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A Prescription To Remedy Global Agricultural Antibiotic Resistance: An Integrated Approach, Valerie Drake 2018 University of Iowa

A Prescription To Remedy Global Agricultural Antibiotic Resistance: An Integrated Approach, Valerie Drake

University of Iowa Honors Theses

This study focuses on determining an effective public health policy strategy to address agricultural antibiotic resistance. The research examines domestic and international examples of governmental regulation, including the Food and Drug Administration’s regulatory release, Guidance for Industry #213 (FDA GFI #213), which concerns the use of antibiotics in industrial livestock farming in the United States, and the contrasting Danish policy and surveillance techniques. To determine the effectiveness of voluntary measures, this research assesses motivations leading to the creation of FDA GFI #213 by referencing specific legal disclaimers, document audience, and enforcement methods. Taking these results, the study cross-examines the ...


Evaluation Of Behavior Change Communication Campaigns To Promote Modern Cookstove Purchase And Use In Lower Middle Income Countries, W. Douglas Evans, Michael Johnson, Kirstie Jagoe, Dana Charron, A.S.M. Mashiur Rahman, Daniel Omolloh, Julie Ipe 2018 George Washington University

Evaluation Of Behavior Change Communication Campaigns To Promote Modern Cookstove Purchase And Use In Lower Middle Income Countries, W. Douglas Evans, Michael Johnson, Kirstie Jagoe, Dana Charron, A.S.M. Mashiur Rahman, Daniel Omolloh, Julie Ipe

Global Health Faculty Publications

Nearly three billion people worldwide burn solid fuels and kerosene in open fires and inefficient stoves to cook, light, and heat their homes. Cleaner-burning stoves reduce emissions and can have positive health, climate, and women’s empowerment benefits. This article reports on the protocol and baseline data from the evaluation of four behavior change communication (BCC) campaigns carried out in lower to middle income countries aimed at promoting the sale and use of cleaner-burning stoves. Interventions implemented in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Nigeria are using a range of BCC methods including mass media, digital media, outdoor advertising, and inter-personal communication. The ...


Panama: Ischemic Heart Disease, Alexander R. Ligeza 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Panama: Ischemic Heart Disease, Alexander R. Ligeza

Global Public Health

This public health brief draws attention to the issue of ischemic heart disease that is currently plaguing Panama. Due largely to the dietary culture of the country, ischemic heart disease remains the number one health-related killer of Panamanians. Over the past few decades, there has been a stark increase in the amount of processed foods that are becoming a large part of the diets of western nations, and Panama has become no stranger to this trend. Although there have been great strides made in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, Panama still has a long road ahead of itself before ...


Northern Mariana Islands: Hepatitis B, Dennis Thornton 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Northern Mariana Islands: Hepatitis B, Dennis Thornton

Global Public Health

The Northern Mariana Islands consists of a group of Islands in the Pacific Ocean that are a United States commonwealth, meaning that they are technically a part of the United States and follow our government, which is a constitutional republic. This string of islands has had a problem with Hepatitis B in the past. This is a problem for all genders, and all ages, but is most common among drug users, diabetics, and individuals who engage in sexual acts with multiple partners. This illness attacks a person's bloodstream and can be serious enough to cause liver failure and extreme ...


Rwanda: Hiv/Aids, Alissa Anderson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Rwanda: Hiv/Aids, Alissa Anderson

Global Public Health

Rwanda is a small country in Africa. Rwanda has had many conflicts within its borders with wars, genocide, and disease. One of Rwanda’s current threats is HIV/AIDS. This disease is spreading through its population, and making it easier for other diseases; such as hepatitis and tuberculosis, to spread as well. Rwanda is a country that is putting into effect many efforts to decrease its HIV/AIDS population by means of education, campaigns, and treatments regarding the disease. In this article, I use peer reviewed and reliable articles to show the past and current issues that Rwanda has to ...


Somalia: Rift Valley Fever, Alyson Meeks 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Somalia: Rift Valley Fever, Alyson Meeks

Global Public Health

This walks readers through the basic demographics of Somalia, a country located in the horn of Africa. After learning about the government in Somalia and the problems that the people of the country face, this focuses on the problem of Rift Valley Fever. Rift Valley Fever is a virus that year after year strikes Somalia and surrounding countries. Weather patterns seem to help predict when Rift Valley Fever will be at the highest risk for an outbreak. This outlines the steps the current government and people are trying to take to help prevent outbreaks of RVF. But the solutions currently ...


Guinea-Bissau: Hiv/Aids, Matt MacArthur 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Guinea-Bissau: Hiv/Aids, Matt Macarthur

Global Public Health

This public health brief investigates the concern of HIV/AIDS in Guinea-Bissau. Guinea-Bissau is a low-income country run by a semi-presidential government. The government has been very unstable since its formation. A variety of internal conflicts have limited the effectiveness of the government. As a result, there is little money to provide proper treatment for individuals with HIV/AIDS. It is important to get tested for this condition as soon as symptoms occur, but due to limited resources that is not always possible. Guinea-Bissau has a very high fertility rate compared to other countries worldwide, this allows for a high ...


Youth Paying For Sex: What Are The Associated Factors? Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study In Cambodia, Soaman Dizechi, Carinne M. Brody, Sovannary Tuot, Chhorvann Chhea, Vonthanak Saphonn, Kunthearith Yung, Siyan Yi 2018 Touro University California

Youth Paying For Sex: What Are The Associated Factors? Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study In Cambodia, Soaman Dizechi, Carinne M. Brody, Sovannary Tuot, Chhorvann Chhea, Vonthanak Saphonn, Kunthearith Yung, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

BACKGROUND: At-risk male youth in Cambodia who purchase sex are at greater risk for HIV compared to the general population. Factors associated with paying for sex among youth are poorly studied, both globally and in Cambodia. This study aimed to identify specific factors associated with transactional sex with women among most-at-risk male youth in Cambodia.

METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with 405 sexually active male youth aged 16-24 recruited at 'hotspots' in the capital city of Phnom Penh and seven provinces. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behaviors, HIV testing and other potential factors. Multivariable logistic regression ...


Social-Support Needs Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Transition From Pediatric To Adult Care In Cambodia: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Graham Toth, Gitau Mburu, Sovannary Tuot, Vohith Khol, Chanrith Ngin, Pheak Chhoun, Siyan Yi 2018 Touro University California

Social-Support Needs Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Transition From Pediatric To Adult Care In Cambodia: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Graham Toth, Gitau Mburu, Sovannary Tuot, Vohith Khol, Chanrith Ngin, Pheak Chhoun, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

BACKGROUND: Understanding the circumstances of adolescents living with HIV is critical in designing adolescent-friendly services that will facilitate successful transition from pediatric to adult care. This study describes access, utilization and ongoing social support needs among adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17 in transition from pediatric to adult HIV care in Cambodia.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 328 adolescents, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics across the country. Descriptive analyses were conducted to summarize their characteristics, access to social support and ongoing support needs among male and female adolescents.

RESULTS: Mean age of the study participants ...


Exposure To Gender-Based Violence And Depressive Symptoms Among Transgender Women In Cambodia: Findings From The National Integrated Biological And Behavioral Survey 2016, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Srean Chhim, Pheak Chhoun, Phalkun Mun, Gitau Mburu 2018 Touro University California

Exposure To Gender-Based Violence And Depressive Symptoms Among Transgender Women In Cambodia: Findings From The National Integrated Biological And Behavioral Survey 2016, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Srean Chhim, Pheak Chhoun, Phalkun Mun, Gitau Mburu

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Transgender women are at significant risk of HIV, and they face intersecting barriers to health, social, and legal services. However, data regarding the unique needs and experiences of transgender women are globally scant. This study examined the relationship between gender-based violence and depressive symptoms among transgender women in Cambodia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1375 sexually active transgender women recruited by using the respondent-driven sampling method in the capital city of Phnom Penh and 12 provinces between December 2015 and February 2016. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Multivariate regression analysis was ...


Sexual Behaviors, Hiv Knowledge, Hiv Testing Attitudes And Recent Hiv Testing Among Female Entertainment Workers In Cambodia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Kolab Chhim, Chanrith Ngin, Carinne M. Brody 2018 Touro University California

Sexual Behaviors, Hiv Knowledge, Hiv Testing Attitudes And Recent Hiv Testing Among Female Entertainment Workers In Cambodia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Kolab Chhim, Chanrith Ngin, Carinne M. Brody

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

BACKGROUND: In Cambodian context, female entertainment workers (FEWs) are young women working at establishments such as karaoke bars, restaurants, beer gardens or massage parlors. FEWs may sell sex to male patrons and are considered a high-risk group for HIV. This study aimed to identify factors associated with recent HIV testing among FEWs in Cambodia to inform future prevention activities.

METHODS: Data were collected in 2014 as part of the evaluation of a larger HIV prevention project. A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select participants from Phnom Penh and Siem Reap for face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. A ...


Gender Disparities In The Association Between Socio-Demographics And Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Among Adults With Disabilities In Shanghai, China, Youran Zhang, Gang Chen, Qi Zhang, Jun Lu, Huijiong Yu 2018 Old Dominion University

Gender Disparities In The Association Between Socio-Demographics And Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Among Adults With Disabilities In Shanghai, China, Youran Zhang, Gang Chen, Qi Zhang, Jun Lu, Huijiong Yu

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors can co-exist with disability and cause a greater burden on the health status of adults with disabilities. A lack of egalitarian social policies in China may result in gender disparities in the NCD risk factors of adults with disabilities. However, little is known about the gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities in China; consequently, we examined this association among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China.

METHODS. We used the health examination data of 44,896 adults with disabilities in Shanghai in 2014. Descriptive analyses and ...


Social And Behavioural Factors Associated With Risky Sexual Behaviours Among University Students In Nine Asean Countries: A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study, Siyan Yi, Vannarath Te, Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer 2018 Touro University California

Social And Behavioural Factors Associated With Risky Sexual Behaviours Among University Students In Nine Asean Countries: A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study, Siyan Yi, Vannarath Te, Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

While university students are potential human resources, this population group is particularly involved in health risk behaviours. Preventing risky sexual behaviours among them would contribute to prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unwanted pregnancies, which have posed a great burden on population health. This study was therefore conducted to identify social and behavioural factors associated with risky sexual behaviours among university students in nine ASEAN countries. A multi-country, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among university students by a network of researchers in the selected countries. A convenient sampling method and stratified random sampling procedures were employed to ...


Prevalence Of And Factors Associated With Utilization Of Herbal Medicines Among Outpatients In Primary Health Centers In Cambodia, Hattie Pearson, Tyler Fleming, Pheak Chhoun, Sovannary Tuot, Carinne M. Brody, Siyan Yi 2018 Touro University California

Prevalence Of And Factors Associated With Utilization Of Herbal Medicines Among Outpatients In Primary Health Centers In Cambodia, Hattie Pearson, Tyler Fleming, Pheak Chhoun, Sovannary Tuot, Carinne M. Brody, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

BACKGROUND: Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) is seen as a way to provide healthcare in both developed and developing countries across the world. In Cambodia, there is a long tradition of using TCAM. However, scant studies have been conducted on the extent of Cambodian TCAM use and how it interacts with allopathic health care to date. In this study, we examined the prevalence of and factors associated with utilization of herbal medicines among patients with chronic diseases in primary health care settings in Cambodia.

METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with outpatients receiving treatment and care for ...


Gender-Transformative Bandebereho Couples' Intervention To Promote Male Engagement In Reproductive And Maternal Health And Violence Prevention In Rwanda: Findings From A Randomized Controlled Trial., Kate Doyle, Ruti G Levtov, Gary Barker, Gautam G Bastian, Jeffrey B Bingenheimer, Shamsi Kazimbaya, Anicet Nzabonimpa, Julie Pulerwitz, Felix Sayinzoga, Vandana Sharma, Dominick Shattuck 2018 George Washington University

Gender-Transformative Bandebereho Couples' Intervention To Promote Male Engagement In Reproductive And Maternal Health And Violence Prevention In Rwanda: Findings From A Randomized Controlled Trial., Kate Doyle, Ruti G Levtov, Gary Barker, Gautam G Bastian, Jeffrey B Bingenheimer, Shamsi Kazimbaya, Anicet Nzabonimpa, Julie Pulerwitz, Felix Sayinzoga, Vandana Sharma, Dominick Shattuck

Prevention and Community Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of male engagement interventions, particularly on how these interventions impact relationship power dynamics and women's decision-making, remains limited. This study assessed the impact of the Bandebereho gender-transformative couples' intervention on impact on multiple behavioral and health-related outcomes influenced by gender norms and power relations.

METHODS: We conducted a multi-site randomised controlled trial in four Rwandan districts with expectant/current fathers and their partners, who were randomised to the intervention (n = 575 couples) or control group (n = 624 couples). Primary outcomes include women's experience of physical and sexual IPV, women's attendance and ...


Increased Antibiotic Resistance Of Escherichia Coli In Nicaragua: Potential Causes And Future Implications, Ryan S. Paukert 2018 Augsburg University

Increased Antibiotic Resistance Of Escherichia Coli In Nicaragua: Potential Causes And Future Implications, Ryan S. Paukert

Theses and Graduate Projects

Since 1987, no new structural class of antibiotic has been introduced into human medicine. Aside from the absence of a new structural class of antibiotics, there has been a startlingly low number of new antibiotics approved since 1987. With the lack of new antibiotics, finding current antibiotics that are effective is becoming an alarming challenge due to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria presents a major threat to public health because they reduce the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure. Without treatment for common infections, like uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), resistant infections ...


Patterns Of Civilian And Child Deaths Due To War-Related Violence In Syria: A Comparative Analysis From The Violation Documentation Center Dataset, 2011-16, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin Schluter, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Louis Lillywhite, Madelyn J. Hsiao-Rei Hicks 2018 Université catholique de Louvain

Patterns Of Civilian And Child Deaths Due To War-Related Violence In Syria: A Comparative Analysis From The Violation Documentation Center Dataset, 2011-16, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin Schluter, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Louis Lillywhite, Madelyn J. Hsiao-Rei Hicks

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflict-related violence in 6 years of war.

METHODS: We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC). We included civilian and combatant deaths in all Syrian governorates, excluding government-controlled areas. We did not include detainees and missing persons, nor deaths from ...


Modeling The Relationship Between Women’S Perceptions And Future Intention To Use Institutional Maternity Care In The Western Highlands Of Guatemala, Emily Peca, John Sandberg 2018 George Washington University

Modeling The Relationship Between Women’S Perceptions And Future Intention To Use Institutional Maternity Care In The Western Highlands Of Guatemala, Emily Peca, John Sandberg

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Despite global gains, women in hard-to-reach areas are at a relatively higher risk of death and disability related to childbirth. Traditional methods of measuring satisfaction may mask negative experiences (such as disrespect and abuse) that can drive down demand for institutional care. Better measurement of women’s perceptions of care quality, especially among marginalized populations with historically low utilization of institutional care, are needed to inform how to improve services and foster greater utilization of (potentially life-saving) clinical care.

Methods

A population-based household survey was conducted in 15 purposively selected villages in the rural Western Highlands of Guatemala among ...


Drought-Sensitivity Of Fine Dust In The U.S. Southwest: Implications For Air Quality And Public Health Under Future Climate Change, Pattanun Achakulwisut, Loretta Mickley, Susan Anenberg 2018 George Washington University

Drought-Sensitivity Of Fine Dust In The U.S. Southwest: Implications For Air Quality And Public Health Under Future Climate Change, Pattanun Achakulwisut, Loretta Mickley, Susan Anenberg

Global Health Faculty Publications

We investigate the present-day sensitivity of fine dust levels in the U.S. Southwest to regional drought conditions and use the observed relationships to assess future changes in fine dust levels and associated health impacts under climate change. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals that the most dominant mode of fine dust interannual variability for each season consists of a pattern of large-scale co-variability across the Southwest. This mode is strongly correlated to the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) accumulated over 1-6 months in local and surrounding regions spanning the major North American deserts. Across the seasons, a unit decrease in 2-month ...


Barriers To Breast Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women, Helen Graves 2018 Daemen College

Barriers To Breast Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women, Helen Graves

Academic Festival Posters

A 2004 study revealed that 86% of refugees never had a mammogram compared to American women at 33% (Saadi, 2012). Refugees are displaced people who migrated to other countries to flee from social, physical and/or economic harm. The purpose of this review is to identify barriers and interventions for breast cancer screening among refugee women. When refugee women come to their new countries, they often have chronic conditions that have occurred due to lack of healthcare access. When they arrive, they are faced with more barriers such as language, culture, and religion that keep them from seeking regular healthcare ...


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