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Psychological Phenomena and Processes Commons

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A Cluster Analysis Of Challenging Behaviors In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Elizabeth Stevens, Abigail Atchison, Laura Stevens, Esther Hong, Doreen Granpeesheh, Dennis Dixon, Erik J. Linstead 2017 Chapman University

A Cluster Analysis Of Challenging Behaviors In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Elizabeth Stevens, Abigail Atchison, Laura Stevens, Esther Hong, Doreen Granpeesheh, Dennis Dixon, Erik J. Linstead

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

We apply cluster analysis to a sample of 2,116 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to identify patterns of challenging behaviors observed in home and centerbased clinical settings. The largest study of this type to date, and the first to employ machine learning, our results indicate that while the presence of multiple challenging behaviors is common, in most cases a dominant behavior emerges. Furthermore, the trend is also observed when we train our cluster models on the male and female samples separately. This work provides a basis for future studies to understand the relationship of challenging behavior profiles ...


Elevated Blood Pressure Is Associated With Higher Prevalence Of Low Visual Acuity Among Adolescent Males In Northeast China, Miaomiao Zhao, Wei Wang, Han Yu, Yunsheng Ma, Liqiang Zheng, Lijuan Zhang, Guiping Wu, Yingxian Sun, Jue Li 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Elevated Blood Pressure Is Associated With Higher Prevalence Of Low Visual Acuity Among Adolescent Males In Northeast China, Miaomiao Zhao, Wei Wang, Han Yu, Yunsheng Ma, Liqiang Zheng, Lijuan Zhang, Guiping Wu, Yingxian Sun, Jue Li

Open Access Articles

The purpose of this study is to track the trends of low visual acuity (VA) from 2005 to 2014, and to investigate its associations with systemic blood pressure (BP) components among adolescents in Northeast China. A total of 55320 students of Han nationality aged 13 to 18 years were included. There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of low VA, with 31.3% in 2005, 40.2% in 2010 and 43.4% in 2014. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, each 1-mm Hg increment in systolic BP (SBP) was associated with 0.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-1 ...


The Dynamics Of Stress And Fatigue Across Menopause: Attractors, Coupling, And Resilience, Lisa Taylor-Swanson, Alexander E. Wong, David Pincus, Jonathan E. Butner, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Mary Koithan, Kathryn Wann, Nancy F. Woods 2017 University of Utah

The Dynamics Of Stress And Fatigue Across Menopause: Attractors, Coupling, And Resilience, Lisa Taylor-Swanson, Alexander E. Wong, David Pincus, Jonathan E. Butner, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Mary Koithan, Kathryn Wann, Nancy F. Woods

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the regulatory dynamics between stress and fatigue experienced by women during the menopausal transition (MT) and early postmenopause (EPM). Fatigue and perceived stress are commonly experienced by women during the MT and EPM. We sought to discover relationships between these symptoms and to employ these symptoms as possible markers for resilience.

Methods:

Participants were drawn from the longitudinal Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study. Eligible women completed questionnaires on 60+ occasions (annual health reports and monthly health diaries) (n = 56 women). The total number of observations across the sample was 4 ...


Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress: An Integrative Literature Review, Cassia Onken 2017 DePaul University

Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress: An Integrative Literature Review, Cassia Onken

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress (PMTS) is a common occurrence and not well understood by the medical community. Therefore, identifying key concepts is necessary to provide early intervention for children and parents. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate current research to determine common themes of PMTS. Questions included “What is known about the defining characteristics of PMTS?” and “What variable interactions predispose a child to PMTS development?” Articles were found using CINAHL, PsychInfo, PubMed, ProQuest, and Academic Search Complete using key words like acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress, medical traumatic stress, pediatric, child, parent, and guardian. Studies had ...


Volition And Action In The Human Brain: Processes, Pathologies, And Reasons, Itzhak Fried, Patrick Haggard, Biyu J. He, Aaron Schurger 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Volition And Action In The Human Brain: Processes, Pathologies, And Reasons, Itzhak Fried, Patrick Haggard, Biyu J. He, Aaron Schurger

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Humans seem to decide for themselves what to do, and when to do it. This distinctive capacity may emerge from an ability, shared with other animals, to make decisions for action that are related to future goals, or at least free from the constraints of immediate environmental inputs. Studying such volitional acts proves a major challenge for neuroscience. This review highlights key mechanisms in the generation of voluntary, as opposed to stimulus-driven actions, and highlights three issues. The first part focuses on the apparent spontaneity of voluntary action. The second part focuses on one of the most distinctive, but elusive ...


When Is Affect Variability Bad For Health? The Association Between Affect Variability And Immune Response To The Influenza Vaccination, Brooke N. Jenkins, John F. Hunter, Marie P. Cross, Amanda M. Acevedo, Sarah D. Pressman 2017 Chapman University

When Is Affect Variability Bad For Health? The Association Between Affect Variability And Immune Response To The Influenza Vaccination, Brooke N. Jenkins, John F. Hunter, Marie P. Cross, Amanda M. Acevedo, Sarah D. Pressman

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives—This study addresses methodological and theoretical questions about the association between affect and physical health. Specifically, we examine the role of affect variability and its interaction with mean levels of affect to predict antibody (Ab) levels in response to an influenza vaccination.

Methods—Participants (N = 83) received the vaccination and completed daily diary measures of affect four times a day for 13 days. At one and four months post-vaccination, blood was collected from the participants to assess Ab levels.

Results—Findings indicate that affect variability and its interaction with mean levels of affect predict an individual’s immune response ...


Entrainment Of Voluntary Movement To Undetected Auditory Regularities, Aaron Schurger, Nathan Faivre, Leila Cammoun, Bianca Trovó, Olaf Blanke 2017 Chapman University

Entrainment Of Voluntary Movement To Undetected Auditory Regularities, Aaron Schurger, Nathan Faivre, Leila Cammoun, Bianca Trovó, Olaf Blanke

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

In physics “entrainment” refers to the synchronization of two coupled oscillators with similar fundamental frequencies. In behavioral science, entrainment refers to the tendency of humans to synchronize their movements with rhythmic stimuli. Here, we asked whether human subjects performing a tapping task would entrain their tapping to an undetected auditory rhythm surreptitiously introduced in the guise of ambient background noise in the room. Subjects performed two different tasks, one in which they tapped their finger at a steady rate of their own choosing and one in which they performed a single abrupt finger tap on each trial after a delay ...


Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper

Haslam Scholars Projects

Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. Dominant and subordinate animals have been shown to exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to stress, with dominants often showing stress resistance and subordinates often showing stress vulnerability. We have previously found that dominant hamsters exhibit reduced social avoidance following social defeat stress compared to subordinate hamsters, although the extent to which stress resistance in dominants generalizes to non-social stressors is unknown. In this study, dominant, subordinate, and control male Syrian hamsters ...


Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, and synaptic changes induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie memory formation. In rodents, hippocampal LTP may be induced through electrical stimulation of the perforant path. To test whether similar techniques could improve episodic memory in humans, we implemented a microstimulation technique that allowed delivery of low-current electrical stimulation via 100 μm-diameter microelectrodes. As thirteen neurosurgical patients performed a person recognition task, microstimulation was applied in a theta-burst pattern, shown to optimally induce LTP. Microstimulation in the right entorhinal area during learning significantly improved subsequent memory specificity for novel portraits; participants ...


Weight-Loss Treatment-Induced Physical Activity Associated With Improved Nutrition Through Changes In Social Cognitive Theory Variables In Women With Obesity, James J. Annesi, Nicole Mareno 2017 YMCA of Metropolitan Atlanta, Kennesaw State University

Weight-Loss Treatment-Induced Physical Activity Associated With Improved Nutrition Through Changes In Social Cognitive Theory Variables In Women With Obesity, James J. Annesi, Nicole Mareno

Health Behavior Research

Behavioral weight-loss treatments have typically been unsuccessful and a theoretical. Even when treatments were scientifically derived, theory has rarely been used to decompose, and understand the bases of, their effects. This 2-year study evaluated mediation of the prediction of nutritional changes by changes in physical activity, through social cognitive theory variables. Data from women with Class 1–2 obesity, classified as “insufficiently active” (N = 50; Mage = 47.6 years), were extracted from 2 initial trials of a new cognitive-behavioral intervention. That treatment sought to improve self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy through increased physical activity, to then induce improved eating and ...


Emotion Regulation Strategies In Daily Life: Examining Contextual Variability In The Process Of Emotion Regulation, Robert N. Brockman 2017 Australian Catholic University

Emotion Regulation Strategies In Daily Life: Examining Contextual Variability In The Process Of Emotion Regulation, Robert N. Brockman

Theses

Contemporary theories of emotional well-being emphasize context as being inextricably linked to the process of emotion regulation. Empirical studies of these processes have generally relied upon single-occasion measurement approaches, but such methods are limited in their capacity to uncover regulatory processes that are inherently contextual and dynamic and that unfold over discrete time-periods. In this thesis, I address this gap using a daily process approach in three empirical studies to examine contextual variability in the usefulness of three popular emotion regulation strategies: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal, and emotion suppression.

In Study 1, I establish a daily process approach as relevant to ...


Psycho-Physiologic Emergentism; Four Minds In A Body, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei 2017 Valparaiso University, Department of Psychology, Valparaiso, USA

Psycho-Physiologic Emergentism; Four Minds In A Body, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The mind-body problem represents one of the most debated topics in the neurosciences. From a psychological standpoint, abstract/non-material data are an intrinsic part of the mind, intervening to a large extent in reasoning and decision making processes. Imaging studies also show a strong correlation between higher cognitive functions (such as working memory) and specific cerebral brain regions (a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain areas). In contrast, the physical/material brain would be unable to interact with abstract-immaterial data, such that the psychological processing of abstract data (processes such as thinking, reasoning, and judgment) is attributed to ...


Anger Without Agency: Exploring The Experiences Of Stress In Adolescent Girls, Elin A. Björling, Narayan B. Singh 2017 University of Washington

Anger Without Agency: Exploring The Experiences Of Stress In Adolescent Girls, Elin A. Björling, Narayan B. Singh

The Qualitative Report

Although a great deal of research has measured stressful life events and stress-related symptoms in adolescents, little research has qualitatively examined the experience of stress in teens. The purpose of this study was to utilize thematic analysis to explore how teen girls described their experiences of stress. Thirty-one girls, ages 14–18, were recruited for a study examining stress and stress-related symptoms. As part of this study, they participated in an open-ended, qualitative interview about their personal experiences of stress. Themes included the mind of stress, emotionally shutting out others, and “growing out of it.” The overarching finding was that ...


The Psychology Of Neurofeedback: Clinical Intervention Even If Applied Placebo, Robert T. Thibault, Amir Raz 2017 McGill University

The Psychology Of Neurofeedback: Clinical Intervention Even If Applied Placebo, Robert T. Thibault, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Advocates of neurofeedback make bold claims concerning brain regulation, treatment of disorders, and mental health. Decades of research and thousands of peer-reviewed publications support neurofeedback using electroencephalography (EEG-nf); yet, few experiments isolate the act of receiving feedback from a specific brain signal as a necessary precursor to obtain the purported benefits. Moreover, while psychosocial parameters including participant motivation and expectation, rather than neurobiological substrates, seem to fuel clinical improvement across a wide range of disorders, for-profit clinics continue to sprout across North America and Europe. Here, we highlight the tenuous evidence supporting EEG-nf and sketch out the weaknesses of this ...


Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Psychoanalytic thinkers propose that aspects of an individual’s sexual fantasies are related to her psychological and interpersonal functioning. The present study aims to elucidate the significance of sexual fantasies with respect to women’s emotional and interpersonal lives. The study evaluated a model, which hypothesized that internal representations of self and others (e.g. attachment security, maturity of object relations) along with psychological and interpersonal factors would predict both the emotional content (guilt, fear, affection) of written sexual fantasy narratives, and overall romantic satisfaction in heterosexual women. Methods: Five hundred and thirty four women completed self-report questionnaires online ...


Cortical Thickness Abnormalities Within The Salience And Reward Networks In Older Depressed Adults With Apathy, Monique A. Pimontel 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cortical Thickness Abnormalities Within The Salience And Reward Networks In Older Depressed Adults With Apathy, Monique A. Pimontel

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background and Significance: Apathy is a common comorbidity in late-life depression. Among older depressed adults, apathy is associated with a number of adverse outcomes, including increased disability, comorbid illness, and mortality. The etiological substrates of apathy in late-life depression nonetheless remain poorly understood, and little is known about its optimal treatment. To this end, the aim of the current study was to examine cortical abnormalities within the salience (SN) and reward networks (RN), two brain systems involved in the processing of incentive salience that may underlie the syndrome of apathy in older depressed adults.

Methods: We examined the association between ...


Precursor Processes Of Human Self-Initiated Action, Nima Khalighinejad, Aaron Schurger, Andrea Desantis, Leor Zmigrod 2017 University College London

Precursor Processes Of Human Self-Initiated Action, Nima Khalighinejad, Aaron Schurger, Andrea Desantis, Leor Zmigrod

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

A gradual buildup of electrical potential over motor areas precedes self-initiated movements. Recently, such “readiness potentials” (RPs) were attributed to stochastic fluctuations in neural activity. We developed a new experimental paradigm that operationalized self-initiated actions as endogenous ‘skip’ responses while waiting for target stimuli in a perceptual decision task. We compared these to a block of trials where participants could not choose when to skip, but were instead instructed to skip. Frequency and timing of motor action were therefore balanced across blocks, so that conditions differed only in how the timing of skip decisions was generated. We reasoned that across-trial ...


The Effect Of The Dopamine Agonist Pramipexole On Measures Of Impulsivity In Young, Healthy Participants, Daniel Glizer 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of The Dopamine Agonist Pramipexole On Measures Of Impulsivity In Young, Healthy Participants, Daniel Glizer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients with Parkinson disease are prescribed dopamine agonists such as pramipexole to improve motor symptoms. Several studies have found that patients taking dopaminergic medication develop impulse control disorders. In contrast, other studies suggest that some behaviors become less impulsive with pramipexole. We evaluated the performance of 20 young, healthy participants who received pramipexole (0.5 mg) and 20 participants who received placebo, on the Go/No-Go, the Stop Signal Task, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. We found that the pramipexole group had more timed out Go trials on the Go/No-Go task than the placebo group, suggesting reduced motor ...


The Musicality Of The Water Lilies/La Musicalité Des Nymphéas (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries 2017 College of the Holy Cross

The Musicality Of The Water Lilies/La Musicalité Des Nymphéas (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Art Gallery exhibition “Gabrielle Thierry: The Musicality of the Water Lilies/La Musicalité des Nymphéas” from Aug. 30 through Oct. 7.

Thierry’s series of eight large-scale paintings were inspired by her rediscovery of the “Water Lilies” landscapes by Claude Monet on view at the the Musée de l’Orangerie in Paris. With special permission from the museum, Thierry painted in front of Monet’s originals over a period of 18 months from 2010 to 2012, where she ...


Self-Transformation Through The Experience And Resolution Of Mental Health Crises, Guy Albert 2017 Private Practice, Berkeley, CA, USA

Self-Transformation Through The Experience And Resolution Of Mental Health Crises, Guy Albert

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

This study investigated the spiritually positive self-transformation resulting from the experience and resolution of a mental health crisis. To participate in this study, a person’s experience needed to meet 4 criteria: The individual (a) experienced a crisis affecting self-concept and reality testing, which (b) resulted in a transformation that (c) was spiritually positive—that is, integrative and meaningful— and (d) they had no current acute mental health conditions. The study was conducted in 2 phases, the first of which used assessment instruments to evaluate participants’ (N = 35) appropriateness for this study relative to the above criteria. In the second ...


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