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Reducing Morbidity: Establishing A Relationship Between Perioperative Normothermia And Colon Surgical Site Infections, Nychie Dotson 2020 Walden University

Reducing Morbidity: Establishing A Relationship Between Perioperative Normothermia And Colon Surgical Site Infections, Nychie Dotson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an emerging public health threat. Every day in the United States, HAIs impact 1 in 31 hospitalized patients. Surgical site infections (SSIs) account for over 40% of all reported HAIs and have an increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Surgery associated with colon procedures present an increased risk for infection, morbidity, and mortality. There has been vast work to prevent colon SSIs; however, there remain areas for improvement and exploration. The main research question evaluated the relationship between maintaining perioperative normothermia and colon SSIs. Secondary research questions explored additional risk factors to include age, gender, obesity ...


Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram 2020 Walden University

Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Microcystins (MCs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. Algal bloom subsidence can stimulate MC release, which can impair liver function if orally exposed to in large doses. The purpose of this retrospective, U.S. ecological study was to determine if MC exposure represented an environmental risk factor for liver disease mortality using a socioecological approach. A longitudinal ecological substudy investigated the association between average total MCs in Lake Washington and Lake Manatee and age-adjusted chronic liver disease (CLD)/cirrhosis death rates in Brevard County and Manatee County, Florida (FL). A prediction model of total MCs was deduced by ...


Meat Intake And Prostate Cancer In African American Men, Uchenna Njoku 2020 Walden University

Meat Intake And Prostate Cancer In African American Men, Uchenna Njoku

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

African American men have more prostate cancer and are more than twice as likely to die of the disease as Caucasian men, and the reasons for this racial disparity have not been clarified. Identifying lifestyle and dietary risk factors of prostate cancer is an important public health issue. Studies on the association between meat intake and prostate cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to determine whether there is an association between total meat intake and total prostate cancer risk among African American men when controlling for age, income, educational level, physical activity ...


Lifestyle Factors And Social Determinants As Predictors Of Weight/Body Mass Index, Uthman Alhaji Baba 2020 Walden University

Lifestyle Factors And Social Determinants As Predictors Of Weight/Body Mass Index, Uthman Alhaji Baba

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Obesity is a major public health concern that includes the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and premature death in adults. Previous studies have established the relationship between gender, educational level, household income and respondents’ weight but additional research is needed to factor the nature of education in relation to gender differences, diet, and other important behavioral mediators such as social determinants. The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study is to determine the extent to which frequency of physical activity, household income, social determinants of health (money for balanced meals, finances at the end of month, and poor mental health), respondent ...


Modeling Epidemics, An Introduction, Shubha Tewari 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Modeling Epidemics, An Introduction, Shubha Tewari

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

  • Group discussion of videos watched – Mainly focus on 3Blue1Brown videos

  • Discussion of known facts about Covid-19/SARS-CoV-2

  • Joint look at news articles and websites – Discussion of exponential growth

  • Introduction to SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model

  • Excel demonstration of SIR model

  • Other models: SEIR, others

  • Modeling using python (time-permitting)


Analysis Of Genetic Structure And Pathogen Dynamics Of Ixodes Scapularis In Southwestern Virginia, Leemu Jackson 2020 Hollins University

Analysis Of Genetic Structure And Pathogen Dynamics Of Ixodes Scapularis In Southwestern Virginia, Leemu Jackson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ixodes scapularis, or the blacklegged tick, is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi. This pathogen is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. Although I. scapularis is distributed throughout the eastern U.S., Lyme disease is only considered endemic in the northeastern region of the country. Prior to 2007, Lyme disease was uncommon in Virginia, but since then cases of Lyme disease have increased dramatically with a hotspot forming in the Roanoke-Blacksburg area. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether B. burgdorferi prevalence and the genetic structure of I ...


Sexual Orientation, Body Mass Index, And Methamphetamine Use Among Chicago Youth, Nileshkumar Panchal 2020 Walden University

Sexual Orientation, Body Mass Index, And Methamphetamine Use Among Chicago Youth, Nileshkumar Panchal

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Drug use and obesity are two of the most challenging health-related issues that young people face. Obesity, substance abuse, and drug addiction lead to brain dysfunction, which can decrease the quality of life and academic performance as well as increase the vulnerability of developing chronic diseases. To date, there has been little research to determine whether sexual orientation influences the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and methamphetamine use. Focusing on youth, the relationship between BMI, methamphetamine use, and sexual orientation were examined in this study through secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System in Chicago. Guided ...


Factors Contributing To Community-Associated Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections In The United States, Zabrina Lockett 2020 Walden University

Factors Contributing To Community-Associated Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections In The United States, Zabrina Lockett

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) health care acquired infections are a serious public health threat due to a high mortality rate, economic burden, and depletion of last resort CRE antimicrobials. CRE infections have emerged as community-associated type infections in the United States. For CRE to now have that type of potential is cause for immediate and extensive action. The prevalence of CRE infection cases that were reported as community-associated CRE and health care acquired CRE by examining specific clinical characteristics between 4 selected states that were reported to respective state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control were explored in this ...


Covid-19: A Simple Curve Approximation Tool, Jane Courtney 2020 Technological University Dublin

Covid-19: A Simple Curve Approximation Tool, Jane Courtney

Articles

In the current COVID-19 pandemic, much focus is put on ‘flattening the curve’. This ‘curve’ refers to the cases versus time graph, which shows the rise of a disease to its peak before descending. The aim in a pandemic is to flatten this curve by reducing the peak and spreading out the timeline. However, the models used to predict this curve are often not clearly outlined, no model parameters are given, and models are not tested against real data. This lack of detail makes it difficult to recreate the curve from these models. What is much needed is a simple ...


Population-Level Determinants Of Cholera Incidence In African Countries, Ngoy Nsenga 2020 Walden University

Population-Level Determinants Of Cholera Incidence In African Countries, Ngoy Nsenga

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Cholera remains endemic in Africa, with limited access to safe drinking water and inadequate sanitation as 2 of the main drivers of its dissemination. Few studies have examined the impact of health system capacity, even though it plays an important role in prevention, early detection, and response to a cholera outbreak. Grounded in the ecosocial theory of infectious disease dissemination, this quantitative ecological study explored the effect of social vulnerability (as measured by access to safe drinking water and sanitation, rate of open defecation, poverty, income inequality, gender inequality, and adult literacy) and health system (as measured by health financing ...


Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Abortion Rates Among Black Women In The United States, Lincoln Don Washington 2020 Walden University

Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Abortion Rates Among Black Women In The United States, Lincoln Don Washington

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Abortion has been a public health issue since the procedure became legal 47 years ago and, clinicians have performed 60,069,971 abortions from 1973 to 2017 in the United States. In 2014, a significant decline in abortion rates has been recorded in almost every state, as well as across different subpopulations when segregated by age, race/ethnicity, education, income, or geographic locations. However, abortion rates were still significantly higher among Black women relative to the U.S. average, prompting the need to examine the causes of this disparity. The main purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate and ...


Epidemiology Of Marijuana Use And Mental Health In The Context Of Changing Policies, David G. Harvey II 2020 Walden University

Epidemiology Of Marijuana Use And Mental Health In The Context Of Changing Policies, David G. Harvey Ii

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is a growing body of evidence supporting the association between cannabis use and the development of mental health disorders, but few studies have addressed this association following the recent increase in marijuana legalization laws. Therefore, using the social ecological model and the self-medication theory of addiction as theoretical frameworks, the purpose of this retrospective database study was to assess the relationship between marijuana use and major depression and suicidal ideation in both adults and adolescents in 2008 and 2017. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were analyzed using logistic regression at the p < .05 threshold for statistical significance. Results demonstrated positive, statistically significant relationships between marijuana use and both major depression and suicidal ideation for both adults and adolescents in both 2008 and 2017. Further, the strengths of these relationships generally increased between 2008 and 2017, coincident with the increase in marijuana legalization laws. These findings provide empirical support to the association between cannabis use and the development of mental health disorders, and that the strength of these associations is increasing following the increase in marijuana legalization laws. This study has important implication for positive social change by identifying significant relationships between cannabis use and the development of mental health disorders and revealing that these relationships are strengthening over time, coincident with the increase in marijuana legalization laws.


Mothers' Knowledge, Clinic Staff, Community Support, And Breastfeeding Practices, Ubong Usua 2020 Walden University

Mothers' Knowledge, Clinic Staff, Community Support, And Breastfeeding Practices, Ubong Usua

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Among low-income mothers enrolled in the Women Infant and Child (WIC) program and Medicaid, the rate of initiating breastfeeding immediately after delivery is low (57%) compared to high-income mothers (74%). Among the many factors contributing to this are low-income mothers' poor knowledge of the benefits of breast-feeding and lack of support and encouragement from clinical staff, family, and community. However, few studies have singled out the role of community and family support in improving maternal knowledge and breastfeeding practices. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior framework, this quantitative study used WIC data from the Texas Department of Health and Human ...


Prevention Practices And West Nile Virus Infection Among Ethnic Minorities, Texas, Bayabel Debebe Mengistu 2020 Walden University

Prevention Practices And West Nile Virus Infection Among Ethnic Minorities, Texas, Bayabel Debebe Mengistu

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) is a major public health problem and the cause of nearly 25% of the world's economic burden of disease. While the risk factors for developing West Nile fever and West Nile disease from WNV infection have been identified, it is not known how knowledge, attitude, behavior (KAB), access to health care (AHC), and comorbidities are associated with prevention practices of WNV infection among ethnic minorities. The aim of this study was to examine the association between KAB, AHC, comorbidities, and prevention practices of WNV infection among ethnic minorities in Texas. KAB, AHC. Comorbidities were ...


Association Between Certificate-Of-Need Laws And The Health Outcomes Of Home Health Patients, Peter A. Atemnkeng 2020 Walden University

Association Between Certificate-Of-Need Laws And The Health Outcomes Of Home Health Patients, Peter A. Atemnkeng

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The Certificate of Need (CON) law on home health limits start-ups and expansions by providers. Seventeen states and the District of Columbia maintained CON restrictions in 2015. The regulation was intended to control health care cost and expenditure, and to promote quality public health outcomes, as postulated in the public interest theory. The purpose of the study was to assess the association between the CON laws by the states and the health outcomes of the Medicare patients that used home health services in 2015. The provider ratings data from Home Health Compare were analyzed using multiple linear regression models and ...


Demographic, Lifestyle, And Psychosocial Predictors Of Obesity Among Nigerian Igbo Immigrants, Ahamefula Arthur Duru 2020 Walden University

Demographic, Lifestyle, And Psychosocial Predictors Of Obesity Among Nigerian Igbo Immigrants, Ahamefula Arthur Duru

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Obesity is known as a risk factor for chronic diseases, and a contributor to health disparities among minorities and vulnerable persons. There is a paucity of data on Nigeria Igbos on obesity risks in the United States; therefore, studying obesity in this population may help policymakers tailor interventions that could reduce the prevalence of obesity. The purpose of the study was to examine the predictors of obesity among Nigerian Igbo immigrants in the United States. This study sought to examine lifestyle, psychosocial, and demographic factors as unique predictors of obesity in Nigeria Igbo immigrants. The social-ecological model and acculturation theory ...


The Association Between Central Line Insertion Practices And Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections, Mona Elgowainy 2020 Walden University

The Association Between Central Line Insertion Practices And Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections, Mona Elgowainy

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Healthcare-associated infections, specifically central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), continue to remain a serious public health concern in the United States. Though CLABSI can often be prevented, healthcare professionals struggle to have a positive impact on CLABSI rates. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether CLIP Bundle adherence has an impact on CLABSI standardized infection ratio (SIR) rates in various patient care areas in California. The research questions were focused on assessing whether there was an association between patient care areas, CLABSI rates, and CLIP Bundle adherence scores. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design utilizing secondary data was used ...


Tetanus Immunity Among Adults In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Sue K. Gerber 2020 Walden University

Tetanus Immunity Among Adults In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Sue K. Gerber

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although tetanus is not a contagious disease, it can be deadly for people who are exposed and do

not have protective immunity against tetanus, which can be acquired only through vaccination.

Most studies on adult tetanus protective immunity are from high-income countries; limited

studies occur in Africa, and none has been reported from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

(DRC). This study sought to determine protective immunity against tetanus among adults in

DRC in relation to their age, sex, place of residence, and for women, antenatal care. The primary

purpose of this observational cross-sectional study using a nested serosurvey within ...


Covid-19 And The Conundrum Of Mask Requirements, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra 2020 Saint Louis University School of Law

Covid-19 And The Conundrum Of Mask Requirements, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra

All Faculty Scholarship

As states begin to loosen their COVID-19 restrictions, public debate is underway about what public health measures are appropriate. Many states have some form of mask-wearing orders to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection. Public health guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization has conflicted. From a public health point of view, it is not clear what the right answer is. In the absence of directives, individuals are also making their own choices about mask use. At a time when public health measures, like shelter-in-place orders and social distancing, are being used to ...


Injury-Related Infant Mortality In West Virginia, 2010-2014, Wilson A. Koech 2020 West Virginia University

Injury-Related Infant Mortality In West Virginia, 2010-2014, Wilson A. Koech

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Background and objective

Infant mortality in United States is high relative to other more developed nations. Therefore, there is a need to curb this trend, especially in states with high infant mortality rates. Hence, this research investigated and examined characteristics associated with injury-related infant death in West Virginia. The objective of this retrospective study was to 1) investigate maternal and infant characteristics associated with injury-related infant deaths in West Virginia, 2) examine the relationship between unintentional-injury-related infant death and rurality in West Virginia, holding other variables in the model constant, and 3) compare differences in the unintentional-injury related infant mortality ...


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