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Dietary Intake During A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized Weight Loss Trial In An Underserved Population In Primary Care, John W. Apolzan, Corby K. Martin, Robert L. Newton, Candice A. Myers, Connie L. Arnold, Terry C. Davis, William D. Johnson, Dachuan Zhang, Christoph Höchsmann, Vivian A. Fonseca, Kara D. Denstel, Emily F. Mire, Benjamin F. Springgate, Carl J. Lavie, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Phillip Brantley, Ronald Horswell, Tina K. Thethi, Jonathan Gugel, Eboni Price-Haywood, Kathleen B. Kennedy, Daniel F. Sarpong 2023 Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Dietary Intake During A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized Weight Loss Trial In An Underserved Population In Primary Care, John W. Apolzan, Corby K. Martin, Robert L. Newton, Candice A. Myers, Connie L. Arnold, Terry C. Davis, William D. Johnson, Dachuan Zhang, Christoph Höchsmann, Vivian A. Fonseca, Kara D. Denstel, Emily F. Mire, Benjamin F. Springgate, Carl J. Lavie, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Phillip Brantley, Ronald Horswell, Tina K. Thethi, Jonathan Gugel, Eboni Price-Haywood, Kathleen B. Kennedy, Daniel F. Sarpong

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Currently there are limited data as to whether dietary intake can be improved during pragmatic weight loss interventions in primary care in underserved individuals. Methods: Patients with obesity were recruited into the PROPEL trial, which randomized 18 clinics to either an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or usual care (UC). At baseline and months 6, 12, and 24, fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake and fat intake was determined. Outcomes were analyzed by repeated-measures linear mixed-effects multilevel models and regression models, which included random cluster (clinic) effects. Secondary analyses examined the effects of race, sex, age, and food security status. Results: …


The Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health And Acculturation On Quality Of Life In Older Chinese American Adults With Chronic Pain: A Quantitative Study, Chi Lam 2023 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health And Acculturation On Quality Of Life In Older Chinese American Adults With Chronic Pain: A Quantitative Study, Chi Lam

Dissertations

Despite a rapid increase in the older Chinese American adult population, there are very few research studies examining the impact of social determinants of health and acculturation on the quality of life in older Chinese American adults. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of social determinants of health and acculturation on quality of life in older Chinese American adults with chronic pain. This quantitative, descriptive correlational study utilized Madeleine Leininger’s Transcultural Theory as its theoretical framework. Two research questions guided this study: (1) Was there a difference in the quality of life in older Chinese American …


African-American Parents’ Cultural Understandings Of The Concept Of Autism And Implications For Parental Communication And Health Management, Kellie J. Fennell 2023 Old Dominion University

African-American Parents’ Cultural Understandings Of The Concept Of Autism And Implications For Parental Communication And Health Management, Kellie J. Fennell

Communication & Theatre Arts Theses

In 2023 the Centers of Disease Control reported that around 1 in 36 children are diagnosed with Autism in America and that the prevalence has increased by 178% since 2000 (CDC, 2023). Despite increases in awareness and diagnosis past research finds that the discussions of ASD in African American communities is minimal (Fombonne, 2003; Yeargin Allsopp et al., 2003). This disparity is important considering that African American children receive an ASD diagnosis years later than their white counterparts and are much more likely to be misdiagnosed (Mandell et al., 2009, 2002).

Given the history of a lack of representation of …


Primary Care Physician Engagement In Health System Transformation: A Case Study, Atharv Joshi 2023 Western University

Primary Care Physician Engagement In Health System Transformation: A Case Study, Atharv Joshi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Primary care physician engagement is essential in enhancing organizational performance, system efficacy, and provider collaboration; yet limited literature exists within health systems research. This thesis explored physician engagement throughout the development of an organization known as the London Middlesex Primary Care Alliance (LMPCA). This thesis used a qualitative case study approach guided by a constructivist paradigm. The findings revealed six themes which contributed to the development of the LMPCA and provided insight into how physicians were engaged within health systems work. Unique to this study were two facilitators for engagement: the role of a transformation lead and the use of …


Examining Racial Disparities In Unemployment Among Health Care Workers Before, During, And After The Covid-19 Pandemic, Jason Semprini 2023 University of Iowa College of Public Health

Examining Racial Disparities In Unemployment Among Health Care Workers Before, During, And After The Covid-19 Pandemic, Jason Semprini

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Among the U.S. health care workforce, the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to greatly impact employment levels in 2020. However, no research has examined how the pandemic’s impact on employment varied by racial/ethnic group or beyond the initial emergency year. Our study aimed to quantitatively evaluate workforce trends by race/ethnicity before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study analyzed each March supplement of the Current Population Survey over a 5-year span (2018–2022). We restricted the sample to nurses, physician assistants, and other non-physician health care workers (HCW), per specific census occupation codes, and constructed an event-history study to test for differential …


Previous Health Care Experiences’ Influence On Health Care Perceptions Among Residents In Six Homeless Shelters In Seattle, Washington, July–October 2021, Ashley A. Meehan, Sarah N. Cox, Nicholas B. Thuo, Julia H. Rogers, Amy C. Link, Miguel A. Martinez, Natalie K. Lo, Brian J. Manns, Melissa A. Rolfes, Eric J. Chow, Helen Y. Chu, Emily Mosites, Morhaf Al Achkar 2023 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Previous Health Care Experiences’ Influence On Health Care Perceptions Among Residents In Six Homeless Shelters In Seattle, Washington, July–October 2021, Ashley A. Meehan, Sarah N. Cox, Nicholas B. Thuo, Julia H. Rogers, Amy C. Link, Miguel A. Martinez, Natalie K. Lo, Brian J. Manns, Melissa A. Rolfes, Eric J. Chow, Helen Y. Chu, Emily Mosites, Morhaf Al Achkar

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: The study purpose was to learn and describe 1) where homeless shelter residents receive health care, 2) what contributes to positive or negative health care experiences among shelter residents, and 3) shelter resident perceptions toward health care.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews (SSIs) utilizing purposive sampling and focus group discussions (FGDs) utilizing convenience sampling were conducted at 6 homeless shelters in Seattle-King County, Washington, during July–October 2021. All residents (age ≥ 18) were eligible to participate. SSIs were conducted with 25 residents, and 8 FGDs were held. Thematic analysis was conducted using Dedoose.

Results: Participants received health care …


Identifying Patient Perceptions Of Inequality In Public Health Care Services: Evidence From A Single Indian Administrative District, Barnali Biswas, Piyal Basu Roy 2023 Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University

Identifying Patient Perceptions Of Inequality In Public Health Care Services: Evidence From A Single Indian Administrative District, Barnali Biswas, Piyal Basu Roy

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Assessment of patient experiences is an essential step to revamp patient-centered care and identify systemic effectiveness as part of universal health coverage. This paper analyzes the variation of health care at different levels of the public health care system in India by measuring patients’ experience with the care they have received in the Alipurduar district of India.

Methods: From May 2021 to April 2022, stratified sampling technique was applied to collect primary data from 450 patients having different health problems from different levels of the public health care system. In addition, Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) …


Building Up Cal Poly Global Brigades Student Group: Reflections On Designing And Implementing One Undergraduate-Led Community Info Session, Caroline Nicole Smith, Jafra D. Thomas 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Building Up Cal Poly Global Brigades Student Group: Reflections On Designing And Implementing One Undergraduate-Led Community Info Session, Caroline Nicole Smith, Jafra D. Thomas

Kinesiology and Public Health

Intro: Global Brigades, an international non-profit organization, trains college students and other pre-professionals in community-based health promotion by mobilizing community service trips around the world, which are taught and led by local community groups. Cal Poly’s Global Brigades student group was founded in 2018, and thus far, they have carried out three annual, medically-focused brigades to Honduras (two in-person, one virtual).

Purpose: The aim of this report is to present the findings of one experiential senior project to promote Cal Poly’s Global Brigades student group[1] (conducted January to March 2023).

Methods: The student designed material for …


Diabetes Prevalence And Monitoring In Nonmetropolitan And Metropolitan Areas Within A Commercially Insured U.S. Population, Lindsey R. Hammerslag, Jeffery Talbert 2023 University of Kentucky

Diabetes Prevalence And Monitoring In Nonmetropolitan And Metropolitan Areas Within A Commercially Insured U.S. Population, Lindsey R. Hammerslag, Jeffery Talbert

Rural & Underserved Health Research Center Publications

Overview of Key Findings

  • Enrollees living in nonmetropolitan areas had 22% higher likelihood of having diabetes, even after controlling for factors like age and region.
  • The prevalence of diabetes in 2019-2020 was 7.9% in nonmetropolitan areas and 6.2% in metropolitan areas.
  • Annual hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing occurred for 85.1% of nonmetropolitan and 85.7% of metropolitan enrollees with diabetes. After controlling for other factors, we found significantly lower testing for those in nonmetropolitan areas.
  • For diabetic enrollees, having an HbA1c test in 2019 was associated with an 8% decrease in the likelihood of non-cardiovascular complications related to diabetes and a 6% …


Nutrition In Times Of Crisis: A Qualitative Study In Siargao Island, Philippines, During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gideon Lasco, Vincen Gregory Yu, Julie Madelo Compra, Phetdavanh Leuangvilay, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Yunting Zhang, Charina Javier 2023 Ateneo de Manila University

Nutrition In Times Of Crisis: A Qualitative Study In Siargao Island, Philippines, During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gideon Lasco, Vincen Gregory Yu, Julie Madelo Compra, Phetdavanh Leuangvilay, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Yunting Zhang, Charina Javier

Development Studies Faculty Publications

Objectives

Despite the public-health significance of both malnutrition and crises, little has been done to explore the convergence of the two domains and develop ways to improve policies and practices, especially in rural communities. This article remedies that knowledge gap by focusing on nutrition-related changes, responses, and practices during crisis situations in Siargao Island, Philippines, using the COVID-19 pandemic as a backdrop.

Methods

Forty-six (46) semi-structured interviews were conducted among parents, caregivers, local health workers, and local officials of Del Carmen, Siargao Island. Principles of thematic analysis were applied to data analysis using NVivo 12. Afterwards, the preliminary data were …


Shifting Gears: - The Expected Post-Transplant Survival (Epts) Usefulness In The Era Of Continuous Distribution- Examination Of The United Network Of Organ Sharing (Unos) Database 2000-2020, Vaughn Whittaker, Vaughn Easton Whittaker 2023 New York Medical College

Shifting Gears: - The Expected Post-Transplant Survival (Epts) Usefulness In The Era Of Continuous Distribution- Examination Of The United Network Of Organ Sharing (Unos) Database 2000-2020, Vaughn Whittaker, Vaughn Easton Whittaker

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

The allocation of organs is a constantly evolving area of transplantation. The latest iteration of this process is a move toward continuous distribution of organs. This process considers dynamic factors instead of static constraints that box patients into certain categories. The expected post-transplant survival of patients is one of these dynamic factors that will be included in the assessment of patients' place in a continuous distribution allocation process. However, the predictive value of this construct is questionable, given that it uses only four factors (age, diabetes diagnosis, years on dialysis, and previous transplant) to represent complex patients who are on …


Using Drama Therapy To Foster Peer Support Among Nurse Leaders, Chyela Rowe 2023 Lesley University

Using Drama Therapy To Foster Peer Support Among Nurse Leaders, Chyela Rowe

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This study explored the use of drama therapy to support the social-emotional experiences of nurse leaders at a mid-sized regional hospital system in the Southeastern United States. Nurse leaders have experienced profound changes to their work environments in recent years and burnout has been at an all-time high among healthcare workers globally. Organizational supports for nurses and nurse leaders are both inadequate to meet the needs and under-resourced. The research questions explored 1) whether the drama therapy peer support initiative improved outcomes and 2) whether there was a significant relationship between measures, and 3) what nurse leaders described as facilitators …


Hiv Treatment Utilization: An Exploration Of One Ryan White Clinic, Joseph Powe 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Hiv Treatment Utilization: An Exploration Of One Ryan White Clinic, Joseph Powe

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

According to the findings of recent research, the HIV epidemic is still an active problem all over the world. Some racial and ethnic groups have a significantly higher likelihood of contracting HIV, even though many efforts have been made at all levels of government, from the municipal to the federal, to raise public awareness of the recognized risk. There are two focal points for the HIV epidemic. While prevention is essential, infected patients must also be encouraged to continue treatment to accomplish viral suppression and delay the onset of AIDS. When we look more deeply at a local Ryan White …


Implicit Bias In Nursing: Raising Awareness, Fostering Change, Jeanette C. Sandoval 2023 University of San Francisco

Implicit Bias In Nursing: Raising Awareness, Fostering Change, Jeanette C. Sandoval

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Abstract

Background: Extensive research evidence demonstrates that implicit bias can lead to differential treatment of patients based on race, gender, weight, age, income, language, and insurance status. Evidence-based interventions that couple implicit bias mitigation with therapeutic communication skills can contribute to the delivery of equitable care.

Local Problem: Implicit bias in healthcare occurs when unconscious behavior that is not favorable to the patient population served perpetuates unequal treatment and contributes to poor healthcare outcomes.

Methods: Knowledge of implicit bias in the nursing staff was assessed through a validated and reliable survey tool before and after participation in an online LMS …


Ethical Considerations Of Clinical Research In Emergency Care Settings: A Review, Adith Velavan 2023 University of Connecticut

Ethical Considerations Of Clinical Research In Emergency Care Settings: A Review, Adith Velavan

Honors Scholar Theses

Emergency and acute care settings are some of the most volatile and high intensity areas of any healthcare operation. Better understanding of systems and treatments in these spaces are critical to improving outcomes for the high risk patients that are treated there. Clinical research serves as a cornerstone of modern medical research, and is critical to the further improvement of clinical care in these settings. This thesis serves to explore the ethicality of such research given the constraints of emergency medicine settings. Not only does this thesis provide a strong foundation regarding the history and current practices of clinical research, …


Medical Interpreters' Work Impact On Their Lives: Understanding Medical Interpreters' Work Experience, Nicholas M. Herrarte Smith 2023 James Madison University

Medical Interpreters' Work Impact On Their Lives: Understanding Medical Interpreters' Work Experience, Nicholas M. Herrarte Smith

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Medical interpreters in the US are crucial health workers that specialize in facilitating communication between non-English-speaking patients and English medical professionals. Although much research has been done regarding the positive impact of professional medical interpreters on LEP (limited English proficient) patients' health, it is less known how medical interpreters’ lives are impacted in this line of work. Thus, this study was aimed at gaining a better understanding on the impact that this line of work has on the lives of medical interpreters. For this study, a survey was created with questions regarding demographics, interpretation’s certification process, interpreter’s satisfaction/experience, and mental …


The Correlation Between Traumatic Brain Injury And Incarceration Among Adult Males In The United States, Shadi Shams 2023 Rowan University

The Correlation Between Traumatic Brain Injury And Incarceration Among Adult Males In The United States, Shadi Shams

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

The United States has one of the largest growing prison populations in the world. A large amount of social and economic resources go towards the cost and maintenance of correctional facilities each year. Additionally, the current correctional programs are insufficient in assisting inmates with getting back to society; especially those with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who often remain undiagnosed and are usually treated unfairly in the prison system instead of receiving the appropriate help. Prior scholarly work has shown that patients in the post-TBI stage are more likely to enter the judicial system. In the recent population-based cohort study, the …


Trends In Opioid Usage And The Covid-19 Pandemic, Priya Brahmbhatt, Jeffery Powers 2023 Rowan University

Trends In Opioid Usage And The Covid-19 Pandemic, Priya Brahmbhatt, Jeffery Powers

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

The opioid epidemic and the COVID-19 pandemic have affected individuals in the United States in various capacities, and new avenues to reduce the harmful effects of both public health crises must be explored. It has been found that those with substance use disorders have an increased risk for COVID-19 (Wang 2021). There have been more visits to emergency rooms for substance overdose during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic (Holland 2021). This research project attempted to understand the trends amongst opioid users during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, in …


Maldi-Tof Ms Based Proteomic Fingerprinting Of Total Serum Plasma For Somatic Pain Syndromes, Isaiah Pinkerton, Venkateswar Venkataraman 2023 Rowan University

Maldi-Tof Ms Based Proteomic Fingerprinting Of Total Serum Plasma For Somatic Pain Syndromes, Isaiah Pinkerton, Venkateswar Venkataraman

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

There are racial and ethnic disparities regarding pain management within the United States, and that disproportionately affects women of color. There is also a fundamental lack of information regarding the biological mechanism by which pain sensitization and perception occurs, and how it could be affected by both neurologic and somatic pain syndromes.

Methods: Research was performed on principal electronic scientific databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase with search terms “MALDI-TOF”, “ESI-MS”, “Pain”, and “Biomarkers”, as well as other modifiers to narrow the literature search.

Results: Studies on comparison between MALDI-TOF and other traditional analysis platforms, including Electrospray Ionization (ESI-MS), …


Effects Of Income And Language On Health Literacy: A Study Between A Student-Run Free Clinic And A Family Medicine Office, Sahil Parikh, Emily Forester, Alisha Basak, Arpan Bhagat, Leah Cliatt, Usmaan Al-Shehab, Rebecca Moore 2023 Rowan University

Effects Of Income And Language On Health Literacy: A Study Between A Student-Run Free Clinic And A Family Medicine Office, Sahil Parikh, Emily Forester, Alisha Basak, Arpan Bhagat, Leah Cliatt, Usmaan Al-Shehab, Rebecca Moore

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Background: Over one-third of the US population exhibit limited health literacy, leading to negative health outcomes and lifestyle choices. By employing the NVS assessment, RCHC sought to compare the health literacy levels of uninsured patients at their facility with those of insured patients at the Rowan Family Medicine office in Hammonton, NJ. This study aimed to assess specific factors that may influence health literacy levels.

Methods: This is an IRB-approved study which surveyed patients enrolled at the RCHC and Rowan Family Medicine Office between February 2021 and March 2023. Patients were given a nutrition label and verbally answered the NVS …


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