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Urine Electrolyte Excretion In A Hypertensive Population Of East Africans, Aiste Dobrovolskaite 2017 Western Kentucky University

Urine Electrolyte Excretion In A Hypertensive Population Of East Africans, Aiste Dobrovolskaite

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the largest contributor to mortality rates worldwide including in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) which already suffer from high rates of infectious disease. Among the four major NCDs that cause 38 million deaths annually, cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes 17.5 million of these annual deaths. The primary risk factor of CVD is hypertension. Kenya, a developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa, has a high rate of hypertension with low (2.6%) management rates. Prior research from our lab has identified a population of Kenyans with a high prevalence of hypertension that is not statistically correlated ...


Victims Or Heroes? How Did Journalists Frame The Ebola Crisis In Liberia?, Tamah Kamlem, Nwanneamaka Ume, Skylar Lisse, Eme Udoh, Jialin Meng 2017 George Washington University

Victims Or Heroes? How Did Journalists Frame The Ebola Crisis In Liberia?, Tamah Kamlem, Nwanneamaka Ume, Skylar Lisse, Eme Udoh, Jialin Meng

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

The Ebola Virus Disease epidemic in West Africa in 2014 with over 11,000 deaths made headlines worldwide, causing fear and posing a challenge to traditional media, entrusted with the task of reporting about the spread of the disease. Individuals and communities rely on media to obtain health information, including decisions related to disease prevention and behavior to protect their health. Therefore, frames used by the media to report about health emergencies impact public perceptions. Mass media framing during crises has been associated with emotional and behavioral responses that are consistent with the thematic depiction of unfolding events. Moreover, message ...


A Comparative Study On The Impact Evaluation Of World Vision’S Water, Sanitation And Hygiene Program In Malawi, Mozambique, And Zambia: Analyses Using Lives Saved Tool, Chulwoo Park, Armen Martirosyan, Erin A. Jones, Ashley Labat, Yvonne Tam, Emmanuel Opong 2017 George Washington University

A Comparative Study On The Impact Evaluation Of World Vision’S Water, Sanitation And Hygiene Program In Malawi, Mozambique, And Zambia: Analyses Using Lives Saved Tool, Chulwoo Park, Armen Martirosyan, Erin A. Jones, Ashley Labat, Yvonne Tam, Emmanuel Opong

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background

According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease is the second top killer of children under five years of age (U5), claiming around 760,000 young children’s lives every year, and 88% of diarrheal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. The humanitarian aid organization, World Vision, launched community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) project in 76 Area Development Programs (ADPs) for 506,019 target U5 population across Southern Africa Region (SAR): Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia in 2010.

Objective

This study estimated the retrospective health impact of the project between 2010 and 2014 to ...


Stakeholders' Perceptions Of A Hospital Based Emergency Medicine Education & Training Program: A System Change, Kate Douglass, Jay Pandya, Michael Brennan, Kyle Yoder, Janice Blanchard, Natasha Powell, Zohray Talib 2017 George Washington University

Stakeholders' Perceptions Of A Hospital Based Emergency Medicine Education & Training Program: A System Change, Kate Douglass, Jay Pandya, Michael Brennan, Kyle Yoder, Janice Blanchard, Natasha Powell, Zohray Talib

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: Emergency Medicine (EM) is a new and developing specialty around the world. In India, one model for capacity building has been the development of partnerships between US academic institutions and private healthcare institutions for implementing post-graduate education and training in EM. Initiated in 2007, programs have grown both in number and scope and have continued to attract new students and partner institutions. This study was undertaken to better understand the impact of EM training programs on hospital systems.

Methods: A mixed-methods evaluation was undertaken at 5 program sites across India in the summer of 2016. Two researchers conducted onsite ...


Secondary Prevention At The Aswan Heart Centre, Amira Athanasios 2017 George Washington University

Secondary Prevention At The Aswan Heart Centre, Amira Athanasios

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally, taking the lives of almost 18 million patients around the world each year. The overwhelming majority of cardiovascular deaths take place in low- to mid-income counties, suggesting that most cardiovascular deaths are preventable. In this study, current literature on secondary prevention of coronary artery disease was analyzed. Specific emphasis was given to preventative measures and successes in low income countries. Based on a literature review, a patient questionnaire to better understand patient adherence to preventative measures was created. This questionnaire focuses on patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy post acute myocardial infarct ...


Needs Assessment Of Pediatric Radiological Equipment And Cross-Cultural Investigation Into Parental Empowerment In Pediatric Radiology Program Development In The Kingdom Of Bhutan, Danielle Canter 2017 George Washington University

Needs Assessment Of Pediatric Radiological Equipment And Cross-Cultural Investigation Into Parental Empowerment In Pediatric Radiology Program Development In The Kingdom Of Bhutan, Danielle Canter

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Bhutan is a magnificent mountainous country hugged by India to the east and west and by China to the North and South. This peaceful nestled country faces challenges in combating non-communicable diseases due to the lack of radiological equipment necessary for early diagnosis. Prior to implementation of these medical devices, it is imperative to investigate the cultural attitudes, beliefs, and infrastructure, to ensure successful integration. Bhutan is beginning to implement a pediatric radiology program for the nation with the assistance of ABAH Foundation and RAD-AID International, both of whom partnered with graduate students at George Washington University School of ...


Exploring The Nutrition And Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors Of Low-Income Parents Of Peruvian Preschool Children, Kathleen McInvale 2017 Florida International University

Exploring The Nutrition And Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors Of Low-Income Parents Of Peruvian Preschool Children, Kathleen Mcinvale

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Obesity and related chronic diseases are emerging public health issues among children in Peru, where more than 13 percent of children five years and younger are overweight or obese. Although parents have been identified as one of the most important determinants of healthy weight in young children, there are no known studies that have explored the perceptions of Peruvian parents regarding obesity prevention. This study assessed the nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of Peruvian parents, and sought to determine if there is a relationship between their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The cross-sectional survey study sampled 204 parents ...


Theory Of Gender And Power: Intimate Partner Violence, Hiv Status And Sexual Risk Behaviors In Haitian Women, Anshul Saxena 2017 Florida International University

Theory Of Gender And Power: Intimate Partner Violence, Hiv Status And Sexual Risk Behaviors In Haitian Women, Anshul Saxena

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Among women in Haiti, there are a number of factors, including intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood sexual abuse, and alcohol abuse that lead to increased vulnerability to STI/HIV and its sequelae. This study examined the factors associated with IPV and the associations between IPV and HIV in a sample of adult Haitian women.

The current study is a secondary analysis of data collected from HIV+ and HIV- women attending the GHESKIO centers in Haiti. The measures include: Self-reported Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20); Attitudes Towards Gender Roles; Partner Violence; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); Partner Support; Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS ...


Rahi-Sathi Indo-U.S. Collaboration: The Evolution Of A Trainee-Led Twinning Model In Global Health Into A Multidisciplinary Collaborative Program, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Abraham Jaffe, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Nancy Byatt, Michael Chin, David D. McManus, Michaela Tracey, Jasmine A. Khubchandani, Haley Newman, Allison Earon, Hannah Rosenfield, Anna Handorf, Brittany Novak, John Bostrom, Anindita Deb, Milagros C. Rosal, Patricia A. McQuilkin, Heena Santry, Melissa A. Fischer, Jeroan J. Allison 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rahi-Sathi Indo-U.S. Collaboration: The Evolution Of A Trainee-Led Twinning Model In Global Health Into A Multidisciplinary Collaborative Program, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Abraham Jaffe, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Nancy Byatt, Michael Chin, David D. Mcmanus, Michaela Tracey, Jasmine A. Khubchandani, Haley Newman, Allison Earon, Hannah Rosenfield, Anna Handorf, Brittany Novak, John Bostrom, Anindita Deb, Milagros C. Rosal, Patricia A. Mcquilkin, Heena Santry, Melissa A. Fischer, Jeroan J. Allison

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been a surge in the number of global health programs operated by academic institutions. However, most of the existing programs describe partnerships that are primarily faculty-driven and supported by extramural funding.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Research and Advocacy for Health in India (RAHI, or "pathfinder" in Hindi) and Support and Action Towards Health-Equity in India (SATHI, or "partnership" in Hindi) are 2 interconnected, collaborative efforts between the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) and Charutar Arogya Mandal (CAM), a medical college and a tertiary care center in rural western India. The RAHI-SATHI program is the culmination ...


Clinical & Translational Research In Pneumonia: Defining A Research Agenda For Today And Tomorrow, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Clinical & Translational Research In Pneumonia: Defining A Research Agenda For Today And Tomorrow, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

From the Editor in Chief

The reason for this special supplement of the Journal is to inform readers of a scientific research conference supported by the National Institutes of Health (NHI). The NIH Research Conference Grant (R13) supports high quality scientific conferences in areas that are important to the NIH's mission and to the public health. We just received notification that the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has approved the application for an international research conference entitled: DzClinical & Translational Research in Pneumonia: Defining a Research Agenda for Today and Tomorrowdz. The conference will be held on Wednesday ...


Editorial Exportation Of Brazilian Immigrants.Pdf, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

Editorial Exportation Of Brazilian Immigrants.Pdf, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira

C. Eduardo Siqueira

No abstract provided.


Medical Student And Hospital Team Fight Cervical Cancer In Rural China, Haley Newman 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Medical Student And Hospital Team Fight Cervical Cancer In Rural China, Haley Newman

Senior Scholars Program

Blog post for the Gynius company website describing Newman's Senior Scholars project. She is evaluating portable colposcopy for cervical cancer screening in rural China.


Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge On Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience, Timothy Musila Mutala, Priscilla Nyambura Maina 2017 University of Nairobi

Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge On Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience, Timothy Musila Mutala, Priscilla Nyambura Maina

The Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: Our study aimed to establish exposure to and level of knowledge about contrast media among non-radiological clinicians and evaluate the contributory factors to the status.

Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and December 2015 through interviews using structured questionnaires. We recruited 197 non-radiological clinicians with experience in use of contrast media in their routine practice. They were of different cadres and years of experience, all working in a large referral hospital in Kenya. Levels of basic knowledge on contrast media were evaluated through a scoring system after each clinician responded to the questions provided. We ...


Impact Belize 2010 Executive Report, Ritchie D. Taylor, Jordan Norris, Molly Calico, Bernie Strenecky, Daniel Carter, Dawn Garrett Wright, Eve Main, Bonny Petty, Molly Kerby, Jill Norris 2017 Western Kentucky University

Impact Belize 2010 Executive Report, Ritchie D. Taylor, Jordan Norris, Molly Calico, Bernie Strenecky, Daniel Carter, Dawn Garrett Wright, Eve Main, Bonny Petty, Molly Kerby, Jill Norris

Molly Kerby

No abstract provided.


Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisville, KY

Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

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A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority ...


Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon 2017 Providence Hospital, Washington, DC

Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Studies have found admission hyperglycemia as a predictor of poor outcomes in Community acquired Pneumonia (CAP), whereas others have not. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on mortality as well as Length of stay (LOS) and Time to clinical stability (TCS) of hospitalized patients with CAP.

Materials and Methods: Adult patients hospitalized with CAP enrolled at Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) database with DM were categorized as admission blood glucose ≥ 250 mg/dL (diabetes mellitus blood sugar (BG) > 250) and admission blood glucose ≤ 250 mg/dL (DM BG ≤ 250). CAP outcomes included ...


Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Time to clinical stability is a well-defined early clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but it has not been evaluated in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The objective of this study was to compare time to clinical stability in patients with MRSA VAP treated with linezolid versus vancomycin.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the IMPACT-HAP study database. VAP was defined according to CDC criteria. MRSA VAP was considered when MRSA was isolated from a tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage. A patient was considered to reach clinical stability the day that the following four criteria were ...


Challenges To Estimating Vaccine Impact Using Hospitalization Data., Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Robert J Taylor, Lone Simonsen, Roger Lustig, Esra Kürüm, Christian A W Bruhn, Daniel M Weinberger 2017 George Washington University

Challenges To Estimating Vaccine Impact Using Hospitalization Data., Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Robert J Taylor, Lone Simonsen, Roger Lustig, Esra Kürüm, Christian A W Bruhn, Daniel M Weinberger

Global Health Faculty Publications

Because the real-world impact of new vaccines cannot be known before they are implemented in national programs, post-implementation studies at the population level are critical. Studies based on analysis of hospitalization rates of vaccine-preventable outcomes are typically used for this purpose. However, estimates of vaccine impact based on hospitalization data are particularly prone to confounding, as hospitalization rates are tightly linked to changes in the quality, access and use of the healthcare system, which often occur simultaneously with introduction of new vaccines. Here we illustrate how changes in healthcare delivery coincident with vaccine introduction can influence estimates of vaccine impact ...


Sex With Sweethearts: Exploring Factors Associated With Inconsistent Condom Use Among Unmarried Female Entertainment Workers In Cambodia, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Chanrith Ngin, Kolab Chhim, Carinne M. Brody 2017 Touro University California

Sex With Sweethearts: Exploring Factors Associated With Inconsistent Condom Use Among Unmarried Female Entertainment Workers In Cambodia, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Chanrith Ngin, Kolab Chhim, Carinne M. Brody

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Despite the success in promoting condom use in commercial relationships, condom use with regular, noncommercial partners remains low among key populations in Cambodia. This study explores factors associated inconsistent condom use with sweethearts among unmarried sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs).

Methods: In 2014, the probability proportional to size sampling method was used to randomly select 204 FEWs from entertainment venues in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap for face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine independent determinants of inconsistent condom use.

Results: Of total, 31.4% of the respondents reported consistent condom use with sweethearts in ...


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