specimens are an attractive sample type because they are non-invasive compared to bronchial washes or whole blood specimens for patients with CAP. While urine specimens have been used successfully in antigen detection assays, they have not been extensively evaluated for PCR-based assays. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the potential ...


Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly PhD, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken PhD 2017 University of Louisville

Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly Phd, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken Phd

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Data sharing in clinical research is critical for increasing knowledge discovery. Data and software tools should be FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Inter-operable and Re-usable. Many bottlenecks exist in the process of a clinical investigator using shared data including data acquisition and statistical analysis. The objective of this project is to develop a structure for sharing data and providing rapid automated statistical analysis through creation of a pre-packaged, open-source software container.

Methods: We use the open source software container technologies VirtualBox and Vagrant to create a template for sharing clinical data and analysis scripts as a single container. We use a ...


A Comparative Study Of The Barriers To Hiv Self-Management Among Myanmar Migrant And Han Chinese Women In Yunnan, China, Anna Gaden 2017 SIT Study Abroad

A Comparative Study Of The Barriers To Hiv Self-Management Among Myanmar Migrant And Han Chinese Women In Yunnan, China, Anna Gaden

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

HIV has transitioned from high-risk populations to the general population through sexual transmission – now the primary mode of transmission in China – and is currently the biggest public health crisis in China. Those who are not directly involved with commercial sex work (CSW) or intravenous drug use (IDU) are now vulnerable to contraction. Han Chinese women, especially young women, are generally more vulnerable to transmission than their male counterparts, both physically and socially, and the virus affects their lives more deeply. Myanmar migrant women are even more vulnerable, as their migrant status leaves them without support structures or protections for their ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 The George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


Refugee Policy Implications Of U.S. Immigration Medical Screenings: A New Era Of Inadmissibility On Health-Related Grounds., Mi-Kyung Hong, Reshma E Varghese, Charulata Jindal, Jimmy T Efird 2017 George Washington University

Refugee Policy Implications Of U.S. Immigration Medical Screenings: A New Era Of Inadmissibility On Health-Related Grounds., Mi-Kyung Hong, Reshma E Varghese, Charulata Jindal, Jimmy T Efird

Medicine Faculty Publications

Refugees frequently face extended delays in their efforts to enter the United States (U.S.) and those who are successful, in many cases, encounter overwhelming obstacles, inadequate resources, and a complex system of legal barriers. Travel restrictions based on equivocal health concerns and a drop in refugee admittance ceilings have complicated the situation. The authors retrieved and analyzed peer-reviewed journal articles, government agency press releases, media postings, epidemiologic factsheets, and relevant lay publications to critically assess U.S. policy regarding refugee resettlement based on health-related grounds. While refugees arguably exhibit an increased incidence of measles and tuberculosis compared with the ...


Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer 2017 George Washington University

Natural History Of Hpv Infection Across The Lifespan: Role Of Viral Latency., Patti E Gravitt, Rachel L Winer

Global Health Faculty Publications

Large-scale epidemiologic studies have been invaluable for elaboration of the causal relationship between persistent detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of invasive cervical cancer. However, these studies provide limited data to adequately inform models of the individual-level natural history of HPV infection over the course of a lifetime, and particularly ignore the biological distinction between HPV-negative tests and lack of infection (i.e., the possibility of latent, undetectable HPV infection). Using data from more recent epidemiological studies, this review proposes an alternative model of the natural history of genital HPV across the life span. We argue ...


Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku 2017 Western Washington University

Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku

Hilary Schwandt

Background Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians. Methods A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four ...


Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku 2017 Western Washington University

Inadequate Birth Spacing Is Perceived As Riskier Than All Family Planning Methods, Except Sterilization And Abortion, In A Qualitative Study Among Urban Nigerians, Hilary Schwandt, Joanna Skinner, Luciana Estelle Hebert, Lisa Cobb, Abdulmumin Saad, Mojisola Odeku

Fairhaven Faculty Publications

Background Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians.

Methods A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four ...


Household Water Insecurity, Missed Schooling, And The Mediating Role Of Caregiver Depression In Rural Uganda, Christine E. Cooper-Vince, Bernard Kakuhikire, D. Vorechovska, Amy Q. McDonough, Jessica M. Perkins, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Rumbidzai Mushavi, C. Baguma, Scholastic Ashaba, David Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai 2017 Massachusetts General Hospital

Household Water Insecurity, Missed Schooling, And The Mediating Role Of Caregiver Depression In Rural Uganda, Christine E. Cooper-Vince, Bernard Kakuhikire, D. Vorechovska, Amy Q. Mcdonough, Jessica M. Perkins, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Rumbidzai Mushavi, C. Baguma, Scholastic Ashaba, David Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai

David Bangsberg

Background: School attendance rates in sub-Saharan Africa are among the lowest worldwide, placing children at heightened risk for poor educational and economic outcomes. One understudied risk factor for missed schooling is household water insecurity, which is linked to depression among women and may increase children’s water-fetching burden at the expense of educational activities, particularly among children of depressed caregivers. In this study conducted in rural Uganda, we assessed the association between household water insecurity and child school participation and the mediating pathways behind these associations.

Method: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of female household heads (N = 257) and ...


Mhealth Intervention Is Effective In Creating Smoke-Free Homes For Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study In China., Shaohua Yu, Zongshuan Duan, Pamela B Redmon, Michael P Eriksen, Jeffrey P Koplan, Cheng Huang 2017 George Washington University

Mhealth Intervention Is Effective In Creating Smoke-Free Homes For Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study In China., Shaohua Yu, Zongshuan Duan, Pamela B Redmon, Michael P Eriksen, Jeffrey P Koplan, Cheng Huang

Global Health Faculty Publications

Mobile-phone-based smoking cessation intervention has been shown to increase quitting among smokers. However, such intervention has not yet been applied to secondhand smoke (SHS) reduction programs that target smoking parents of newborns. This randomized controlled trial, undertaken in Changchun, China, assessed whether interventions that incorporate traditional and mobile-phone-based education will help create smoke-free homes for infants and increase quitting among fathers. The results showed that the abstinence rates of the fathers at 6 months (adjusted OR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.41-9.25; p = 0.008) and 12 months (adjusted OR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.24-6.94; p = 0 ...


Effectiveness Of Four-Decontamination Techniques On Bacterial Growth On Cpr Manikins After Use In A Cpr Course, Rachel K. Katch, David C. Berry 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Effectiveness Of Four-Decontamination Techniques On Bacterial Growth On Cpr Manikins After Use In A Cpr Course, Rachel K. Katch, David C. Berry

International Journal of First Aid Education

Context: The American Red Cross and American Heart Association are strong advocates of preventing disease transmission during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training by promoting careful and consistent manikin decontamination. Because CPR is taught worldwide, identifying low-cost, efficient, and effective means of decontamination is imperative. Objective: Determine the degree of contamination on CPR manikins after routine use, and evaluate the efficacy of four disinfecting methods to reduce bacterial growth. Design: Descriptive laboratory. Setting: CPR class; microbiology laboratory. Subjects Forty-eight Actar 911™ CPR manikins (Armstrong Medical Industries, Lincolnshire, IL). Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variable was bacterial colony growth (count); independent variable was ...


Subjective Well-Being And Hiv Prevention: A Cross-Country Descriptive Study Using Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Data, Janine Foggia, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann 2017 Saint Louis University

Subjective Well-Being And Hiv Prevention: A Cross-Country Descriptive Study Using Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Data, Janine Foggia, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Subjective well-being (SWB) is positively associated with improved health outcomes and, in particular, preventative behaviors. Yet, the relationship between SWB and HIV prevention is not well understood, especially in the context of developing countries. Furthermore, young females experience a high burden of HIV as well as sociodemographic factors which influence SWB. Therefore, this descriptive study sought to describe the global landscape of three constructs of SWB - happiness, life satisfaction, and life perception - and the following HIV prevention variables: comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing, and condom use among young adult females aged 15-24 years. Descriptive statistics of Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey ...


Refugee-Centered Medical Home:A New Approach To Care At The University Of Louisville Global Health Center, Rahel Bosson, Ruth M. Carrico, Anupama Raghuram, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Rebecca Ford, Stephen P. Furmanek, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Refugee-Centered Medical Home:A New Approach To Care At The University Of Louisville Global Health Center, Rahel Bosson, Ruth M. Carrico, Anupama Raghuram, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Rebecca Ford, Stephen P. Furmanek, Julio A. Ramirez

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Refugees arrive to the United States with a full spectrum of health conditions, many of which involve intense case management requiring significant financial investments and use of healthcare resources. Kentucky receives more than 3,000 new refugees each year and ranked 10th in the nation for numbers of new arrivals resettled during 2015. These refugees arrive from diverse countries representing different cultures and speaking different languages. In addition, they arrive with diverse health conditions and medical needs. The aims of this paper are to share experiences from the University of Louisville Global Health Center regarding conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of ...


Estimates Of Burden And Consequences Of Infants Born Small For Gestational Age In Low And Middle Income Countries With Intergrowth-21(St) Standard: Analysis Of Cherg Datasets., Anne Cc Lee, Naoko Kozuki, Simon Cousens, Gretchen A Stevens, Hannah Blencowe, Mariangela F Silveira, Ayesha Sania, Heather E Rosen, Christentze Schmiegelow, Linda S Adair, Abdullah H Baqui, Fernando C Barros, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura E Caulfield, Parul Christian, Siân E Clarke, Wafaie Fawzi, Rogelio Gonzalez, Jean Humphrey, Lieven Huybregts, Simon Kariuki, Patrick Kolsteren, John Lusingu, Dharma Manandhar, Aroonsri Mongkolchati, Luke C Mullany, Richard Ndyomugyenyi, Jyh Kae Nien, Dominique Roberfroid, Naomi Saville, Dianne J Terlouw, James M Tielsch, Cesar G Victora, Sithembiso C Velaphi, Deborah Watson-Jones, Barbara A Willey, Majid Ezzati, Joy E Lawn, Robert E Black, Joanne Katz 2017 George Washington University

Estimates Of Burden And Consequences Of Infants Born Small For Gestational Age In Low And Middle Income Countries With Intergrowth-21(St) Standard: Analysis Of Cherg Datasets., Anne Cc Lee, Naoko Kozuki, Simon Cousens, Gretchen A Stevens, Hannah Blencowe, Mariangela F Silveira, Ayesha Sania, Heather E Rosen, Christentze Schmiegelow, Linda S Adair, Abdullah H Baqui, Fernando C Barros, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura E Caulfield, Parul Christian, Siân E Clarke, Wafaie Fawzi, Rogelio Gonzalez, Jean Humphrey, Lieven Huybregts, Simon Kariuki, Patrick Kolsteren, John Lusingu, Dharma Manandhar, Aroonsri Mongkolchati, Luke C Mullany, Richard Ndyomugyenyi, Jyh Kae Nien, Dominique Roberfroid, Naomi Saville, Dianne J Terlouw, James M Tielsch, Cesar G Victora, Sithembiso C Velaphi, Deborah Watson-Jones, Barbara A Willey, Majid Ezzati, Joy E Lawn, Robert E Black, Joanne Katz

Global Health Faculty Publications

Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard.

Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level ...


Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas

Catherine W. Carr

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...


Household Water Insecurity, Missed Schooling, And The Mediating Role Of Caregiver Depression In Rural Uganda, Christine E. Cooper-Vince, Bernard Kakuhikire, Dagmar Vořechovská, Amy Q. McDonough, Jessica M. Perkins, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Rumbidzai Mushavi, C. Baguma, Scholastic Ashaba, David Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai 2017 Massachusetts General Hospital

Household Water Insecurity, Missed Schooling, And The Mediating Role Of Caregiver Depression In Rural Uganda, Christine E. Cooper-Vince, Bernard Kakuhikire, Dagmar Vořechovská, Amy Q. Mcdonough, Jessica M. Perkins, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Rumbidzai Mushavi, C. Baguma, Scholastic Ashaba, David Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai

OHSU-PSU Joint School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: School attendance rates in sub-Saharan Africa are among the lowest worldwide, placing children at heightened risk for poor educational and economic outcomes. One understudied risk factor for missed schooling is household water insecurity, which is linked to depression among women and may increase children’s water-fetching burden at the expense of educational activities, particularly among children of depressed caregivers. In this study conducted in rural Uganda, we assessed the association between household water insecurity and child school participation and the mediating pathways behind these associations.

Method: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of female household heads (N = 257) and ...


Swedish Social Welfare And Its Application To American Welfare Systems, Ben Wilson Galloway 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Swedish Social Welfare And Its Application To American Welfare Systems, Ben Wilson Galloway

Theses and Dissertations

Swedish Social Welfare and its Application to American Welfare Systems concerns itself with the issue of determining the origins of the modern Swedish social welfare system. Additionally, the causes behind the formation of the system are evaluated for their relevancy concerning the formation of the American welfare system. Multiple areas of study are considered, including racial impacts, economic factors, sociological impactors, and demographic variables.


Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Child Contact Management In High Tuberculosis Burden Countries: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine W. Carr, Anna M. Mandalakas

Library Publications and Presentations

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population ...


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