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Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs: Evolution And Evidence, Janet Weiner, Yuhua Bao, Zachary Meisel 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs: Evolution And Evidence, Janet Weiner, Yuhua Bao, Zachary Meisel

Issue Briefs

This Issue Brief reviews the current status and characteristics of PDMPs, their use, and evidence of their effectiveness. It summarizes best practices for PDMPs and the needs for further research and evaluation.


Combining Adverse Pregnancy And Perinatal Outcomes For Women Exposed To Antiepileptic Drugs During Pregnancy, Using A Latent Trait Model, XUERONG Wen 2017 University of Rhode Island

Combining Adverse Pregnancy And Perinatal Outcomes For Women Exposed To Antiepileptic Drugs During Pregnancy, Using A Latent Trait Model, Xuerong Wen

XUERONG Wen

Background: Application of latent variable models in medical research are becoming increasingly popular. A latent trait model is developed to combine rare birth defect outcomes in an index of infant morbidity. Methods: This study employed four statewide, retrospective 10-year data sources (1999 to 2009). The study cohort consisted of all female Florida Medicaid enrollees who delivered a live singleton infant during study period. Drug exposure was defined as any exposure to Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy. Mothers with no AED exposure served as the AED unexposed group for comparison. Four adverse outcomes, birth defect (BD), abnormal condition of new born ...


Ethical Imperatives Of Timely Access To Orphan Drugs: Is Possible To Reconcile Economic Incentives And Patients’ Health Needs?, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio, T. Spargo, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Ethical Imperatives Of Timely Access To Orphan Drugs: Is Possible To Reconcile Economic Incentives And Patients’ Health Needs?, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio, T. Spargo, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

More than 6,800 rare diseases and conditions have been identified in the US, which affect 25–30 million Americans. In 1983, the US Congress enacted the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) to encourage the development and marketing of drugs to treat rare diseases and conditions. This study analyzed all orphan designations and FDA approvals since 1983 through 2015, discussed the effectiveness of incentives for the development of treatments for rare diseases, and reflected on the ethical imperatives for timely access to orphan drugs.

Methods

Study data were derived from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Orange Book and the ...


The Impact Of Objective Quality Ratings On Patient Selection Of Community Pharmacies: A Discrete Choice Experiment And Latent Class Analysis, Julie A. Patterson 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Impact Of Objective Quality Ratings On Patient Selection Of Community Pharmacies: A Discrete Choice Experiment And Latent Class Analysis, Julie A. Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Pharmacy-related performance measures have gained significant attention in the transition to value-based healthcare. Pharmacy-level quality measures, including those developed by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance, are not yet publicly accessible. However, the publication of report cards for individual pharmacies has been discussed as a way to help direct patients towards high-quality pharmacies. This study aimed to measure the relative strength of patient preferences for community pharmacy attributes, including pharmacy quality. Additionally, this study aimed to identify and describe community pharmacy market segments based on patient preferences for pharmacy attributes.

Methods: This study elicited patient preferences for community pharmacy attributes using ...


E-Cigarettes And Smoking Cessation: Economic Impact On Current Smokers With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Anal A. Shah 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

E-Cigarettes And Smoking Cessation: Economic Impact On Current Smokers With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Anal A. Shah

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction:

Awareness and usage of Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) among smokers have increased rapidly over the past few years, majorly in quitting smoking. The main objectives for this study were: 1) To estimate the prevalence and study sociodemographic predictors for e-cigs use among individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 2) To examine the predictors and estimate the total healthcare costs among current smokers with COPD 3) To estimate the economic impact of adopting e-cigs as a smoking cessation tool among current smokers with COPD.

Methods:

The National Health Interview Survey data from the year 2014 was utilized to estimate the ...


Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 13 Coverage In Children, High-Risk Adults 19-64 Years Of Age, And Adults Over 65 Years Of Age In A Commercially Insured U.S. Population, Joseph C. Vanghelof 2017 University of Kentucky

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 13 Coverage In Children, High-Risk Adults 19-64 Years Of Age, And Adults Over 65 Years Of Age In A Commercially Insured U.S. Population, Joseph C. Vanghelof

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

This thesis aimed to elucidate the demographic characteristics associated with elevated or reduced rates of pneumococcal conjugate 13 (PCV13) vaccination.

A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Truven Health MarketScan® Database. Three cohorts were created corresponding to populations for which the CDC recommends PCV13 vaccination. Cohort 1: children < 36 months of age. Cohort 2: adults 19-64 years of age with high infection risk. Cohort 3: adults > 65 years of age. Odds of having a PCV13 claim were calculated for each cohort.

For Cohort 1, 78% out of a total of 353,214 subjects had a sufficient number of PCV13 doses to meet CDC recommendations. For Cohort 2, 3.7% out of a total of 673,157 subjects ...


Decreasing Cost Associated Medication Nonadherence, Shawn E. Raymond 2016 Pittsburg State University

Decreasing Cost Associated Medication Nonadherence, Shawn E. Raymond

Doctor of Nursing Practice

An Abstract of the Scholarly Project by

Shawn E. Raymond

Medication cost is a major contributor for patient medication nonadherence. Take in the fact that a large population lives in poverty, many cannot afford to pay the retail prices associated with purchasing their medications. By incorporating wholesale medications into a charitable health clinic, the reduced cost of medications for treatment of both acute and chronic illnesses could be passed on to those in need thereby decreasing cost associated medication nonadherence. Nurse Practitioners in the state of Kansas are not afforded the privilege to purchase, repackage and distribute or resell wholesale ...


The Impact Of Incorporating Of Pharmacogenomics Into The Pharmacy Curriculum On Student Interest, Natalya Vaksman, Mitchell Barnett, Leann Hakobyan, Ilya Kutcher, Maggie Louie 2016 Touro University of California

The Impact Of Incorporating Of Pharmacogenomics Into The Pharmacy Curriculum On Student Interest, Natalya Vaksman, Mitchell Barnett, Leann Hakobyan, Ilya Kutcher, Maggie Louie

Maggie Louie

Background: Pharmacogenomics content in the pharmacy curriculum has increased since AACP adopted NCHPEG guidelines in 2001. Aims: To evaluate how program level curricular changes impact pharmacy student opinions regarding pharmacogenomics, and gauge student interest in pursuing a career in pharmacogenomics. Methods: First and third year students from eight pharmacy schools in California completed a survey indicating their attitudes towards pharmacogenomics. Results: The survey concluded that the presence of a stand-alone pharmacogenomics course did not impact student perceived preparedness for a career in pharmacogenomics. Furthermore, the presence of a course did not influence student interest in pursuing a residency, fellowship, or ...


A Systematic Review Of The Cost-Effectiveness Of Chemotherapy Regimens, Chelsea R. Manion, Eric Blizzard, Emily Bruce, Hannah Chittenden, David Fisher, Lia G. Hickinbotham, Abigail Moon, Nicholas Rudy, Aleda Chen, Kristi Coe 2016 Cedarville University

A Systematic Review Of The Cost-Effectiveness Of Chemotherapy Regimens, Chelsea R. Manion, Eric Blizzard, Emily Bruce, Hannah Chittenden, David Fisher, Lia G. Hickinbotham, Abigail Moon, Nicholas Rudy, Aleda Chen, Kristi Coe

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Background: The rising cost of chemotherapy dramatically increases the burden on healthcare and presents new challenges in achieving optimal patient outcomes. New treatments, in general, are more specialized but show minor progress in regards to efficacy. Accordingly, the threat of overpaying for chemotherapy regimens has increased. There is a need for a comprehensive review to compile relevant studies in order to inform clinician decisions on the basis of cost-effectiveness and quality of life.

Objectives: The objective of this project is to assess the cost-effectiveness of anticancer medications with a special focus on the quality of life of patients undergoing chemotherapy ...


Industri 4.0: Revolusi Industri Abad Ini Dan Pengaruhnya Pada Bidang Kesehatan Dan Bioteknologi, Raymond Tjandrawinata 2016 Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences

Industri 4.0: Revolusi Industri Abad Ini Dan Pengaruhnya Pada Bidang Kesehatan Dan Bioteknologi, Raymond Tjandrawinata

Raymond R Tjandrawinata

Ekonomi global saat ini sedang berada pada titik puncak perubahan besar yang sebanding besarnya dengan munculnya revolusi industri pertama atau perkembangan perakitan produksi, atau bahkan penemuan mikrocip. Kemajuan teknologi memungkinkan terjadinya otomatisasi hampir di semua bidang. Sementara itu, kepemilikan perangkat pintar di berbagai bagian dunia mengarah pada tingkat keterkaitan satu sama yang lain yang tak terbayangkan sebelumnya. Di antara berbagai tantangan yang sedang dihadapi dunia saat ini, mungkin yang paling besar adalah bagaimana membentuk Revolusi Industri keempat (disebut juga sebagai Industri 4.0) yang dimulai pada permulaan abad ini. Teknologi dan pendekatan baru yang menggabungkan dunia fisik, digital, dan biologi ...


Characterization And Economic Burden Associated With Pediatric Opioid Exposures And Poisonings, Anisha M. Patel 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization And Economic Burden Associated With Pediatric Opioid Exposures And Poisonings, Anisha M. Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction

The main objectives of this study were: 1) to examine the prevalence and characteristics of opioid exposures, 2) to estimate the economic costs associated with opioid poisonings, and 3) to examine the characteristics associated with opioid poisoning-related health care resource use (HCRU) and costs in children.

Methods

Data from the National Poison Data System from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014 were utilized to examine the prevalence and characteristics of opioid exposures and poisonings in children <18 years. Economic costs were estimated using the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, Kids’ Inpatient Database, Multiple Cause-of-Death file and other published sources, applying a societal perspective. Direct costs included costs associated with ED visits, hospitalizations and ambulance transports. Indirect cost included productivity costs due to caregivers’ absenteeism and premature mortality among children.

Results

There were a total of 83,418 pediatric opioid exposures and nearly half of them resulted in poisoning. The epidemiology of ...


Resource Utilization And Costs Associated With Off-Label Use Of Atypical Antipsychotics In An Adult Population, Della Varghese 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Resource Utilization And Costs Associated With Off-Label Use Of Atypical Antipsychotics In An Adult Population, Della Varghese

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Atypical Antipsychotics (AAPs) are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. AAPs are commonly used off-label to treat depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia due to lack of alternative treatment options and treatment resistance. Concerns for off-label use arise since AAPs increase the risk of cardiovascular events and death. The objectives were 1) describe patterns of RU and costs among off-label AAPs users in a nationally representative population 2) identify prevalence of off-label use in the Medicare population 3) compare RU and costs between off-label AAPs users ...


The Value Of Online Medication Rating Systems To Older Adults And Their Association With Self-Reported Outcomes, Yazed Sulaiman AlRuthia 2015 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Value Of Online Medication Rating Systems To Older Adults And Their Association With Self-Reported Outcomes, Yazed Sulaiman Alruthia

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The Internet is a powerful and very popular vehicle for distributing judgment-free health information to patients. Multiple studies have examined the role of online health information as well as physician-rating websites in health care. Studies have examined the value of online drug information for patients and the value of the online drug information for patients. However, no study has examined the usefulness or value of online medication rating websites in facilitating physician-patient communication or participant-reported outcomes. In this study, the value of online medication rating websites to older adults in facilitating communication with their physicians using a newly developed tool ...


Use Of Opioids For Pain Management In Nursing Homes: A Dissertation, Camilla B. Pimentel 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Use Of Opioids For Pain Management In Nursing Homes: A Dissertation, Camilla B. Pimentel

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Nursing homes are an essential yet understudied provider of cancer-related care for those with complex health needs. Nine percent of nursing home residents have a cancer diagnosis at admission, and it is estimated that one-third of them experience pain on a daily basis. Although pain management is an essential component of disease treatment, few studies have evaluated analgesic medication use among adults with cancer in this setting. Use of opioids, which are the mainstay of pain management in older adults because of their effectiveness in controlling moderate to severe pain, may be significantly related to coverage by the Medicare Part ...


Orphan Drug Development: Incentives Under The Orphan Drug Act, Sara H D Smith 2015 Trinity College

Orphan Drug Development: Incentives Under The Orphan Drug Act, Sara H D Smith

Senior Theses and Projects

After describing the intellectual property and regulatory environment for orphan drugs in the United States, this thesis compares the investment decisions in the orphan drug market with the larger pharmaceutical industry. A series of case studies trace the development paths of different orphan products using information collected through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approved Drug Product and Orphan Drug Product Designation Databases. In addition to this analysis, difference-in-differences estimates calculated using annual revenues compare the relative success of different orphan products under the current incentive system. This study finds that partial orphan drugs are associated with larger revenue growth ...


Reimbursement For Pharmaceutical Care Services: The California Experience, Jeffery Goad, Kathleen Johnson, Michael Rudolph 2015 Chapman University

Reimbursement For Pharmaceutical Care Services: The California Experience, Jeffery Goad, Kathleen Johnson, Michael Rudolph

Jeff Goad

"While it is true that pharmacists are changing their practice habits, they are doing so for the betterment of their patients’ drug therapy outcomes and the healthcare system. The pharmacist serves as the vital link between the patient, physician, and healthcare system. By working with patients and physicians, pharmacists have demonstrated in the literature that they can improve patient drug therapy outcomes, thus preventing unnecessary healthcare expenditures (Fincham, 1998). Pharmacists have long been held in highest esteem by patients, being voted the number one trusted professional for 10 consecutive years. The evidence is clear that pharmacists provide a valuable service ...


The Effect Of Any Willing Provider And Freedom Of Choice Laws On Prescription Drug Expenditures, Jonathan Klick, Joshua D. Wright 2015 University of Pennsylvania

The Effect Of Any Willing Provider And Freedom Of Choice Laws On Prescription Drug Expenditures, Jonathan Klick, Joshua D. Wright

Faculty Scholarship

Any Willing Provider and Freedom of Choice laws restrict the ability of managed care entities, including pharmacy benefit managers, to selectively contract with providers. The managed care entities argue this limits their ability to generate cost savings, while proponents of the laws suggest that such selective contracts limit competition, leading to an increase in aggregate costs. We examine the effect of state adoption of such laws on total state healthcare spending, finding that any willing provider/freedom of choice laws are associated with cost increases of at least 3 percent. These results suggest that these laws are harmful from a ...


Economic Impact Of Waste In Prescribing, Dispensing, And Medication Consumption In The United States, Sarah Almanie 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Economic Impact Of Waste In Prescribing, Dispensing, And Medication Consumption In The United States, Sarah Almanie

Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF WASTE IN PRESCRIBING, DISPENSING, AND MEDICATION CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES

By Sarah A. Almanie, M.S.

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Virginia Commonwealth University, 2015.

Major Director: David A. Holdford, R.Ph., M.S., Ph.D., FAPhA

Professor

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science

OBJECTIVES: This research examines waste associated with the medication use process which consists of unfilled prescriptions, abandoned prescriptions, or unused prescription medications. The aim of this study is to quantify the direct medical costs of medication ...


Impact Of Pharmacy Patient Education Programs On Medication Related Hcahps Scores, Ana Lopez-Samblas, Maria Rojo-Carlo, Aixa Rey, Maria Perez Arias 2015 West Kendall Baptist Hospital

Impact Of Pharmacy Patient Education Programs On Medication Related Hcahps Scores, Ana Lopez-Samblas, Maria Rojo-Carlo, Aixa Rey, Maria Perez Arias

All Publications

No abstract provided.


Medication Misadventures: The Case Of Benzodiazepines, Sarah E. Wixson 2015 University of Kentucky

Medication Misadventures: The Case Of Benzodiazepines, Sarah E. Wixson

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

For patients afflicted with symptoms of anxiety and insomnia, benzodiazepines are generally a safe and effective short-term pharmacological treatment option. Although considered safer than other sedative-hypnotic medications, substantial concern exists regarding the addictive nature and abuse potential of benzodiazepines along with potentially inappropriate prescribing and utilization in clinically vulnerable populations. These medication misadventures can have a significant impact on public health. Examples of medication misadventures as they pertain to benzodiazepines include the prescribing and use in clinically vulnerable populations for whom they are contraindicated or their efficacy has not been evaluated, the development of tolerance or addiction, abuse of the ...


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