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Hiv Risk Factors Among Moroccan And Turkish Same-Sex Attracted Youth In Amsterdam, Daniel Woznica 2010 SIT Study Abroad

Hiv Risk Factors Among Moroccan And Turkish Same-Sex Attracted Youth In Amsterdam, Daniel Woznica

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This report is the outcome of a month-long exploratory study on the main HIV risk factors among Moroccan and Turkish same-sex attracted (SSA) youth in Amsterdam. Data was obtained by way of interviews conducted with five experts, categorized as: academics, sexual and ethnic minority activists, and HIV professionals. Five main risk factors were determined: cultural differences; language barriers; stigma and taboo around sexuality and HIV within Islamic communities; socioeconomic marginalization; and lack of a positive term for same-sex sexual behavior and identity among the target group. Recommendations for future research include interviews with Moroccan and Turkish SSA youth themselves. Implications ...


A Gis Analysis Of The Environmental Variables Related To Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, Jacqueline Florette Jackson 2010 Old Dominion University

A Gis Analysis Of The Environmental Variables Related To Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, Jacqueline Florette Jackson

Health Services Research Dissertations

Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne disease that causes widespread febrile illness and mortality in domestic animals as well as humans (Gaff, 2007). Rift Valley fever virus was first isolated in 1931 (Daubney, 1931), and since then, outbreaks have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, southern Africa, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Madagascar, proving it to be a virus able to invade ecologically diverse regions (Gaff, 2007). The potential introduction of Rift Valley fever into the United States suggests the potential for human infection and major economic disruption. It is important to understand the role environmental variables have played in historical outbreaks ...


Effects Of Duration Of Untreated Psychosis On Long-Term Outcome Of People Hospitalized With First Episode Schizophrenia, Amresh Shrivastava, Nilesh Shah, Megan Johnston, Larry Stitt, Meghana Thakar, Gurusamy Chinnasamy 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Duration Of Untreated Psychosis On Long-Term Outcome Of People Hospitalized With First Episode Schizophrenia, Amresh Shrivastava, Nilesh Shah, Megan Johnston, Larry Stitt, Meghana Thakar, Gurusamy Chinnasamy

Amresh Srivastava

Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has emerged as a reliable predictor of outcome but continues to remain under scientific scrutiny. The present study examines the effect of differential periods of DUP on long-term outcome of first episode schizophrenia at Mumbai, India. This research was a prospective, 10-year follow-up naturalistic study. Hospitalized patients of first episode schizophrenia were selected and followed up. Results showed that the mean DUP was higher for a group which showed clinical recovery on Clinical Global Impression Scale [14.0 months (SD=8.0) in recovered and 10.8 months (SD=5.7) in non-recovered group (P ...


The Black, African And Caribbean Canadian Health (Blacch) Study: Laying The Foundation For Conducting Hiv Epidemiologic Studies With Ethno-Racial Minority Communities In Understudied Urban-Rural Locales, Shamara M. Baidoobonso, Greta Bauer 2010 The BLACCH Study Team

The Black, African And Caribbean Canadian Health (Blacch) Study: Laying The Foundation For Conducting Hiv Epidemiologic Studies With Ethno-Racial Minority Communities In Understudied Urban-Rural Locales, Shamara M. Baidoobonso, Greta Bauer

Shamara M Baidoobonso, PhD

Challenge: London reportedly has Ontario’s third-highest HIV infection rate, and a small (2.2%) but growing African, Caribbean and other Black (ACB) population. These diverse communities historically faced racism, exploitation and social exclusion, which have lasting impacts. Although a target population for HIV prevention, they are difficult to reach for research and programming, especially in London and similar urban-rural locales with few ACB-specific resources. In ACB communities, HIV is most commonly spread through heterosexual contact, yet cultural and religious norms often discourage discussions about sex and sexuality, whether normative or non-normative. Homophobia, racism and HIV-related stigma discourage ACB persons ...


Water, Sanitation And Hygiene For The Prevention Of Diarrhoea, Sandy Cairncross, Caroline Hunt, Sophie Boisson, Kristof Bostoen, Val Curtis, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Wolf-Peter Schmidt 2010 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Water, Sanitation And Hygiene For The Prevention Of Diarrhoea, Sandy Cairncross, Caroline Hunt, Sophie Boisson, Kristof Bostoen, Val Curtis, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Wolf-Peter Schmidt

Isaac Chun-Hai Fung

Background: Ever since John Snow's intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality.
Methods: We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta disposal, respectively. The estimated effect on diarrhoea mortality was determined by applying the rules adopted for this supplement, where appropriate.
Results: The striking ...


Glycemic Control: Risk Factors, Quality Of Life, Workforce Participation, And Mortality Among Us Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Evelyn P. Davila 2010 Florida International University

Glycemic Control: Risk Factors, Quality Of Life, Workforce Participation, And Mortality Among Us Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Evelyn P. Davila

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite research showing the benefits of glycemic control, it remains suboptimal among adults with diabetes in the United States. Possible reasons include unaddressed risk factors as well as lack of awareness of its immediate and long term consequences. The objectives of this study were to, using cross-sectional data, 1) ascertain the association between suboptimal (Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥7%), borderline (HbA1c 7-8.9%), and poor (HbA1c ≥9%) glycemic control and potentially new risk factors (e.g. work characteristics), and 2) assess whether aspects of poor health and well-being such as poor health related quality of life (HRQOL), unemployment, and missed-work are ...


Effects Of Leas And Mecury On The Blood Proteome Of Children, Robert E. Birsall, Michael P. Kiley, Zaneer M. Segu, Christopher D. Palmer, Milan Madera, Brooks B. Gump 2010 SUNY Oswego

Effects Of Leas And Mecury On The Blood Proteome Of Children, Robert E. Birsall, Michael P. Kiley, Zaneer M. Segu, Christopher D. Palmer, Milan Madera, Brooks B. Gump

College Research Center

Heavy metal exposure in children has been associated with a variety of physiological and neurological problems. The goal of this study was to utilize proteomics to enhance the understanding of biochemical interactions responsible for the health problems related to lead and mercury exposure at concentrations well below CDC guidelines. Blood plasma and serum samples from 34 children were depleted of their most abundant proteins using antibody-based affinity columns and analyzed using two different methods, LC-MS/MS and 2-D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/MS and tandem mass spectrometry. Apolipoprotein E demonstrated an inverse significant association with lead concentrations (average being one ...


Effects Of Leas And Mecury On The Blood Proteome Of Children, Robert E. Birsall, Michael P. Kiley, Zaneer M. Segu, Christopher D. Palmer, Milan Madera, Brooks B. Gump 2010 Indiana University - Bloomington

Effects Of Leas And Mecury On The Blood Proteome Of Children, Robert E. Birsall, Michael P. Kiley, Zaneer M. Segu, Christopher D. Palmer, Milan Madera, Brooks B. Gump

Brooks B. Gump

Heavy metal exposure in children has been associated with a variety of physiological and neurological problems. The goal of this study was to utilize proteomics to enhance the understanding of biochemical interactions responsible for the health problems related to lead and mercury exposure at concentrations well below CDC guidelines. Blood plasma and serum samples from 34 children were depleted of their most abundant proteins using antibody-based affinity columns and analyzed using two different methods, LC-MS/MS and 2-D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/MS and tandem mass spectrometry. Apolipoprotein E demonstrated an inverse significant association with lead concentrations (average being one ...


Gender Differences Of Case-Fatality Rate In A Brazilian Stroke Registry, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Gender Differences Of Case-Fatality Rate In A Brazilian Stroke Registry, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Characteristics Of Small Areas With A Higher Stroke Mortality, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Characteristics Of Small Areas With A Higher Stroke Mortality, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Higher Frequency Of Stroke Deaths On Monday And Saturday, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Higher Frequency Of Stroke Deaths On Monday And Saturday, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Development Of The Lung Function Questionnaire (Lfq) To Identify Airflow Obstruction, Barbara P. Yawn, Douglas W. Mapel, David M. Mannino, Fernando J. Martinez, James F. Donohue, Nicola A. Hanania, Mark Kosinski, Regina Rendas-Baum, Matthew Mintz, Steven Samuels, Anand A. Dalal 2010 Baylor College of Medicine

Development Of The Lung Function Questionnaire (Lfq) To Identify Airflow Obstruction, Barbara P. Yawn, Douglas W. Mapel, David M. Mannino, Fernando J. Martinez, James F. Donohue, Nicola A. Hanania, Mark Kosinski, Regina Rendas-Baum, Matthew Mintz, Steven Samuels, Anand A. Dalal

David M. Mannino

Objective:

To describe the item-selection and item-reduction for the Lung Function Questionnaire (LFQ), being developed to help clinicians identify patients appropriate for diagnostic evaluation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry.

Methods:

Item selection and reduction were based on information from 387 ≥40-year-old respondents to the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had self-reported chronic bronchitis. Item reduction involved stepwise logistic regression. The accuracy of the final subset of items for identifying individuals with airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity <0.70) versus those without it was assessed with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Content and face validity were assessed using focus groups of primary care physicians (n = 16) and interviews with COPD patients (n = 16).

Results:

The model with all five items (age; smoking history; the presence ...


Comparative Efficacy Versus Effectiveness Of Initial Antiretroviral Therapy In Clinical Trials Versus Routine Care, Justin S. Routman, James H. Willig, Andrew O. Westfall, Sarah R. Abroms, Mohit Varshney, Sunil Adusumilli, Jeroan J. Allison, Karen G. Savage, Michael S. Saag, Michael J. Mugavero 2010 University of Alabama at Birmingham

Comparative Efficacy Versus Effectiveness Of Initial Antiretroviral Therapy In Clinical Trials Versus Routine Care, Justin S. Routman, James H. Willig, Andrew O. Westfall, Sarah R. Abroms, Mohit Varshney, Sunil Adusumilli, Jeroan J. Allison, Karen G. Savage, Michael S. Saag, Michael J. Mugavero

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: The applicability of clinical trial findings (efficacy) to the routine care setting (effectiveness) may be limited because of study eligibility criteria and volunteer bias. Although well-chronicled in many conditions, the efficacy versus effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains understudied.

METHODS: A retrospective study of the University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 Clinic Cohort evaluated ART-naive patients who started ART from 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2006. Patients received ART through clinical trials or routine care. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were fit to evaluate factors associated with virological failure (virological failure was defined as a viral load ...


Social Inequalities And The Decline Of Stroke Mortality In The City Of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Social Inequalities And The Decline Of Stroke Mortality In The City Of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Stroke Prevalence In A Poor Neighbourhood Of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Applying A Stroke Symptom Questionnaire, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Stroke Prevalence In A Poor Neighbourhood Of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Applying A Stroke Symptom Questionnaire, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

Background Brazil has one of the highest stroke mortality rates in the world, these rates are most endemic in the poor. We verified the prevalence of stroke in a deprived neighbourhood in the city of Sa˜ o Paulo, Brazil and compared it with other surveys worldwide. Methods A questionnaire with six questions concerning limb and facial weakness, articulation, sensory disturbances, impaired vision, and past diagnosis of stroke was completed door-to-door in a well-defined area of 15 000 people. Questionnaires were considered positive when a participant answered two or more questions about stroke symptoms or the presence of stroke being confirmed ...


Preventing Copd: Evidence Of Progress, David M. Mannino 2010 University of Kentucky Medical Center

Preventing Copd: Evidence Of Progress, David M. Mannino

David M. Mannino

Comment on

Trends in hospitalization with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-United States, 1990-2005. [COPD. 2010]

Trends in mortality from COPD in selected U.S. States differing in tobacco control efforts. [COPD. 2010]


Subclinical Hyperthyroidism And Dementia: The Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (Spah), Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Subclinical Hyperthyroidism And Dementia: The Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (Spah), Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

Background: Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people. Methods: A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion: Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion: The results suggest a consistent association among people ...


Environmental Valuation: The Sum Of Specific Damages Approach, PHILIP E. GRAVES 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Environmental Valuation: The Sum Of Specific Damages Approach, Philip E. Graves

PHILIP E GRAVES

There is no abstract for this book chapter.


Use Of Outcomes To Evaluate Surveillance Systems For Bioterrorist Attacks, Kerry A. McBrien, Ken P. Kleinman, Allyson M. Abrams, Lisa A. Prosser 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Use Of Outcomes To Evaluate Surveillance Systems For Bioterrorist Attacks, Kerry A. Mcbrien, Ken P. Kleinman, Allyson M. Abrams, Lisa A. Prosser

Public Health Department Faculty Publication Series

Background

Syndromic surveillance systems can potentially be used to detect a bioterrorist attack earlier than traditional surveillance, by virtue of their near real-time analysis of relevant data. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using the area under the curve (AUC) as a comparison metric has been recommended as a practical evaluation tool for syndromic surveillance systems, yet traditional ROC curves do not account for timeliness of detection or subsequent time-dependent health outcomes.

Methods

Using a decision-analytic approach, we predicted outcomes, measured in lives, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs, for a series of simulated bioterrorist attacks. We then evaluated ...


Automated Detection Of Infectious Disease Outbreaks In Hospitals: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Susan S. Huang, Deborah S. Yokoe, John Stelling, Hilary Placzek, Martin Kulldorff, Ken Kleinman, Thomas F. O'Brien, Michael S. Calderwood, Johanna Vostok, Julie Dunn, Richard Platt 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Automated Detection Of Infectious Disease Outbreaks In Hospitals: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Susan S. Huang, Deborah S. Yokoe, John Stelling, Hilary Placzek, Martin Kulldorff, Ken Kleinman, Thomas F. O'Brien, Michael S. Calderwood, Johanna Vostok, Julie Dunn, Richard Platt

Public Health Department Faculty Publication Series

BACKGROUND:

Detection of outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections is often based on simple rules, such as the occurrence of three new cases of a single pathogen in two weeks on the same ward. These rules typically focus on only a few pathogens, and they do not account for the pathogens' underlying prevalence, the normal random variation in rates, and clusters that may occur beyond a single ward, such as those associated with specialty services. Ideally, outbreak detection programs should evaluate many pathogens, using a wide array of data sources.

METHODS AND FINDINGS:

We applied a space-time permutation scan statistic to microbiology ...


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