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Mental Disorders Commons

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Comparison Of Schedules, Stress, Sleep Problems, Fatigue, Mental Health And Well-Being Of Low Cost And Network Carrier Pilots, Marion Venus 2022 Universität Bern

Comparison Of Schedules, Stress, Sleep Problems, Fatigue, Mental Health And Well-Being Of Low Cost And Network Carrier Pilots, Marion Venus

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Objective

This research investigates and compares working-conditions, duty rosters, stress, sleep problems, fatigue levels, mental health, and well-being of pilots working for network (NWCs), and low-cost carriers (LCCs). This study extends previous research by investigating working conditions, pilots’ actual rosters, fatigue and mental health of two groups of pilots flying for LCC or NWC.

Method

A comprehensive cross-sectional online survey was completed by N=338 pilots (185 NWC, 153 LCC pilots). All pilots reported their roster data of the last 2 months during peak flight season, psychosocial and work-related stress (e.g., high job insecurity, less total flight-experience, lower income, more time …


Family Structure And Maternal Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-National Comparison Of Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Kirsten Rasmussen, Elizabeth K. Sigler, Sadie A. Slighting, Jonathan A. Jarvis, Mikaela J. Dufur, Shana Pribesh 2022 Old Dominion University

Family Structure And Maternal Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-National Comparison Of Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Kirsten Rasmussen, Elizabeth K. Sigler, Sadie A. Slighting, Jonathan A. Jarvis, Mikaela J. Dufur, Shana Pribesh

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between family structure and maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Family structures that involve transitions across life's course, such as divorce, can alter access to resources and introduce new stressors into family systems. Using the stress process model, we examine the links between family structure, stress, resources, and MDS. Using nationally representative data from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States and cross-sectional models for each country, we find that family structure may influence MDS differently in the UK than it does …


Putative Mechanisms Underlying The Antidepressant Actions Of Ketamine: A Review And Study Proposal, Tristan Reece 2022 Claremont Colleges

Putative Mechanisms Underlying The Antidepressant Actions Of Ketamine: A Review And Study Proposal, Tristan Reece

CMC Senior Theses

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly debilitating and common psychiatric disorder that affects over 250 million people globally; it is among the most financially and emotionally burdensome illnesses in the world. Currently approved antidepressants are suboptimal in their efficacy and latency of therapeutic action. In contrast, single administrations of sub-anesthetic ketamine have been shown to rapidly alleviate depressive symptoms within hours, even in treatment-resistant patients. Ketamine is believed to exert these effects by increasing glutamatemediated neurotransmission and promoting rapid neurotrophic factor release, restoring the integrity of neural circuits that are compromised in depression. However, uncertainty surrounding its specific antidepressant …


Physical Activity As A Predictor Of Obesity In Autistic Children, Cody A. Mullins 2022 Missouri State University

Physical Activity As A Predictor Of Obesity In Autistic Children, Cody A. Mullins

MSU Graduate Theses

Research has found autistic children to be 40% more likely to be obese compared to their non-autistic peers. Reduced physical activity (PA) is thought to be a contributing factor to the increased prevalence of obesity in autistic children. This was one of the first studies to investigate the PA behaviors of autistic children during an adapted physical education (APE) class using accelerometry. The purpose of this study was to examine the PA of autistic children and determine the relationship between PA and obesity. Participants were recruited from a school for students with disabilities who participate in a once-weekly APE class …


Designing And Implementing A De-Escalation Toolkit To Improve Staff Education And Competency On De-Escalation Within A Mental Health Outpatient Setting, Balraj Bajwa 2021 The University of San Francisco

Designing And Implementing A De-Escalation Toolkit To Improve Staff Education And Competency On De-Escalation Within A Mental Health Outpatient Setting, Balraj Bajwa

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Background: The purpose of this study is to develop and implement a de-escalation toolkit to help improve memory, retention, and utility of de-escalation techniques within an outpatient mental health crisis stabilization unit.

Problem: The aforementioned crisis stabilization unit has elevated rates of patient aggression/violence and staff present with difficulty recalling de-escalation techniques due to the lapse in memory and/or retention.

Methods: The project was introduced to the stakeholders of the crisis stabilization unit and input was obtained on the design and components of the toolkit. Various analyses were conducted to ensure the appropriate implementation of the project.

Intervention: A de-escalation …


Ketamine As A Treatment Modality For Treatment-Resistant Depression, Tracy Wulff, Shen Cao 2021 James Madison University

Ketamine As A Treatment Modality For Treatment-Resistant Depression, Tracy Wulff, Shen Cao

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2020-current

Many recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, to produce antidepressant effects that may be effective in helping reduce treatment-resistant major depression. In particular, three double-blinded randomized control trials have been conducted to assess the viability and effectiveness of this medication for treatment. This systematic literature review will analyze these studies and determine if the overall research indicates that ketamine is useful in improving depression as measured by the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)1.

Objective: Assess the effectiveness of IV Ketamine in reducing treatment-resistant major depressive disorder as measured by the Montgomery–Asberg …


The Influence Of Comorbid Gad On Er Utilization In Urban Youth With Asthma, David A. Karpe 2021 CUNY Hunter College

The Influence Of Comorbid Gad On Er Utilization In Urban Youth With Asthma, David A. Karpe

Theses and Dissertations

Current literature indicates a strong association between asthma and the early onset of comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in minors and their primary caregivers. Studies show that asthma prevalence increases with certain demographic factors, such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and housing quality. Evidence also suggests that GAD influences decision-making, especially when deciding to utilize emergency room (ER) services for asthma-related concerns. This study analyzed the effect of comorbid GAD on minors with asthma and ER utilization. The data were provided by an earlier Stress & Justice Study (S&J) baseline survey, an investigation aimed at understanding the impact of parental criminal …


Systematic Review Of Pathways To Care In The U.S. For Black Individuals With Early Psychosis, Oladunni Oluwoye, Beshaun Davis, Franchesca S. Kuhney, Deidre M. Anglin 2021 Washington State University

Systematic Review Of Pathways To Care In The U.S. For Black Individuals With Early Psychosis, Oladunni Oluwoye, Beshaun Davis, Franchesca S. Kuhney, Deidre M. Anglin

Publications and Research

The pathway to receiving specialty care for first episode psychosis (FEP) among Black youth in the US has received little attention despite documented challenges that negatively impact engagement in care and clinical outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of US-based research, reporting findings related to the pathway experiences of Black individuals with FEP and their family members. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase/Medline was performed with no date restrictions up to April 2021. Included studies had samples with at least 75% Black individuals and/or their family members or explicitly examined racial differences. Of the 80 abstracts screened, 28 …


Direct And Indirect Effects Of Alcohol Craving And Demand On Obsessive And Compulsive Drinking Characteristics: The Role Of Impulsivity, James V. Turner IV 2021 CUNY Hunter College

Direct And Indirect Effects Of Alcohol Craving And Demand On Obsessive And Compulsive Drinking Characteristics: The Role Of Impulsivity, James V. Turner Iv

Theses and Dissertations

This study’s goal was to test a novel model of obsessive-compulsive thoughts about drinking. Young adults completed tasks measuring potential drinking characteristics. Findings indicated demand was related to higher OCTD, a significant effect of CIC on OCTD via demand, and that the relationship was particularly strong for impulsive individuals.


Mapping Services At Two Nairobi County Primary Health Facilities: Identifying Challenges And Opportunities In Integrated Mental Health Care As A Universal Health Coverage (Uhc) Priority, Manasi Kumar, Vincent Nyongesa, Martha Kagoya, Byamah B. Mutamba,, Beatrice Amugune, Neha S. Krishnam, Grace Nduku Wambua, Inge Petersen, Onesmus Gachuno, Shekhar Saxena 2021 Aga Khan University

Mapping Services At Two Nairobi County Primary Health Facilities: Identifying Challenges And Opportunities In Integrated Mental Health Care As A Universal Health Coverage (Uhc) Priority, Manasi Kumar, Vincent Nyongesa, Martha Kagoya, Byamah B. Mutamba,, Beatrice Amugune, Neha S. Krishnam, Grace Nduku Wambua, Inge Petersen, Onesmus Gachuno, Shekhar Saxena

Brain and Mind Institute

Abstract: Introduction There is a need to scale-up mental health service provision in primary health care. The current extent of integration of mental health in primary care is pertinent to promoting and augmenting mental health at this level. We describe a facility mapping exercise conducted in two low-income/primary health facilities in Kenya to identify existing barriers and facilitators in the delivery of mental health services in general and specifically for peripartum adolescents in primary health care as well as available service resources, cadres, and developmental partners on the ground.

Method and measures This study utilized a qualitative evidence synthesis through …


Depression And Its Associated Factors: Perceived Stress, Social Support, Substance Use And Related Sociodemographic Risk Factors In Medical School Residents In Nairobi, Kenya, Sayed Shah Nur Hussein Shah, Ahmed Laving, Violet Caroline Okech-Helu, Manasi Kumar 2021 Aga Khan University

Depression And Its Associated Factors: Perceived Stress, Social Support, Substance Use And Related Sociodemographic Risk Factors In Medical School Residents In Nairobi, Kenya, Sayed Shah Nur Hussein Shah, Ahmed Laving, Violet Caroline Okech-Helu, Manasi Kumar

Brain and Mind Institute

Abstract: Background: Little data exists regarding depression and its associated factors in medical residents and doctors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Residents are at high risk of developing depression owing to the stressful nature of their medical practice and academic training. Depression in medical residents leads to decreased clinical efficiency, and poor academic performance; it can also lead to substance abuse and suicide. Our primary aim was to measure depression prevalence among medical residents in Kenya’s largest national teaching and referral hospital. Secondary aims were to describe how depression was associated with perceived stress, perceived social support, substance use, and educational environment. …


Is There An Optimal Screening Tool For Identifying Perinatal Depression Within Clinical Settings Of Sub-Saharan Africa?, Anna Larsen, Jillian Pintye, Amritha Bhat, Manasi Kumar, John Kinuthia, Pamela Y. Collins, Grace John Stewart 2021 Aga Khan University

Is There An Optimal Screening Tool For Identifying Perinatal Depression Within Clinical Settings Of Sub-Saharan Africa?, Anna Larsen, Jillian Pintye, Amritha Bhat, Manasi Kumar, John Kinuthia, Pamela Y. Collins, Grace John Stewart

Brain and Mind Institute

Abstract: Depression is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide and the most common complication of the perinatal period. Women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are disproportionately impacted by perinatal depression. Maternal and child health (MCH) clinics are widely attended in SSA, offering a potential access point for depression screening. Yet, selection of optimal depression screening instruments for use within MCH clinics in SSA remains unclear. We synthesized evidence depicting relative strength of perinatal depression screening scales for use among African perinatal women within four evaluation domains: 1) diagnostic performance, 2) cultural adaptation, 3) feasibility and ease of implementation, …


Mental Health Treatment In Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Utilizing Assessment To Inform Treatment, Sarah Riccio 2021 National Louis University

Mental Health Treatment In Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Utilizing Assessment To Inform Treatment, Sarah Riccio

Dissertations

Youth in juvenile correctional facilities face a wide range of mental health difficulties. Over the years, the juvenile justice system has prioritized the need for providing appropriate and effective treatment services to youth throughout their detainment. Despite these ongoing efforts, treatment practices in juvenile correctional facilities continue to fall short. This study will first focus on assessment practices within these facilities and the impact current practices have on diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of comprehensive evaluations for informing diagnosis and determining the individual treatment needs of detained youth. An integrated approach to assessment will …


Mental Health Training, Adrienne Leonard, Seanghai Lim, Emma Booth, Jaeger McCaulou, Saori Fukuoka 2021 Seattle Pacific University

Mental Health Training, Adrienne Leonard, Seanghai Lim, Emma Booth, Jaeger Mccaulou, Saori Fukuoka

Nursing Leadership in Community Engagement Projects

Introduction

New Horizons is a Seattle-based non-profit organization that serves to aid homeless youth in the greater Seattle area, with an end goal of ending youth homelessness in Seattle and King County. New Horizons has been operating since 1978 and has reached out to homeless youth of all different backgrounds in order to meet their basic needs and help transition them into a stable living environment. (New Horizons, 2016). This type of work requires staff and volunteers to be able to accommodate a wide range of cultural backgrounds, lifestyle habits, and crucially, individuals with differing mental health states and disabilities. …


Desire For Control Moderates The Relationship Between Perceived Control And Depressive Symptomology, Liam Alexander MacKenzie Myles, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Antonia Obele 2021 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE, UNITED KINGDOM

Desire For Control Moderates The Relationship Between Perceived Control And Depressive Symptomology, Liam Alexander Mackenzie Myles, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Antonia Obele

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Background. The prevalence of psychological difficulties is rising at an alarming rate, with an increasing number of individuals reporting symptoms of depression. A decline in both perceived control and desire for control has previously been associated with the onset of depression. However, previous research has failed to examine whether perceived control and desire for control interact in their relationship with depressive symptomology. Methods. A sample of 350 participants completed the Spheres of Control Scale, the Desirability of Control Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory. Process Macro was used to examine whether desire for control moderated the relationship between perceived …


Depression Screening In Primary Care: Implications For Practice, Donna Pittman 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Depression Screening In Primary Care: Implications For Practice, Donna Pittman

Doctoral Projects

Depression is a mood disorder that has affected lots of people worldwide. Depression is a disease that affects an individual's social functioning, relationships, and finances. Individuals with depression may have feelings of sadness, loss of interest in formerly enjoyed activities, hopelessness, irritability, decreased energy, difficulty concentrating and sleeping changes in appetite, or chronic generalized aches and pains. Over the recent year, there has been a rise in individuals presenting to the primary care providers with symptoms of depression. Mental disorders attribute to one of the leading causes of disability in the United States.

Healthcare providers in the primary care setting …


The Functional And Structural Consequences Of Aberrant Microglial Activity In Major Depressive Disorder, Jasmine D. Cakmak 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Functional And Structural Consequences Of Aberrant Microglial Activity In Major Depressive Disorder, Jasmine D. Cakmak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly debilitating neuropsychiatric illness which has been linked with increases in both peripheral and central inflammation, as well as with changes in connectivity. Although countless studies have investigated these two topics, the relationship between neuroinflammation and functional/structural connectivity has not been explored. Using [18F]FEPPA PET imaging, we measured translocator protein-related (TSPO) microglial activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and insula and confirmed significantly increased [18F]FEPPA uptake in depressed patients (N=12) compared to healthy controls (N=23). Using a seed-based ROI analysis of fMRI data, we found that patients show …


Food Restriction And Body Image Distortion In Pregnant Mothers: Outcomes For Exposed Children, Kathryn M. Dana 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Food Restriction And Body Image Distortion In Pregnant Mothers: Outcomes For Exposed Children, Kathryn M. Dana

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Developmental trajectories in the growing child do not originate at birth. Rather, critical periods may exist in pregnancy, during which the determinants of malnutrition are especially vulnerable to the effects of stress and other complications. Prenatal malnutrition has been consistently associated with negative consequences for the growth, development, and overall physical and mental health of affected offspring in both human and animal models. While most available literature on human prenatal malnutrition comes from famine research, there is some evidence that restrictive eating disorders in pregnant women may be associated with similar outcomes.

Hypotheses: We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to …


Training And Individual Predictors Of Attitudes Toward Serious Mental Illness Amongst Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students, Lauren K. O'Connor 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Training And Individual Predictors Of Attitudes Toward Serious Mental Illness Amongst Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students, Lauren K. O'Connor

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clinical psychologists are grossly underrepresented in treatment provision for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI; Roe, Yanos, Lysaker, 2006). Systemic (e.g., emergence of managed care) and training-based (e.g., limitations to SMI specific training) factors contribute to the establishment of this underrepresentation, while mental health stigma amongst psychologists may play a role in perpetuating it. Many individual and experiential factors have been found to impact clinicians’ attitudes toward those with SMI (Henderson et al., 2014; Schulzes, 2007). Though many of these factors are present and relevant from the beginning of one’s career and may involve elements related to training, little research …


The Parallel Pandemic: A Systematic Review On The Effects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Eating Disorders And Ocd In Children And Adolescents, Nasong A. Luginaah 2021 Western University

The Parallel Pandemic: A Systematic Review On The Effects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Eating Disorders And Ocd In Children And Adolescents, Nasong A. Luginaah

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

In January 2021, Covid-19 had already been diagnosed in over 100 million individuals1. Due to the high degree of infectivity, many countries all over the globe attempted to counter the virus by instituting nation-wide lockdowns. The effects of the lockdowns resulting from the Covid-19 Pandemic on the mental health of children and adolescents have drawn a lot of public health attention with many calling for an increased in the understanding of the potential effects the youth of today may have to endure. Two specific mental health illnesses have seemingly worsened are OCD and eating disorders.


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