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Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010-2011 Influenza Season, Kindra St. Jacques, Patricia Cruz, Brian Labus 2014 University of Toronto

Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010-2011 Influenza Season, Kindra St. Jacques, Patricia Cruz, Brian Labus

Nevada Journal of Public Health

Throughout the duration of any influenza season, influenza strains have the ability to evolve through mutation causing alterations in virulence. These changes may result in severe illness or death among susceptible populations; therefore, it is important to closely monitor influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas in collaboration with the Southern Nevada Health District analyzed data from the hospitalized influenza morbidity and mortality surveillance project for Clark County for the 2010-2011 influenza season. Among the study population (N= 158): the influenza strain type was found to be significantly associated with deaths (n= 25), vaccination status was not …


The Association Between Influenza Treatment And Hospitalization-Associated Outcomes Among Korean Children With Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza, Jacqueline K. Lim, Tae Hee Kim, Paul E. Kilgore, Allison E. Aiello, Byung Min Choi, Kwang Chul Lee, Kee Hwan Yoo, Young-Hwan Song, Yun-Kyung Kim 2014 International Vaccine Institute

The Association Between Influenza Treatment And Hospitalization-Associated Outcomes Among Korean Children With Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza, Jacqueline K. Lim, Tae Hee Kim, Paul E. Kilgore, Allison E. Aiello, Byung Min Choi, Kwang Chul Lee, Kee Hwan Yoo, Young-Hwan Song, Yun-Kyung Kim

Department of Pharmacy Practice

There are limited data evaluating the relationship between influenza treatment and hospitalization duration. Our purpose assessed the association between different treatments and hospital stay among Korean pediatric influenza patients. Total 770 children ≤ 15 yr-of-age hospitalized with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza at three large urban tertiary care hospitals were identified through a retrospective medical chart review. Demographic, clinical, and cost data were extracted and a multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the associations between influenza treatment types and hospital stay. Overall, there were 81% of the patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza who received antibiotic monotherapy whereas only 4% of …


The Burden Of Influenza-Like Illness In The Us Workforce, Y. Tsai, F. Zhou, I. K. Kim 2014 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Burden Of Influenza-Like Illness In The Us Workforce, Y. Tsai, F. Zhou, I. K. Kim

Public Health Resources

Background -- The disease burden of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) on the working population has been documented in the literature, but statistical evidence of ILI-related work absenteeism in the USA is limited due to data availability.

Aims -- To assess work absenteeism due to ILIs among privately insured employees in the USA in 2007–8 and 2008–9.

Methods -- We used the 2007–9 MarketScan® research databases. Full-time employees aged 18–64 years, with the ability to incur work absence and continuously enroled in the same insurance plan during each season were included. We identified ILI episodes using ICD-9 codes for influenza and …


Using Quantitative Disease Dynamics As A Tool For Guiding Response To Avian Influenza In Poultry In The United States Of America, K. M. Pepin, E. Spackman, J. D. Brown, K. L. Pabilonia, Lindsey P. Garber, J. Todd Weaver, D. A. Kennedy, Kelly A. Patyk, K. P. Huyvaert, Ryan S. Miller, Alan B. Franklin, Kerri Pedersen, T. L. Bogich, P. Rohani, Susan A. Shriner, Colleen T. Webb, S. Riley 2014 Colorado State University

Using Quantitative Disease Dynamics As A Tool For Guiding Response To Avian Influenza In Poultry In The United States Of America, K. M. Pepin, E. Spackman, J. D. Brown, K. L. Pabilonia, Lindsey P. Garber, J. Todd Weaver, D. A. Kennedy, Kelly A. Patyk, K. P. Huyvaert, Ryan S. Miller, Alan B. Franklin, Kerri Pedersen, T. L. Bogich, P. Rohani, Susan A. Shriner, Colleen T. Webb, S. Riley

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Wild birds are the primary source of genetic diversity for influenza A viruses that eventually emerge in poultry and humans. Much progress has been made in the descriptive ecology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), but contributions are less evident from quantitative studies (e.g., those including disease dynamic models). Transmission between host species, individuals and flocks has not been measured with sufficient accuracy to allow robust quantitative evaluation of alternate control protocols. We focused on the United States of America (USA) as a case study for determining the state of our quantitative knowledge of potential AIV emergence processes from wild hosts …


Global Mortality Estimates For The 2009 Influenza Pandemic From The Glamor Project: A Modeling Study, Lone Simonsen, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Roger Lustig, Robert J. Taylor, Douglas M. Fleming, Madelon Kroneman, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Anthony D. Mounts, W. John Paget 2013 George Washington University

Global Mortality Estimates For The 2009 Influenza Pandemic From The Glamor Project: A Modeling Study, Lone Simonsen, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Roger Lustig, Robert J. Taylor, Douglas M. Fleming, Madelon Kroneman, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Anthony D. Mounts, W. John Paget

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling of mortality data from multiple countries.

Methods and Findings

We obtained weekly virology and underlying cause-of-death mortality time series for 2005–2009 for 20 countries covering ~35% of the world population. We applied a multivariate linear regression model to estimate pandemic respiratory mortality in each collaborating country. We then used …


Assessment Of Introduction Pathway For Novel Avian Influenza Virus Into North America By Wild Birds From Eurasia, Ryan S. Miller, Steven J. Sweeney, Judy E. Akkina, Emi K. Saito 2013 USDA APHIS

Assessment Of Introduction Pathway For Novel Avian Influenza Virus Into North America By Wild Birds From Eurasia, Ryan S. Miller, Steven J. Sweeney, Judy E. Akkina, Emi K. Saito

Other Publications in Zoonotics and Wildlife Disease

A critical question surrounding emergence of novel strains of avian influenza viruses (AIV) is the ability for wild migratory birds to translocate a complete (unreassorted whole genome) AIV intercontinentally. Virus translocation via migratory birds is suspected in outbreaks of highly pathogenic strain A(H5N1) in Asia, Africa, and Europe. As a result, the potential intercontinental translocation of newly emerging AIV (e.g. A(H7N9) from Eurasia to North America via migratory movements of birds) remains a concern. An estimated 1.48 to 2.91 million aquatic birds, principally Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) move annually between Eurasia and North …


An In-Depth Look At Recent Influenza Seasons And Vaccine Effectiveness, Ariana Ricci 2013 Bryant University

An In-Depth Look At Recent Influenza Seasons And Vaccine Effectiveness, Ariana Ricci

Honors Projects in Science and Technology

This paper aims to present an in-depth exploration of immunology, the influenza virus, vaccination, and vaccination’s effectiveness with respect to influenza. It also delves into the possible causes behind the large increase in early childhood deaths during the 2003-2004 influenza season, which was a turning point in terms of influenza incident reporting. Finally, data analysis on the relationship between childhood flu vaccine coverage and childhood outpatient ILI (influenza-like illness) visits by region is presented as a measurement of vaccine effectiveness and identifier of trends. Although this relationship was not statistically significant (alpha=0.05) regionally, this simply points to alternate factors that …


The Influence Of Climatic Conditions On The Transmission Dynamics Of The 2009 A/H1n1 Influenza Pandemic In Chile, Gerardo Chowell, Sherry Towers, Cecile Viboud, Rodrigo Fuentes, Viviana Sotomayor, Lone Simonsen, Mark A. Miller, Mauricio Lima, Claudia Villarroel, Monica Chiu, Jose E. Villarroel, Andrea Olea 2012 Arizona State University

The Influence Of Climatic Conditions On The Transmission Dynamics Of The 2009 A/H1n1 Influenza Pandemic In Chile, Gerardo Chowell, Sherry Towers, Cecile Viboud, Rodrigo Fuentes, Viviana Sotomayor, Lone Simonsen, Mark A. Miller, Mauricio Lima, Claudia Villarroel, Monica Chiu, Jose E. Villarroel, Andrea Olea

Global Health Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Mortality Burden Of The 2009 A/H1n1 Influenza Pandemic In France: Comparison To Seasonal Influenza And The A/H3n2 Pandemic, Magali Lematire, Fabrice Carrat, Gregoire Rey, Mark A. Miller, Lone Simonsen, Cecile Viboud 2012 National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

Mortality Burden Of The 2009 A/H1n1 Influenza Pandemic In France: Comparison To Seasonal Influenza And The A/H3n2 Pandemic, Magali Lematire, Fabrice Carrat, Gregoire Rey, Mark A. Miller, Lone Simonsen, Cecile Viboud

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

The mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic remains unclear in many countries due to delays in reporting of death statistics. We estimate the age- and cause-specific excess mortality impact of the pandemic in France, relative to that of other countries and past epidemic and pandemic seasons.

Methods

We applied Serfling and Poisson excess mortality approaches to model weekly age- and cause-specific mortality rates from June 1969 through May 2010 in France. Indicators of influenza activity, time trends, and seasonal terms were included in the models. We also reviewed the literature for country-specific estimates of 2009 pandemic excess mortality …


Influenza Immunization Status Among African Americans: Factors Influencing Vaccine Decisions, Chandra Russell Story 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Influenza Immunization Status Among African Americans: Factors Influencing Vaccine Decisions, Chandra Russell Story

Doctoral Dissertations

A disproportionate number of African American adults are susceptible to influenza- related morbidity due to chronic health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing influenza vaccination decisions among African American adults ages 18 and older in Blount County, Tennessee. Factors included constructs of social influence, access, vaccine safety, doctor recommendations, and sources of knowledge regarding the flu vaccine. Research questions were formulated to specifically address factors influencing one’s decision to be immunized for influenza. The theory of planned behavior served as the framework for developing the study.

A survey based on national phone surveys was modified …


Variables Associated With Critical Illness Among Clark County Residence Hospitalized With H1n1 Influenza A Virus During The 2009 Influenza Season., Jonathan P. Hyatt 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Variables Associated With Critical Illness Among Clark County Residence Hospitalized With H1n1 Influenza A Virus During The 2009 Influenza Season., Jonathan P. Hyatt

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background:In 2009, a novel H1N1 Influenza A virus was detected in the population. Because it can potentially affect a different population than the influenza strains circulating for the past 35 years, it is critical for physicians, practitioners and public health organizations to understand who is susceptible to this disease, and which sub-populations are most likely to suffer critical illness. The objective of this study was to examine the factors unique to 2009 H1N1 infection, with the goal of finding the variables associated with ICU admission (Critical Illness) in the Clark County 2009 H1N1 patient.

Methods:Factors that were assessed in this …


Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid And Acellular Pertussis Vaccination And Influenza Vaccination Of Pregnant And Postpartum Women, Colleen M. McCormick 2012 Wright State University - Main Campus

Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid And Acellular Pertussis Vaccination And Influenza Vaccination Of Pregnant And Postpartum Women, Colleen M. Mccormick

Master of Public Health Program Student Publications

Introduction: Infants ≤2 months are at greatest risk for morbidity/mortality from pertussis. Tdap vaccines given in late pregnancy or postpartum can protect infants from pertussis. Pregnancy increases risks for maternal and perinatal complications. Influenza vaccine (FLUV) given in pregnancy can protect women and newborns.

Objectives: To determine Tdap and FLUV rates in pregnant and postpartum patients and identify factors associated with vaccination.

Methods: Miami Valley Hospital delivery records from 01/2009-12/2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Data reviewed included age, insurance, race/ethnicity, and county of residence. Descriptive statistics analyzed prevalence of immunization, timing, and demographics. Chi-square and odds ratios detected differences between characteristics. …


Reasons For Low Pandemic H1n1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance Within A College Sample, Russell D. Ravert, Linda Y. Fu 2012 George Washington University

Reasons For Low Pandemic H1n1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance Within A College Sample, Russell D. Ravert, Linda Y. Fu

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years) from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% …


Evaluation Of The Pilot Program, Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance Program (Pewss), And Its Efficacy In Monitoring Pediatric Illness In Clark County, Nevada, Michelle Lee Lutman 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Evaluation Of The Pilot Program, Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance Program (Pewss), And Its Efficacy In Monitoring Pediatric Illness In Clark County, Nevada, Michelle Lee Lutman

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The influenza outbreak that occurred during 2009 stimulated the formation of several surveillance programs throughout the country. The majority monitor only influenza; however, there are several other circulating respiratory pathogens, especially within the pediatric community. These other respiratory pathogens cause a variety of illnesses, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, croup, etc. Prior research has provided the medical community with valuable information about respiratory illnesses, especially those which afflict pediatric patients. Areas of knowledge including seasonality, demographics, signs and symptoms, prevention measures, and pathogenicity, have been greatly expanded over the years. This information has been of tremendous help to the medical community …


Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010--2011 Influenza Season, Kindra Maureen St. Jacques 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010--2011 Influenza Season, Kindra Maureen St. Jacques

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Influenza circulates in the community in a fairly predictable manner each year; however, throughout the duration of any influenza season, influenza strains have the ability to evolve through antigenic mutations, viral reassortment, development of anti-viral resistance, and alterations in virulence. These changes are likely to cause illness among the unimmunized and can result in severe illness or death. Therefore, it is especially important to closely monitor severe influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas in collaboration with the Southern Nevada Health District (SNHD), Office of Epidemiology (OOE) analyzed data from the severe hospitalized influenza morbidity and mortality …


Influenza Vaccination Of The Healthcare Workforce: Developing A Model State Law, Alexandra M. Stewart, Marisa A Cox 2011 George Washington University

Influenza Vaccination Of The Healthcare Workforce: Developing A Model State Law, Alexandra M. Stewart, Marisa A Cox

Health Policy and Management Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Influenza And Bacterial Coinfections In The 20th Century, Xuan-Yi Wang, Paul E. Kilgore, Kyung Ah Lim, Song-Mei Wang, Jeongseok Lee, Wei Deng, Mei-Qi Mo, Batmunkh Nyambat, Jing-Chen Ma, Michael O. Favorov, John D. Clemens 2011 Fudan University

Influenza And Bacterial Coinfections In The 20th Century, Xuan-Yi Wang, Paul E. Kilgore, Kyung Ah Lim, Song-Mei Wang, Jeongseok Lee, Wei Deng, Mei-Qi Mo, Batmunkh Nyambat, Jing-Chen Ma, Michael O. Favorov, John D. Clemens

Department of Pharmacy Practice

To help understand the potential impact of bacterial coinfection during pandemic influenza periods, we undertook a far-reaching review of the existing literature to gain insights into the interaction of influenza and bacterial pathogens. Reports published between 1950 and 2006 were identified from scientific citation databases using standardized search terms. Study outcomes related to coinfection were subjected to a pooled analysis. Coinfection with influenza and bacterial pathogens occurred more frequently in pandemic compared with seasonal influenza periods. The most common bacterial coinfections with influenza virus were due to S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. …


Influenza Vaccination Of The Health Care Workforce: A Literature Review, Alexandra M. Stewart, Marisa A. Cox, Mallory O'Connor 2011 George Washington University

Influenza Vaccination Of The Health Care Workforce: A Literature Review, Alexandra M. Stewart, Marisa A. Cox, Mallory O'Connor

Health Policy and Management Faculty Publications

Since 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended that all health care workers (HCWs) receive an annual influenza vaccination. The Healthy People objectives aimed for 60% coverage of HCW influenza vaccination by 2010 and 90% coverage by 2020. Although influenza vaccine uptake among HCWs has trended upward over the past several years, the percentage of immunized HCWs has remained approximately 40% between 2004 and 2008.

In order to complete the literature review, researchers identified and analyzed peer reviewed literature, news articles, professional organization position statements, and institutional policies published between 1991 and 2011. In the absence …


Glycan Shielding Of The Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Elicits Evasion Of The Adaptive Immune Response And T-Cell-Driven Pathology, Keith C. Wanzeck 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Glycan Shielding Of The Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Elicits Evasion Of The Adaptive Immune Response And T-Cell-Driven Pathology, Keith C. Wanzeck

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Three separate influenza pandemics have emerged in the human population since 1918, each characterized by viruses that lack N-linked glycosylation sites on the globular head of the hemagglutinin protein. In contrast, recent non-pandemic isolates have acquired such sites. Here we constructed isogenic viruses containing differing numbers of additional N-linked glycosylation sites to assess the impact on the host immune response. These studies show that mice infected with a glycosylated virus remain susceptible to challenge with a non-glycosylated virus, glycosylated viruses elicit an inferior immune response, and in this context T-cell pathology and death may occur. We conclude from these data …


Send Only Your Serious Cases: Delivering Flu To Toronto: An Anthropological Analysis Of The 1918 -1919 Influenza Epidemic In Toronto, Ontario, Canada., Karen Slonim 2010 Sheridan College

Send Only Your Serious Cases: Delivering Flu To Toronto: An Anthropological Analysis Of The 1918 -1919 Influenza Epidemic In Toronto, Ontario, Canada., Karen Slonim

Publications and Scholarship

This project looks at the 1918-19 pandemic influenza experience in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Based on historical records (most notably death registries and archival material) this work strives to understand the social, biological, and environmental conditions that facilitated the spread of this virulent microorganism throughout the city. Grounded in the anthropological frameworks of evolutionary medicine, political economy and syndemics, this dissertation is designed to present a qualitative historical account of the pandemic in one of Canada's largest cities. This piece adds to the growing body of literature aimed at documenting one of the most catastrophic events of the 20th century. It …


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