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Natural Products Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Commons

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Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing 2017 Texas A & M University - College Station

Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing

Andrews Research Conference

Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is a strain of bacteria which produces a lantibiotic product, named mutacin 1140. Mutacin 1140 has been shown to be effective at inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutacin 1140 is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic that undergoes extensive posttranslational modifications (PTM). We have found that Mutacin 1140 and an aminoglycoside, Kanamycin, when combined together, act synergistically against Staphylococcus aureus. This was determined by performing serial kill curve dilution overlays on solid media, followed up with kill curve by microdilution plate, and most recently confirmed with kill curve CFU count plates on ...


The Pharmacognosy And Therapeutic Efficacy Of Turmeric (Curcuma Longa): A Systematic Review, Maghan Ballantyne 2017 University of Rhode Island

The Pharmacognosy And Therapeutic Efficacy Of Turmeric (Curcuma Longa): A Systematic Review, Maghan Ballantyne

Senior Honors Projects

Turmeric is a well-known natural product, native to Southeast Asia, commonly

used for a variety of cultural traditions and health benefits. Generally referred

to as curcumin, it is a member of the Zingiberaceae, or ginger family, utilized

for its roots and known for its vibrant yellow hue. Culturally, it is primarily

incorporated into cooking and as an integral part of religious rituals and

ceremonies. Chemically, turmeric is classified as a phenolic compound, made

up of many curcuminoids, each with varying levels of activity. Therapeutically,

its health benefits include anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-oxidant

and anti-pruritic properties. The pharmacognosy of curcumin modulates

inflammatory ...


Crispr: The Last Piece Of The Genetic Puzzle, Brad Broyles 2017 Butler University

Crispr: The Last Piece Of The Genetic Puzzle, Brad Broyles

BU Well

CRISPR/Cas9 is an emerging gene editing tool. This technology, which evolved naturally as a defense mechanism for bacteria and other prokaryotes, has been repurposed to edit genes in a wide array of cells, including human cells. This paper outlines the discovery, mechanism, and potential applications of CRISPR/Cas9.


Adverse Reactions Of Biological Therapies In Patients With Psoriasis, Maria I. Sârbu, Mircea Tampa, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Alexandra M. Limbău, Simona R. Georgescu 2017 Carol Davila University, Department of Dermatology

Adverse Reactions Of Biological Therapies In Patients With Psoriasis, Maria I. Sârbu, Mircea Tampa, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Alexandra M. Limbău, Simona R. Georgescu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder characterized by well demarcated, erythematous plaques covered by thick, silvery-white scales, most often located on the knees, elbows, sacral area and scalp. It has a significant impact on the patient's quality of life.

Biological therapies revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris but there has been concern regarding the use of those agents due to severe adverse reactions reported in patients receiving TNF-α inhibitors for various inflammatory diseases.

The aim of this paper is to review the most important adverse reactions reported in patients receiving biological treatments. The most common and severe side effects ...


Evaluation Of Accurate Dietary Supplement Product Labeling, Laura Hitchcock, Brandon Kong, Hoang Pham, John Redwanski 2016 University of New England

Evaluation Of Accurate Dietary Supplement Product Labeling, Laura Hitchcock, Brandon Kong, Hoang Pham, John Redwanski

Pharmacy Practice Faculty Posters

Herbal supplement sales in the U.S. increased by 7.5% between 2014 and 2015, from $6.441 billion to $6.922 billion, according to newly released data from the Nutrition Business Journal (NBJ). Dietary supplements and over-the-counter medications (OTC’s) do not have to be proven safe or effective before being sold to consumers like prescription medications. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, manufacturers only have to prove their product causes no harm to consumers. Dietary supplement labels are not reliable, since they are not regulated. Without verification a consumer cannot be sure that what ...


Countercurrent Chromatography Fractions Of Plant Extracts With Anti-Tuberculosis Activity, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan C. Krause, Drew Frey, J. Brent Friesen, Baojie Wan, Jordan Gunn, Scott Franzblau 2016 Olivet Nazarene University

Countercurrent Chromatography Fractions Of Plant Extracts With Anti-Tuberculosis Activity, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan C. Krause, Drew Frey, J. Brent Friesen, Baojie Wan, Jordan Gunn, Scott Franzblau

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

Samples of numerous plant species were received from the southwestern part of the USA, from Richard Spjut, and plant samples were collected here in Illinois. All were extracted with typical solvents, giving crude residues, some of which were subjected to chromatographic methods. Some of the crude residues and some of the fractions were tested for anti-tuberculosis activity and/or antibacterial activity.

In a general way, bioactive natural products are dealt with very well by Liang & Fang. More specifically, the southwestern part of the United States has a large variety of indigenous plants many of which have not been investigated for ...


Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, MD, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, MD, Franklin D. Shuler, MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin K is known to play an essential role in the coagulation cascade; however, a growing body of research has found that a subtype of this vitamin, vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may have a beneficial effect in osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature regarding menaquinone and its role in human health. This review discusses the physiology of menaquinone, its clinical benefits in cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, and how it may interact with certain medications. The authors conclude that menaquinone supplementation has been shown to improve carboxylation ...


The Effect Of Luteolin On Human Glioblastoma, David M. Anson, Samson Amos, Robert L. Paris, Denise S. Simpson 2016 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Luteolin On Human Glioblastoma, David M. Anson, Samson Amos, Robert L. Paris, Denise S. Simpson

Robert L. Paris, Ph.D.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is widely recognized as the most common and lethal of the malignant gliomas. Few effective therapeutic treatments are available as five-year survival rates of diagnosed individuals are less than five percent. Luteolin, a common flavonoid found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, has demonstrated significant promise in combating cancers of the breast, colon, liver, lung, and bone. In this study, we investigated the effects of luteolin on glioblastoma multiforme cell lines U-251, U-87, and U-1242. Cell viability was assessed using cell count with trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays. Results revealed that luteolin reduces GBM cell ...


Current Therapeutic Role And Medicinal Potential Of Scutellaria Barbata In Traditional Chinese Medicine And Western Research, Geyang Tao, Marcy J. Balunas 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Current Therapeutic Role And Medicinal Potential Of Scutellaria Barbata In Traditional Chinese Medicine And Western Research, Geyang Tao, Marcy J. Balunas

Honors Scholar Theses

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scutellaria barbata is a common herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) most often used to treat cancer. S. barbata has been found to exhibit efficacy both in vitro and in vivo on a variety of cancer types. Similarly encouraging results have been shown in patients with metastatic breast cancer from Phase Ia and Ib clinical trials. This study aims to elucidate the current use of S. barbata by TCM practitioners and in current Western research.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen TCM practitioners in Beijing and Nanjing, China to understand their clinical use of ...


Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and ...


The Effect Of Luteolin On Human Glioblastoma, David M. Anson, Samson Amos, Robert L. Paris, Denise S. Simpson 2016 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Luteolin On Human Glioblastoma, David M. Anson, Samson Amos, Robert L. Paris, Denise S. Simpson

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is widely recognized as the most common and lethal of the malignant gliomas. Few effective therapeutic treatments are available as five-year survival rates of diagnosed individuals are less than five percent. Luteolin, a common flavonoid found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, has demonstrated significant promise in combating cancers of the breast, colon, liver, lung, and bone. In this study, we investigated the effects of luteolin on glioblastoma multiforme cell lines U-251, U-87, and U-1242. Cell viability was assessed using cell count with trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays. Results revealed that luteolin reduces GBM cell ...


The Effects Of Apigenin On Cell Proliferation And Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme, Trevor Stump, Brittany Santee, Lauren Williams, Chelsae Heinze, Rachel Kunze, Samson Amos, Denise S. Simpson 2016 Cedarville University

The Effects Of Apigenin On Cell Proliferation And Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme, Trevor Stump, Brittany Santee, Lauren Williams, Chelsae Heinze, Rachel Kunze, Samson Amos, Denise S. Simpson

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a WHO grade IV brain tumor. These tumors are highly proliferative, infiltrative, necrotic, angiogenic, and resistant to apoptosis. One major characteristic of GBM is the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which leads to cell growth and proliferation when activated. GBM is very difficult to treat due to its location, heterogeneity, and invasiveness; an effective treatment is therefore needed. The use of flavonoids, which are natural compounds found in many fruits and vegetables, has been studied in the treatment of many different tumor types. Apigenin is a specific flavonoid that has previously been shown to ...


The Influence Of Safety, Efficacy, And Medical Condition Severity On Natural V. Synthetic Drug Preference, Brian P. Meier, Courtney M. Lappas 2016 Gettysburg College

The Influence Of Safety, Efficacy, And Medical Condition Severity On Natural V. Synthetic Drug Preference, Brian P. Meier, Courtney M. Lappas

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research indicates that there is a preference for natural v. synthetic products, but the influence of this preference on drug choice in the medical domain is largely unknown. We present 5 studies in which participants were asked to consider a hypothetical situation in which they had a medical issue requiring pharmacological therapy. Participants ( N = 1223) were asked to select a natural, plant-derived, or synthetic drug. In studies 1a and 1b, approximately 79% of participants selected the natural v. synthetic drug, even though the safety and efficacy of the drugs were identical. Furthermore, participants rated the natural drug as safer than ...


Piperlongumine (Piplartine) And Analogues: Antiproliferative Microtubule-Destabilising Agents, Mary J. Meegan, Seema M. Nathwani, Brendan Twamley, Daniela M. Zisterer, Niamh O'Boyle 2016 Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

Piperlongumine (Piplartine) And Analogues: Antiproliferative Microtubule-Destabilising Agents, Mary J. Meegan, Seema M. Nathwani, Brendan Twamley, Daniela M. Zisterer, Niamh O'Boyle

Articles

Piperlongumine (piplartine, 1) is a small molecule alkaloid that is receiving intense interest due to its antiproliferative and anticancer activities. We investigated the effects of 1 on tubulin and microtubules. Using both an isolated tubulin assay, and a combination of sedimentation and Western blotting, we demonstrated that 1 is a tubulin-destabilising agent. This result was confirmed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, which showed that microtubules in MCF-7 breast cancer cells were depolymerised when treated with 1. We synthesised a number of analogues of 1 to explore structure-activity relationships. Compound 13 had the best cytotoxic profile of this series, showing potent ...


Phytopharmaceuticals In Mongolia: Past, Present, And Future, Disan Gunbilig, Ulziinyam Rentsendorj 2016 Mongolian Academy of Sciences

Phytopharmaceuticals In Mongolia: Past, Present, And Future, Disan Gunbilig, Ulziinyam Rentsendorj

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Over the last two decades, the consumption of medicinal plants has increased in Mongolia. Once banned by the post-revolutionary government, it is now valued by the practitioners of orthodox medicine, government as well as by the society. Yet the scientific community has to give this major and crucial component of traditional Mongolian medicine the attention it deserves, scientific knowledge about biologically active principles within medicinal plants remain poorly unknown. At the same time, due to over exploitation of plants many species are becoming extinct together with invaluable traditional knowledge being lost. For these reasons, there is a certain urgency to ...


The Antioxidant Activity And Their Major Antioxidant Compounds From Acanthopanax Senticosus And A. Koreanum, Young-Hyun Kim, Myoung Lae Cho, Dan-Bi Kim, Gi-Hae Shin, Jin-Ha Lee, Jong Seok Lee, Sun-Ok Park, Sang-Jong Lee, Hyun Mu Shin, Ok-Hwan Lee 2015 Kangwon National University

The Antioxidant Activity And Their Major Antioxidant Compounds From Acanthopanax Senticosus And A. Koreanum, Young-Hyun Kim, Myoung Lae Cho, Dan-Bi Kim, Gi-Hae Shin, Jin-Ha Lee, Jong Seok Lee, Sun-Ok Park, Sang-Jong Lee, Hyun Mu Shin, Ok-Hwan Lee

Open Access Articles

The antioxidant activity and chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid contents were investigated from different parts of Acanthopanax senticosus and A. koreanum. Antioxidant activity was assessed by various in vitro assays such as DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, reducing power assays and ORAC, and the chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were validated by HPLC chromatography. Among the various extracts, the fruit extracts of A. senticosus and A. koreanum exhibited strongest antioxidant activities including ABTS, FRAP, reducing power and ORAC, however, strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed from the leaf extract of A. senticosus. In addition, the antioxidant activities of various extracts were ...


Effect Of Green Tea Extract On Cardiac Hypertrophy Following 5/6 Nephrectomy In The Rat, Snigdha Priyadarshi, Brandon Valentine, Chi Han, Olga Fedorova, Alexei Bagrov, Jiang Liu, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, David Kennedy, Deepak Malhorta, Zijian Xie, Joseph Shapiro 2015 Marshall University

Effect Of Green Tea Extract On Cardiac Hypertrophy Following 5/6 Nephrectomy In The Rat, Snigdha Priyadarshi, Brandon Valentine, Chi Han, Olga Fedorova, Alexei Bagrov, Jiang Liu, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, David Kennedy, Deepak Malhorta, Zijian Xie, Joseph Shapiro

Zijian Xie

Background

Left ventricular hypertrophy commonly complicates chronic renal failure. We have observed that at least one pathway of left ventricular hypertrophy appears to involve signaling through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Green tea is a substance that appears to have substantial antioxidant activity, yet is safe and is currently widely used. We, therefore, studied whether green tea supplementation could attenuate the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in an animal model of chronic renal failure.

Methods

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham or remnant kidney surgery and given green tea extract (0.1% and 0.25%) or plain drinking water for ...


Effect Of Green Tea Extract On Cardiac Hypertrophy Following 5/6 Nephrectomy In The Rat, Snigdha Priyadarshi, Brandon Valentine, Chi Han, Olga Fedorova, Alexei Bagrov, Jiang Liu, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, David Kennedy, Deepak Malhorta, Zijian Xie, Joseph Shapiro 2015 Marshall University

Effect Of Green Tea Extract On Cardiac Hypertrophy Following 5/6 Nephrectomy In The Rat, Snigdha Priyadarshi, Brandon Valentine, Chi Han, Olga Fedorova, Alexei Bagrov, Jiang Liu, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, David Kennedy, Deepak Malhorta, Zijian Xie, Joseph Shapiro

Jiang Liu

Background

Left ventricular hypertrophy commonly complicates chronic renal failure. We have observed that at least one pathway of left ventricular hypertrophy appears to involve signaling through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Green tea is a substance that appears to have substantial antioxidant activity, yet is safe and is currently widely used. We, therefore, studied whether green tea supplementation could attenuate the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in an animal model of chronic renal failure.

Methods

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham or remnant kidney surgery and given green tea extract (0.1% and 0.25%) or plain drinking water for ...


Milking The Information: Resources On Herbal Lactation Aids, Erica Rosalle 2015 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Milking The Information: Resources On Herbal Lactation Aids, Erica Rosalle

PCOM Scholarly Papers

This article provides information for the layperson on herbs commonly used as galactagogues (lactation aids), their effectiveness, and risks according to existing scientific literature. In addition, resources for further research on herbal lactation aids are listed.


The Effects Of Rhein And Thymoquinone On Obesity And Diabetes In Diet-Induced Obese Mice., Emily Martell 2015 University of Rhode ISland

The Effects Of Rhein And Thymoquinone On Obesity And Diabetes In Diet-Induced Obese Mice., Emily Martell

Senior Honors Projects

Natural product extracts and chemicals isolated from natural products (e.g. plants, berries, seeds) have been commonly used in various types of traditional medicines. In addition, some drugs on the market today have been derived from natural product sources. The purpose of our study was to evaluate two natural products, Rhein and Thymoquinone, for as potential anti-diabetic and anti–obesity agents. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), the number of people in the US diagnosed with diabetes has increase from 11.9 million people in the year 2000 to 20.8 million people in the year 2011. Rhein ...


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