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Mycobacterium Kansasii As The Primary Etiology Of Pulmonary Infections Due To Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium (Ntm) In Patients Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv): Experience From A Center In Buenos Aires, Argentina, Gabriel Yusti, Marcela Heres, Alejandra González, Mariano Fielli, Adrian Ceccato, Alejandra Zapata 2018 Alejandro Posadas National Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Mycobacterium Kansasii As The Primary Etiology Of Pulmonary Infections Due To Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium (Ntm) In Patients Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv): Experience From A Center In Buenos Aires, Argentina, Gabriel Yusti, Marcela Heres, Alejandra González, Mariano Fielli, Adrian Ceccato, Alejandra Zapata

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Pulmonary diseases due to non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) lung infection in HIV-negative patients are rarely described in the literature. Currently, NTM consist of more than 150 species, and they are globally ubiquitous in both natural and man-made environments.The objective of this study was to define the most frequent species of NTM causing pulmonary disease in HIV-negative patients in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The prevalence of pulmonary diseases caused by NTM is difficult to determine since the isolation of NTM does not necessarily indicate disease.

Methods: A retrospective review of all the respiratory cultures positive for NTM in ...


Communication Between Clinicians And The Hospital-Based Microbiology Laboratory: Strategies For 2018 And Beyond, Hans H. Liu 2018 Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr, PA

Communication Between Clinicians And The Hospital-Based Microbiology Laboratory: Strategies For 2018 And Beyond, Hans H. Liu

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Real-Time Pcr Detection Of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, Chlamydia Pneumoniae And Legionella Pneumophila In Respiratory Specimens Using The Aries® System, Subathra Marimuthu, Leslie A. Wolf, James T. Summersgill 2018 University of Louisville

Real-Time Pcr Detection Of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, Chlamydia Pneumoniae And Legionella Pneumophila In Respiratory Specimens Using The Aries® System, Subathra Marimuthu, Leslie A. Wolf, James T. Summersgill

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mpn), Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn), and Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) can cause both epidemic and endemic occurrences of acute respiratory disease and are responsible for up to 22% of cases of community acquired pneumonia. Due to the limited availability of FDA-approved molecular diagnostic assays, we developed and evaluated a multiplexed Real-time PCR assay for the detection of these agents in two respiratory specimen types on the Luminex ARIES® instrument. The instrument provides for nucleic acid extraction plus PCR amplification and target detection in the same cassette. The ARIES® instrument generates a cycle threshold value and a confirmatory melt curve ...


Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia: A Longitudinal Study In 279 Adult Patients From A Single Center, Jorge H. Gentile, Claudia Hernandez, Monica D. Sparo, Edgardo M. Rodriguez, Carolina Ceriani, Florencia Bruggesser 2018 Servicio de Infectología, Hospital Santamarina, Tandil, Argentina

Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia: A Longitudinal Study In 279 Adult Patients From A Single Center, Jorge H. Gentile, Claudia Hernandez, Monica D. Sparo, Edgardo M. Rodriguez, Carolina Ceriani, Florencia Bruggesser

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is the most common clinical presentation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Although it has been extensively studied, there is little knowledge in our region in relation to burden of disease, demographic and outcome features.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, observational study from 1989 to 2015 in adult patients with BPP, in order to deepen our knowledge of the characteristics of this disease in our community hospital in Tandil, Argentina.

Results: 279 patients were included. The mean incidence was 2.8/1000 admissions with a sharp decrease in the last two years, reaching 0.8 ...


Duration Of Antibiotic Therapy For Patients With Bacteremic Staphylococcus Aureus Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Thomas File, Daniel Musher 2018 University of Louisville

Duration Of Antibiotic Therapy For Patients With Bacteremic Staphylococcus Aureus Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Thomas File, Daniel Musher

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


A Software Tool For Automated Upload Of Large Clinical Datasets Using Redcap And The Capo Database, William A. Mattingly, Christopher Sinclair, Danna Williams, Matthew Grassman, Stephen Furmanek, Kimberley Buckner, Mohammad Tahboub 2018 University of Louisville

A Software Tool For Automated Upload Of Large Clinical Datasets Using Redcap And The Capo Database, William A. Mattingly, Christopher Sinclair, Danna Williams, Matthew Grassman, Stephen Furmanek, Kimberley Buckner, Mohammad Tahboub

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Obtaining clinical data from healthcare sources is necessary for conducting clinical research. New technologies now allow for connecting a research database to Electronic Medical Records remotely, allowing the automatic import of clinical research data. In this paper we design and evaluate a REDCap extension to import clinical records from an external health database.

Methods: Many hospital EHRs are designed to use secure file transfer protocol (SFTP) repositories for data communication. We develop a REDCap plugin to connect to an external SFTP file repository for the import of clinical record data. We use the CAPO instance of REDCap and a ...


Adult Patients Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hospitalized For Community-Acquired Pneumonia In The United States: Incidence And Outcomes, Leslie A. Beavin, Stephen P. Furmanek, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, Forest W. Arnold, Mark Burns, Julio A. Ramirez 2018 University of Louisville

Adult Patients Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hospitalized For Community-Acquired Pneumonia In The United States: Incidence And Outcomes, Leslie A. Beavin, Stephen P. Furmanek, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, Forest W. Arnold, Mark Burns, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious reason for hospitalization of adults in the United States (US), including those with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). While there are studies detailing the incidence and outcomes for all adults with CAP we are not aware of a recent study detailing incidence and outcomes in adult HIV patients hospitalized with CAP. The objectives of this study were (1) to define the current incidence and outcomes of adult HIV patients hospitalized with CAP in Louisville, Kentucky, and (2) to estimate the burden of CAP in the US HIV adult population.

Methods: This was a ...


Effectiveness Of The Influenza Vaccine In Preventing Hospitalizations Of Patients With Influenza Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Connor Glick, Wesley Trail, Lara Daniels, Ugochukwu Owolabi, Ruth Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez, Timothy L. Wiemken 2018 University of Louisville

Effectiveness Of The Influenza Vaccine In Preventing Hospitalizations Of Patients With Influenza Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Connor Glick, Wesley Trail, Lara Daniels, Ugochukwu Owolabi, Ruth Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez, Timothy L. Wiemken

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Influenza vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention of influenza infection. Influenza infection can vary from mild or even asymptomatic illness to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Although many national and international investigators and organizations report annual estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness for prevention of influenza infection in the community, few studies report estimates for the prevention of hospitalizations due to influenza CAP, the most severe form of the infection. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine for prevention of hospitalization in patients with influenza-associated CAP.

Methods: This was a test-negative study using ...


Research Support Infrastructure: Implementing A Clinical Research Coordinating Center, Julio A. Ramirez, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Forest W. Arnold, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Leslie A. Wolf, Ruth M. Carrico, the Clinical Research Coordinating Center Team 2018 University of Louisville

Research Support Infrastructure: Implementing A Clinical Research Coordinating Center, Julio A. Ramirez, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Forest W. Arnold, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Leslie A. Wolf, Ruth M. Carrico, The Clinical Research Coordinating Center Team

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Insufficient infrastructure is one of the challenges facing investigators in the field of clinical research. At the University of Louisville (UofL) Division of Infectious Diseases, we developed a multidisciplinary coordinating center with the aim to support investigators in all aspects of the clinical research process. The objective of this article is to describe the composition and the role of the different units of the UofL Clinical Research Coordinating Center. The different components of the Center can serve as a template for institutions interested in developing a clinical research support infrastructure.


Clinical Research: From Idea To Publication, Julio A. Ramirez 2018 University of Louisville

Clinical Research: From Idea To Publication, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Julio A. Ramirez, M.D., FACP, Professor of Medicine/Associate Professor of Microbiology and Immunology; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases; Director, Infectious Diseases Fellowship Training Program and Founding Director, Global Health Initiative at The University of Louisville, presented "Clinical Research: From Idea to Publication" at University of Louisville Department of Medicine Grand Rounds on February 15, 2018. The talk focused on performing an overview of clinical study designs, describing the planning and performing of a clinical study, reviewing the process for statistical and clinical analysis, and presenting the structure of a Clinical Research Coordinating Center.


Case 2-2017: An Hiv-Positive Patient With Copd Admitted To The Icu With Respiratory Failure, Bhavani Puskur, Veronica Corcino, Srikant Ramachandruni, Viswanathan Nagarajan, Forest W. Arnold 2018 University of Louisville

Case 2-2017: An Hiv-Positive Patient With Copd Admitted To The Icu With Respiratory Failure, Bhavani Puskur, Veronica Corcino, Srikant Ramachandruni, Viswanathan Nagarajan, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Assessing Psychophysiological Effects Of Malodorous Pollutants In Residents Of Leandrinho, Bahia, Brazil: A Pilot Study Using A Whatsapp-Based Questionnaire, Shanell Folger, Courtney Woods, Rita Franco Rego, Carlos Henrique Amaral, Washington Ramos, Amanda Northcross 2018 George Washington University

Assessing Psychophysiological Effects Of Malodorous Pollutants In Residents Of Leandrinho, Bahia, Brazil: A Pilot Study Using A Whatsapp-Based Questionnaire, Shanell Folger, Courtney Woods, Rita Franco Rego, Carlos Henrique Amaral, Washington Ramos, Amanda Northcross

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: Leandrinho is located in the region that is home to the largest industrial chemical complex in the southern hemisphere that covers approximately 49 km2. Leandrinho residents have reported experiencing adverse health effects that co-occur during periods of malodor emitted by the petrochemical industry. However, there is currently no tool for the residents to systematically record incidents of malodor. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of using a questionnaire designed through Whatsapp, a text-messaging application commonly used among residents.

Method: Leandrinho residents were randomly recruited to complete a daily questionnaire using either paper (n=24) or Whatsapp (n=24 ...


Designing A Social Norms-Based Intervention To Reduce Anemia In India: A Formative Research Protocol, Aika Aluc, Erica Sedlander, Rajiv N. Rimal, Sameera A. Talegawkar, Hagere Yilma, Wolfgang Munar 2018 George Washington University

Designing A Social Norms-Based Intervention To Reduce Anemia In India: A Formative Research Protocol, Aika Aluc, Erica Sedlander, Rajiv N. Rimal, Sameera A. Talegawkar, Hagere Yilma, Wolfgang Munar

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: Economic and gender inequalities are important determinants of anemia in low and middle income countries. Gender dimensions of food security contribute to the undernutrition among women. More than half of women of reproductive age in India are anemic. Anemia causes increased risk of preterm delivery, higher maternal mortality and contributes to fatigue, which influences women’s work productivity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends daily oral iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements during pregnancy and weekly supplements for women of reproductive age. Despite the efforts of government programs and global donors to reduce anemia in India, both initial uptake ...


Impact Of Water, Sanitation, And Hygiene Interventions On Environmental Enteric Dysfunction In Children In Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review, Abdoulaye Bangoura, Susan Anenberg 2018 George Washington University

Impact Of Water, Sanitation, And Hygiene Interventions On Environmental Enteric Dysfunction In Children In Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review, Abdoulaye Bangoura, Susan Anenberg

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) is a global disturbance of intestinal structure and function that has its origin in environmental factors (Owino et al. 2016). As a response to prolonged and persistent inflammation, the intestine morphology is altered. EED is an important contributor to poor child cognitive development, child stunting, poor oral vaccine response, acute infections, and childhood mortality globally (Trehan et al. 2016) in developing countries.

We hypothesized that WASH interventions could reduce the risk of EED, thereby positively impacting children’s overall health. The Navigation Guide review methodology and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment and Evaluation (GRADE) were followed ...


(Video) Dirty Cotton: Occupational Pesticide Exposure And Elevated Suicide Risk Among Male Cotton Farmers In India, Bethany Natalia Kondavaty 2018 George Washington University

(Video) Dirty Cotton: Occupational Pesticide Exposure And Elevated Suicide Risk Among Male Cotton Farmers In India, Bethany Natalia Kondavaty

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Purpose: The aim of this critical analysis was to examine the association (or lack thereof) of occupational pesticide exposure and elevated suicide risk among male cotton farmers in India.

Methods: A literature review was performed using Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. The review included documents published before and after year 2002. Children were excluded from the search as well as women, with exception to research on gender differences in suicide.

Results: Studies outside India show a positive correlation between work-related pesticide exposure and suicide. Animal studies have shown that pesticides, as organophosphates, are toxic, producing neurobehavioral effects that include ...


Environmental Degradation In Baía De Todos Os Santos, Brazil: A Review Of The Evidence, Amanda Chen, Amanda Northcross, Shanell Folger 2018 George Washington University

Environmental Degradation In Baía De Todos Os Santos, Brazil: A Review Of The Evidence, Amanda Chen, Amanda Northcross, Shanell Folger

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

The communities living in Baía de Todos os Santos (BTS) has been subjected to toxicants released into the environment by the growing petrochemical industry surrounding the area. Community members are concerned about the effects that these chemicals have on the health and wellbeing of the people, as well as the natural environment. Many of the communities are artisanal fishers and rely on the fish and shellfish produced by the bay for a living. Working in collaboration with the Movement of Artisanal Fisher People (MPP), this research aims to summarize previous research conducted in the BTS. The research describes the environmental ...


Toolkits To Help Women Who Have Experienced Or Are At Risk Of Female Genital Cutting: A Review, Hina Shaikh, Karen McDonnell, Nadia Kalley, Christine Hedstrom, Ghada Khan 2018 George Washington University

Toolkits To Help Women Who Have Experienced Or Are At Risk Of Female Genital Cutting: A Review, Hina Shaikh, Karen Mcdonnell, Nadia Kalley, Christine Hedstrom, Ghada Khan

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

In recent years, written guidance and other tools to assist professionals in multiple sectors has been issued to increase their awareness about female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), knowledge of how to respond appropriately, and means of delivering optimal care to women who have undergone FGM/C. A long-standing human rights-framed issue, FGM/C is a global health concern and is most often carried out on young girls. Apart from practicing origin countries, increased international migration has given rise to FGM/C in countries in the Americas, Europe, and Oceania, and compelled domestic legislation to outlaw FGM/C. This prohibition ...


Etiology And Management Of Hospitalized And Outpatient Diarrhea Among Children Less Than 5 Years Of Age In Lambaréné, Gabon, Christina Pugliese, Natalie Byrne, Frederique Nguema, Kafui Vodounou, Mirabeau Mbong Ngwese, Gedeon Manouana, Jean Edoa, Bayode Adegbite, Jeannot Zinsou, Ayola Adegnika, Martin Grobusch, David Diemert 2018 George Washington University

Etiology And Management Of Hospitalized And Outpatient Diarrhea Among Children Less Than 5 Years Of Age In Lambaréné, Gabon, Christina Pugliese, Natalie Byrne, Frederique Nguema, Kafui Vodounou, Mirabeau Mbong Ngwese, Gedeon Manouana, Jean Edoa, Bayode Adegbite, Jeannot Zinsou, Ayola Adegnika, Martin Grobusch, David Diemert

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Objectives: Diarrhea remains a significant cause of global under-5 mortality, particularly in SubSaharan Africa (SSA). To reduce morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends oral rehydration salts (ORS), zinc supplementation, and continued feeding or breastfeeding for all children with diarrhea to prevent dehydration and malnutrition; antibiotics only for bloody diarrhea (i.e. probable shigellosis), suspected cholera, or severe non-intestinal infections (e.g. pneumonia or sepsis); and avoidance of antidiarrheals and antiemetics owing to lack of benefit and potential for harm in young children. Gabon is an upper-middle income country in SSA for which there is a lack of ...


An Exploration Of Global Women’S Health: Findings From A Pilot Online Course Elective For Health Sciences Studies At Gw, Marisa Cordon, Maranda Ward, Leslie Davidson 2018 George Washington University

An Exploration Of Global Women’S Health: Findings From A Pilot Online Course Elective For Health Sciences Studies At Gw, Marisa Cordon, Maranda Ward, Leslie Davidson

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

In 1995, 189 countries endorsed the Platform for Action, designed to address issues of gender equality, including health. Despite this 23 year old initiative, women’s health issues continue to be a global crisis (WHO, 2015). The SMHS piloted an 8-week online 1-credit course in Fall 2017 to educate GW students on the top ten issues for women’s health delineated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Each of the eight weeks covered a core women’s health WHO issue while tying in a global human rights perspective. Issues included but were not limited to reproductive health, STIs, violence against ...


An Assessment Of Cultural Perceptions And Recognition Of Ebola Virus Disease, And Its Correlation With Traditional Burial Practice In Rural Guinea, Chulwoo Park, Amira Roess, Sally Lahm, Mamadou Kally Bah, Mohamed Campel Camara, John Sandberg 2018 George Washington University

An Assessment Of Cultural Perceptions And Recognition Of Ebola Virus Disease, And Its Correlation With Traditional Burial Practice In Rural Guinea, Chulwoo Park, Amira Roess, Sally Lahm, Mamadou Kally Bah, Mohamed Campel Camara, John Sandberg

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

In the midst of the unprecedented Ebola outbreak in West Africa during 2014-2016, the humanitarian response to control the disease was hampered in part because there was a limited understanding of local traditional rituals or indigenous medicine (ethnomedicine) on the part of the responders. The Ebola outbreak claimed 11,310 lives, more than all other outbreaks combined. West African burial funeral ceremonies and surrounding rituals may have hindered interventions that included the forceful removal of the sick or dead from the community.

Objective:

Our objective was to understand transmission associated with traditional burial practices in rural Guinea. Through the ...


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