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A Survey Of Structural Design Of Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Facilities And Compliance To Shielding Design Goals In A Limited Resource Setting, Flavious B. Nkubli, Christian C. Nzotta, Nwobi I. Nwobi, Silas A. Moi, Thomas Adejoh, Geofery Luntsi, Joseph Dlama, Laushognu S. Shem 2017 University of Maiduguri

A Survey Of Structural Design Of Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Facilities And Compliance To Shielding Design Goals In A Limited Resource Setting, Flavious B. Nkubli, Christian C. Nzotta, Nwobi I. Nwobi, Silas A. Moi, Thomas Adejoh, Geofery Luntsi, Joseph Dlama, Laushognu S. Shem

The Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: To survey structural designs of x-ray rooms and compliance to shielding design goals of three x-ray imaging facilities.

Methods and Materials: The survey was conducted in three radiodiagnostic centers in South East Nigeria, labeled X, Y and Z for anonymity. A stretchable non-elastic meter rule was used to measure x-ray room dimensions. A Vernier caliper was used to measure lead thickness while a calibrated digital survey meter Radalert 100x was used for radiation survey of controlled and uncontrolled areas. Simple statistical tools such as mean and standard deviation were used for analysis with the aid of Microsoft Excel version ...


Challenges In Delivering Refugee Health Services, Thy Vo, Fabiana Kotovicz 2017 University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

Challenges In Delivering Refugee Health Services, Thy Vo, Fabiana Kotovicz

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Aurora Health Care is the major health care system providing care to refugees in Milwaukee, where half of Wisconsin’s refugee population resides. Like many other institutions caring for refugee patients, Aurora faces significant challenges when trying to address refugee health needs. Even with the assistance of medical interpreters, cultural differences, language barriers and limited patient health literacy, as well as lack of knowledge of refugee patients’ backgrounds, are major obstacles encountered by health care providers in this setting.

Purpose: This quality improvement study aims to assess Aurora providers’ perceptions of the benefits and barriers to working with refugee ...


First Aid Intervention In The Adult Population: Yorkshire Health Study And Its Implications For First Aid Education, Eleanor Holding, Clare Relton, Katharine Roberts, Emily Oliver 2017 University of Sheffield

First Aid Intervention In The Adult Population: Yorkshire Health Study And Its Implications For First Aid Education, Eleanor Holding, Clare Relton, Katharine Roberts, Emily Oliver

International Journal of First Aid Education

Background: First aid can reduce death, injury and suffering, but little is known about the characteristics of those who actually give and receive it. The aim of this study was to conduct a first aid behavior survey of a large adult population in the United Kingdom.

Methods: A survey (web and postal) of adults was conducted between 2013 and 2015 as part of the Yorkshire Health Study. Two questions were asked about their first aid behavior: whether participants had administered first aid and if yes, their relationship to the first aid recipient.

Results: Of the 13,584 adults who responded ...


Leading Causes Of Death In Vietnam, Lindsey Roth 2017 SKMC, Thomas Jefferson University

Leading Causes Of Death In Vietnam, Lindsey Roth

CWIC Posters

Vietnam is currently facing a public health crisis. Rates of chronic and preventable diseases are climbing, in addition to mortality rates from these diseases. If nothing is done to halt these rising rates, the health of the Vietnamese people will only continue to decline. Although there may be many factors contributing to these high death rates due to chronic diseases, risky health behaviors, such as smoking, and the state of the healthcare system can be considered two main contributors to the leading causes of death in Vietnam. The high smoking rates and high costs of healthcare are hindering the health ...


Expanding The Horizon: Global Health Management For Pharmacy Students, Alice C. Chang, Monica L. Miller, Ellen M. Schellhase 2017 Purdue University

Expanding The Horizon: Global Health Management For Pharmacy Students, Alice C. Chang, Monica L. Miller, Ellen M. Schellhase

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

The advancement of global engagement opportunities will promote pharmacy students’ cultural awareness and sensitivity, expose students to treatment of diseases not commonly seen in modern Western medicine, and cultivate future leadership for the growth of global pharmacy practice. At Purdue University College of Pharmacy (PUCOP), limited opportunities exist for student pharmacists. As a result, identifying the needs and expanding student pharmacist access to global engagement experiences are critical to meet the changing needs of the US population. A survey was developed and distributed to 460 students at PUCOP, and 148 of them participated. Of those students, 89.2% were interested ...


Building Healthy Futures: Two Students’ Experiences With Global Health In Rural Ecuador, Varsha Kumar, Daniel Shyu 2017 Purdue University

Building Healthy Futures: Two Students’ Experiences With Global Health In Rural Ecuador, Varsha Kumar, Daniel Shyu

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

This article highlights two students’ experience on Timmy Global Health’s medical brigade to Quito, Ecuador. Timmy is a nonprofit, Indiana-based organization dedicated to advocacy, service, and fundraising on a domestic and global scale. Every year, Timmy sends a group of sixteen students and medical professionals to Quito, Ecuador, over Purdue’s spring break to treat people in underserved communities who otherwise would not have access to quality health care. On this medical brigade, Timmy students travel to a different location each day for a week, set up clinic, and diagnose, treating nearly 100 patients a day. Those with conditions ...


Delaware Health Sciences Alliance Global Health Symposium: Refugee And Immigrant Access To Care Locally And Globally, 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Delaware Health Sciences Alliance Global Health Symposium: Refugee And Immigrant Access To Care Locally And Globally

Global Health Events

Welcome to the 6th annual Global Health Symposium! As always, we are pleased to highlight the latest in our growing Global Health interests across the DHSA. The Delaware Health Sciences Alliance is a partnership of:

  • Christiana Care Health System
  • Jefferson Philadelphia University & Thomas Jefferson University
  • Nemours / Alfred I. duPont Institute for Children
  • University of Delaware


Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly PhD, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken PhD 2017 University of Louisville

Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly Phd, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken Phd

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Data sharing in clinical research is critical for increasing knowledge discovery. Data and software tools should be FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Inter-operable and Re-usable. Many bottlenecks exist in the process of a clinical investigator using shared data including data acquisition and statistical analysis. The objective of this project is to develop a structure for sharing data and providing rapid automated statistical analysis through creation of a pre-packaged, open-source software container.

Methods: We use the open source software container technologies VirtualBox and Vagrant to create a template for sharing clinical data and analysis scripts as a single container. We use a ...


Lung Cytokines And Systemic Inflammation In Patients With Copd, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Stephen P. Furmanek, Andrea Reyes-Vega, Umair Gauhar, Hiram Rivas-Perez, Jesse Roman, Julio A. Ramirez, Rafael Fernandez-Botran 2017 University of Louisville School of Medicine Division of Pulmonary

Lung Cytokines And Systemic Inflammation In Patients With Copd, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Stephen P. Furmanek, Andrea Reyes-Vega, Umair Gauhar, Hiram Rivas-Perez, Jesse Roman, Julio A. Ramirez, Rafael Fernandez-Botran

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung and systemic inflammation. The role of cytokines in local and systemic inflammation in COPD is not well understood. This study aimed to compare plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytokine levels in COPD and non-COPD subjects with the intent of better understand their potential roles in driving local and systemic inflammation.

Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 65 subjects: 31 with COPD confirmed by spirometry and 34 non-COPD controls. All subjects underwent spirometry, plasma sample collection, and bronchoscopy/BAL. Levels of 21 inflammatory cytokines were measured in the plasma ...


Most Common Statistical Methodologies In Recent Clinical Studies Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Stephen Furmanek, Connor L. English, Thomas Chandler, Timothy L. Wiemken PhD 2017 Division of Infectious Diseases / University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA

Most Common Statistical Methodologies In Recent Clinical Studies Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Stephen Furmanek, Connor L. English, Thomas Chandler, Timothy L. Wiemken Phd

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Training new individuals in pneumonia research is imperative to produce a new generation of clinical investigators with the expertise necessary to fill gaps in knowledge. Clinical investigators are often intimidated by their unfamiliarity with statistics. The objective of this study is to define the most common statistical methodologies in recent clinical studies of CAP to inform teaching approaches in the field.

Methods: Articles met inclusion criteria if they were clinical research with an emphasis on incidence, epidemiology, or patient outcomes, searchable via PubMed or Google Scholar, published within the timeframe of January 1st 2012 to August 1st 2017, and ...


Antimicrobial Stewardship In Hospitalized Patients With Respiratory Infections: Ten-Year Experience From The Robley Rex Louisville Va Medical Center, Leslie A. Beavin, Forest W. Arnold, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, David Newman, Ronald Smith, Carmen Sciortino, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth M. Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Antimicrobial Stewardship In Hospitalized Patients With Respiratory Infections: Ten-Year Experience From The Robley Rex Louisville Va Medical Center, Leslie A. Beavin, Forest W. Arnold, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, David Newman, Ronald Smith, Carmen Sciortino, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth M. Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Rationale: Antibiotic stewardship has been defined as coordinated interventions designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotic agents. Respiratory infections are the most common infectious reason for hospitalization in the United States. Therefore, one could extrapolate that respiratory infections are then also the most common reason for hospital antibiotic use and possess the highest potential for hospital antibiotic misuse. The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the role of antimicrobial stewardship on improving antibiotic use for respiratory infections in hospitalized patients on intravenous (IV) antibiotics at the Robley Rex Louisville VAMC over a 10-year period.

Methods ...


Level Of Recall Bias Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination History Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Results From The University Of Louisville Pneumonia Study, Sarah Van Heiden, Ruth Carrico, Timothy L. Wiemken, Ronika Alexander, John M. McLaughlin, Qin Jiang, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Senen Pena, Raul Isturiz, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Level Of Recall Bias Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination History Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Results From The University Of Louisville Pneumonia Study, Sarah Van Heiden, Ruth Carrico, Timothy L. Wiemken, Ronika Alexander, John M. Mclaughlin, Qin Jiang, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Senen Pena, Raul Isturiz, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Recall bias is likely to occur in vaccine effectiveness studies using self-reported vaccination history. The validity of patient-reported vaccination status for adults is not well defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported pneumococcal vaccination history among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: Prospective ancillary study of a population-based observational study of hospitalized patients with CAP in the city of Louisville. To be included in the analysis, patients had to (i) be reached by phone 30-days after discharge from the hospital and (ii) report that they remembered whether or not they received a ...


One-Year Mortality In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

One-Year Mortality In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumonia remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Although, communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) has traditionally been considered an acute process, more recently, data have emerged showing that patients surviving an episode of CAP are at increased risk of death long after hospital discharged. In this descriptive review, we examine the current knowledge of long-term mortality and propose a hypothesis explaining the pathogenesis of long-term mortality in patients with CAP.


Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf 2017 University of Louisville

Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae still occurs in at risk populations, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Laboratory confirmation of S. pneumoniae remains challenging in cases of CAP despite advances in blood culture techniques and the availability of nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR-based methods. Urine specimens are an attractive sample type because they are non-invasive compared to bronchial washes or whole blood specimens for patients with CAP. While urine specimens have been used successfully in antigen detection assays, they have not been extensively evaluated for PCR-based assays. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the potential ...


Rationale And Methods Of The Study Protocol: Streptococcus Pneumoniae Serotypes In Adults 18 Years And Older With Radiographically-Confirmed Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Ronika Alexander, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez, Wesley H. Self MD, MPH, Carlos Grijalva, Francis Counselman, Gregory A. Volturo, Heidi Kabler, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Richard Wunderink, Robert L. Sherwin, Senen Pena, Thomas File, Timothy L. Wiemken, Sharon Gray, Michael Pride, Kimbal D. Ford, Qin Jiang, Raul Isturiz 2017 Pfizer, Inc.

Rationale And Methods Of The Study Protocol: Streptococcus Pneumoniae Serotypes In Adults 18 Years And Older With Radiographically-Confirmed Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Ronika Alexander, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez, Wesley H. Self Md, Mph, Carlos Grijalva, Francis Counselman, Gregory A. Volturo, Heidi Kabler, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Richard Wunderink, Robert L. Sherwin, Senen Pena, Thomas File, Timothy L. Wiemken, Sharon Gray, Michael Pride, Kimbal D. Ford, Qin Jiang, Raul Isturiz

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

This study was an active, prospective surveillance study of adults 18 years and older hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae conducted at 21 hospitals in ten cities across the United States. This report describes the surveillance methodology applied between October 7, 2013 and September 30, 2016, including the identification and description of surveillance areas and populations at-risk for CAP hospitalization for estimation of incidence rates for selected study sites.


Streptococcus Pneumoniae Antigen, Missing Opportunities Of A Promising Point Of Care Diagnostic Test, Magdelina Słomka, Ruby Gupta, Baltej Singh, Venkatesh Gondhi, Siddartha Bhandary, Ekezie Francis, Jose Bordon 2017 St. Vincent Charity Medical Center, Cleveland, OH

Streptococcus Pneumoniae Antigen, Missing Opportunities Of A Promising Point Of Care Diagnostic Test, Magdelina Słomka, Ruby Gupta, Baltej Singh, Venkatesh Gondhi, Siddartha Bhandary, Ekezie Francis, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: The etiologic diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and community-acquired meningitis (CAM) are still far from optimal accuracy and turnaround time. The most common bacterial pathogen identified in both CAP and CAM is Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Methods: We reviewed the literature on S. pneumoniae antigen to highlight opportunities to optimize its use as a point of care diagnostic test to maximize quality of patient care, antimicrobial stewardship outcomes and cost saving. A PubMed search was performed using key words “S. pneumoniae antigen; rapid diagnostic tests for S. pneumoniae”. We selected articles in English and sorted into randomized controlled trials (RCT ...


Using Steroids In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia At The University Of Louisville Hospital: Who, What, And When, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Disorders, University of Louisville

Using Steroids In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia At The University Of Louisville Hospital: Who, What, And When, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Pneumonia Pathogenesis And The Lung Microbiome: Back To The Drawing Board, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Pneumonia Pathogenesis And The Lung Microbiome: Back To The Drawing Board, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 The George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J McGowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch 2017 George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework., J Jull, M Whitehead, M Petticrew, E Kristjansson, D Gough, J Petkovic, J Volmink, C Weijer, M Taljaard, S Edwards, L Mbuagbaw, R Cookson, J Mcgowan, A Lyddiatt, Y Boyer, L G Cuervo, R Armstrong, H White, M Yoganathan, T Pantoja, B Shea, K Pottie, O Norheim, S Baird, B Robberstad, H Sommerfelt, Y Asada, G Wells, P Tugwell, V Welch

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

METHODS: An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

RESULTS: A randomised trial can ...


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