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B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips 2017 Seton Hall University

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...


Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi 2017 Chapman University

Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The development of prostate cancer (PCa) relies strongly on the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway by its natural ligand dihydrotestosterone. Furthermore, PCa progression to metastatic disease represents oncogene addiction to AR activity. Androgen ablation therapy is thus a mainstay therapy against this disease, but the development of ligand-independent AR activation and persisting AR expression eventually leads to castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Therefore, down-regulation of AR expression in PCa cells may be an effective therapeutic modality. The diarylpentanoid ca27 has previously been shown to down-regulate AR expression by an unknown mechanism of action. The present work represents a ...


Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Novel Positron Emission Tomography Radiotracers, Christopher Philip Surdock 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Novel Positron Emission Tomography Radiotracers, Christopher Philip Surdock

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial tumor in patients under 1 year of age and it constitutes about 8-10% of all childhood cancer. It originates from neural crest cells that normally differentiate to form the sympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla and other paraspinal sites where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present. Even with an extensive treatment regimen that typically includes surgery, chemotherapy, total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation, the 5-year event-free survival is <50% for high risk patients, and there are numerous long-term side effects associated with treatment. This body of work investigated two projects for improving patient outcomes through the development of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers that could be used for therapy planning. The goal of the first project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate PET radiotracers that could measure the enzymatic activation of Irinotecan (CPT-11), a potent chemotherapeutic used in the treatment of colon cancer and several pediatric solid tumors. CPT-11 itself is a prodrug which is converted in vivo to SN-38, via metabolism by carboxylesterase (CE) enzymes. St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital researchers have designed a two-pronged protocol of tumor-targeted CPT-11 chemotherapy combining the complementary approaches of a) specific modulation of human CE in normal tissues to improve drug delivery, and b) tumor-targeted activation of prodrug using neural progenitor cells (NPC) transfected with a mutant human CE cDNA. The tumor-selective trafficking of NPC allows over-expression of CE within the tumor. This prodrug/activating enzyme therapeutic approach has shown extremely encouraging preclinical results in the treatment of NB (90% 1-year survival in mice). However, successful translation of this novel therapeutic approach into general clinical practice requires a better understanding of progenitor cell trafficking, duration and intensity of enzymatic activity and the ultimate biological fate of the therapeutic construct. Toward this end, PET radiotracers were developed based on extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of CE binding. The goal of the second project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate PET radiotracers that could identify the presence of the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB). TrkB is not normally found in sympathetic nervous tissue, which is the tissue NB develops from, and thus is a potential target for imaging and therapy. The presence of TrkB and its neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been reported to protect neuroblastoma tumor cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis via a phosphatidylinositol 3’-kinase pathway. Radiotracers were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to identify TrkB both in vitro and in vivo. PET radiosynthetic procedures were optimized to synthesize novel radiotracers for imaging targets that could help clinicians monitor therapy or identify markers that would aid in therapy planning for NB patients. The method development could be applied to future compounds that show improved chemical characteristics for synthesis and selectivity.


Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori 2017 University of Rhode Island

Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori

Senior Honors Projects

The genomes of living organisms are under constant bombardment from various sources, including chemical modification stemming from processes within the organisms themselves or from exogenous agents, and from radiation. These sources of genomic damage may induce structural changes in the genome’s most basic functional units, the nucleotides that comprise DNA. Damage to an organism’s DNA may result in the production of dysfunctional or nonfunctional proteins. Failure to repair such damage may result in the compounding of successive mutations within the organism’s genome, the pathogenesis of cancer and various genetic disorders in humans. To ensure their viability, organisms ...


Correlation Study: Student Success In Biochemistry As A Prerequisite For Integrated Pharmacology And Medicinal Chemistry, April Filter, Stacy Lin, Sydney Schultz, Rachel Anderson, Tori Twinem, Denise S. Simpson, Melissa J. Beck 2017 Cedarville University

Correlation Study: Student Success In Biochemistry As A Prerequisite For Integrated Pharmacology And Medicinal Chemistry, April Filter, Stacy Lin, Sydney Schultz, Rachel Anderson, Tori Twinem, Denise S. Simpson, Melissa J. Beck

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Background

A rise in new schools of pharmacy has led to implementation of new curriculums. Pharmacy schools must adhere to standards set by the Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education in order to provide knowledge of foundational sciences and prepare pharmacy students for the future. Prerequisites are typically foundational science courses taken early in the program so that students have the knowledge necessary to be excellent pharmacists. Within the Cedarville University School of Pharmacy, Biochemistry is a prerequisite course for Integrated Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology (PCoMedChem).

Objectives

The goal of this study is to determine if Biochemistry should remain a prerequisite ...


Substituent Strength Vs Reactivity: A Study Of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles And Electron Donating Groups, Katlynn Merringer 2017 Otterbein University

Substituent Strength Vs Reactivity: A Study Of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles And Electron Donating Groups, Katlynn Merringer

Honors Thesis Projects

This investigation focused on determining if there was a relationship between electron donating group substituent strength and resulting percent yield values of the 1,3,4-oxadiazole product. The data obtained from this investigation aimed to help chemists better understand the reactivity of the 1,3,4-oxadiazole because of its importance in the realm of drug design and development. In order to accomplish this, electron donating groups with varying pKa values were placed on the 1,3,4-oxadiazole and the resulting percent yields were analyzed for possible trends. The substituents used represented both resonance donating and inductively donating groups and were ...


Components In Aqueous Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis Flower Extract Inhibit In Vitro Melanoma Cell Growth, Karina H. Goldberg, Ariel C. Yin, Archana Mupparapu, Edward P. Retzbach, Gary S. Goldberg, Catherine F. Yang 2017 Rowan University

Components In Aqueous Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis Flower Extract Inhibit In Vitro Melanoma Cell Growth, Karina H. Goldberg, Ariel C. Yin, Archana Mupparapu, Edward P. Retzbach, Gary S. Goldberg, Catherine F. Yang

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Skin cancer is extremely common, and melanoma causes about 80% of skin cancer deaths. In fact, melanoma kills over 50 thousand people around the world each year, and these numbers are rising. Clearly, standard treatments are not effectively treating melanoma, and alternative therapies are needed to address this problem. Hibiscus tea has been noted to have medicinal properties, including anticancer effects. Extracts from Hibiscus have been shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells. In particular, recent studies found that polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa by organic solvents can inhibit melanoma cell growth. However, effects of aqueous ...


Zyrtec, Ebru Tasken 2017 Parkland College

Zyrtec, Ebru Tasken

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

This is a poster presented at the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College, which provides the chemical makeup, dosage, and the body's response to Zyrtec (Cetirizine) an antihistimine, receptor antagonist used to treat seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticarial.


Demerol, Christena G. Stephens 2017 Parkland College

Demerol, Christena G. Stephens

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

This is a poster presented at the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College, which provides the chemical makeup, dosage, and the body's response to Demerol (Meperidine Hydrochloride) a narcotic analgesic for the relief of acute pain and used in support of preoperative anesthesia.


Emend, Melissa Kramer 2017 Parkland College

Emend, Melissa Kramer

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

This is a poster presented at the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College, which provides the chemical makeup, dosage, and the body's response to Emend (Aperpitant) , a selective substance receptor antagonist used in the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy.


Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Aryl Hydantoins And Ureas As Antischistosomal Agents, Chunkai Wang 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Aryl Hydantoins And Ureas As Antischistosomal Agents, Chunkai Wang

Theses & Dissertations

Schistosomiasis is a tropical parasitic disease caused by infections with flukes of the genus Schistosoma, affecting as many as 440 million individuals worldwide, with 779 million living at risk of infection. A new drug for schistosomiasis is urgently needed as praziquantel (PZQ) is currently the drug of last resort and the development of resistance cannot be ignored, particularly in view of its large-scale use in many endemic countries. Furthermore, PZQ is active against adult but not juvenile schistosomes; this may be an important factor in the frequently observed treatment ‘failures’ in areas endemic for schistosomiasis.

The introduction of PZQ in ...


Adoption Of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion For The Reduction Of Postoperative Pain, Brandon Scott Figueiredo 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Adoption Of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion For The Reduction Of Postoperative Pain, Brandon Scott Figueiredo

Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects

Laparoscopic capability provides numerous benefits to patients requiring abdominal surgical procedures. However, the use of these techniques has presented the anesthesia provider with a unique set of challenges in terms of perioperative management and postoperative pain reduction. No standardized method has existed to reduce postoperative pain and improve recovery following these procedures. There were three primary goals of this project. The first goal was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the benefit of the use of intravenous lidocaine infusions to reduce postoperative pain in laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Twelve articles were included in the meta-analysis that pertained ...


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation Of Na/K-Atpase Regulates Fibrosis And Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling, Jiang Liu, David J. Kennedy, Yanling Yan, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Marshall University

Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation Of Na/K-Atpase Regulates Fibrosis And Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling, Jiang Liu, David J. Kennedy, Yanling Yan, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Yanling Yan

The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT) sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in ...


Patient Portals In Pharmacist-Run Ambulatory Care Clinics: Is There “Meaningful Use”?, H. Paige Erdeljac, Melissa J. Snider, Kelly Bartsch, Raul Weiss 2016 The Arthur G. James Comprehensive Cancer Center

Patient Portals In Pharmacist-Run Ambulatory Care Clinics: Is There “Meaningful Use”?, H. Paige Erdeljac, Melissa J. Snider, Kelly Bartsch, Raul Weiss

Excerpts in Pharmacy Research Journal

Objective

The purpose of this study is to describe patient portal utilization within pharmacist-managed clinics at an academic medical center from the perspectives of the institution, healthcare team, and patient. This study measures the progress toward meeting requirements for meaningful use per the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).

Methods

The study included patients in pharmacist-managed clinics and consisted of a retrospective chart review and patient survey. Primary endpoints consisted of: 1) report progress toward meeting CMS criteria for meaningful use in subset of patients seen in the pharmacy-managed clinics, 2) describe utilization of patient portal across the healthcare ...


Lack Of Cross-Reactivity Allergy Following A Switch From Alirocumab To Evolocumab, Matthew D. Stryker, Michael Kane, Robert Busch 2016 Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Lack Of Cross-Reactivity Allergy Following A Switch From Alirocumab To Evolocumab, Matthew D. Stryker, Michael Kane, Robert Busch

Excerpts in Pharmacy Research Journal

The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene and gain-of-function mutations were first described in 2003. The gain-of-function mutations observed were associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the 400’s, in addition to premature cardiovascular disease. Subsequent loss-of-function experiments conducted in mice demonstrated marked reductions in plasma cholesterol levels in the absence of PCSK9. Physiologically, PCSK9 serves as a chaperone protein and functions to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor recycling; consequently, less LDL-C is removed from circulation and serum lipid concentrations become elevated. Inhibition of PCSK9 prevents LDL receptor degradation and preserves receptor recycling to the hepatocyte surface ...


Modeling With Medicinal Chemistry: Practical Innovative Technology-Based Activity To Enhance Student’S Learning Through Inter-Departmental Collaboration: Part I, Miriam Ansong, Denise Simpson, Nicole K. Stute 2016 Cedarville University

Modeling With Medicinal Chemistry: Practical Innovative Technology-Based Activity To Enhance Student’S Learning Through Inter-Departmental Collaboration: Part I, Miriam Ansong, Denise Simpson, Nicole K. Stute

Excerpts in Pharmacy Research Journal

Background: Concepts of formulary management and its applications in clinical practice is a challenge faced by many first professional year pharmacy students. This challenge may be attributed to a lack of foundational knowledge and practical skills at this level. Preparing students for lifelong learning mandates early exposure to practical application of concepts. This warrants the need for students to integrate knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes in clinical practice. As a result, a state-of-the-art one stop shopping structure of the day (SOD) activity was created for P1 pharmacy students to enable the authors to assess their skill sets.

Objective: The objective ...


Research And Publication Highlights, Miriam Ansong 2016 Cedarville University

Research And Publication Highlights, Miriam Ansong

Excerpts in Pharmacy Research Journal

Bibliography of completed research and book chapters


Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel 2016 Seton Hall University

Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Over the past two decades, advances in RNA structural biology have improved our understanding of the structures and folding properties of naturally occurring RNAs. RNA sequences and structures participate in many specific biological functions, such as those performed by messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), short-interfering RNA (siRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and many others. The noncoding RNAs, such as siRNA, do not express proteins but have been utilized in a wide range of applications, including RNA interference (RNAi) and the regulation of mRNA expression. These important biological functions have been implemented in gene ...


Repeated Zolpidem Treatment Effects On Sedative Tolerance, Withdrawal, Mrna Levels, And Protein Expression, Brittany T. Wright 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Repeated Zolpidem Treatment Effects On Sedative Tolerance, Withdrawal, Mrna Levels, And Protein Expression, Brittany T. Wright

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Zolpidem and benzodiazepines (BZs) potentiate the inhibitory action of gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by allosterically binding to GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Prolonged use of GABAAR positive allosteric modulators (PAM) can lead to behavioral tolerance, the diminished response to the same drug dose with repeated use, and withdrawal, a group of symptoms that occur due to abrupt end of drug treatment. Zolpidem is a short-acting, non-BZ GABAAR PAM whose potential for tolerance and withdrawal is unclear. Zolpidem demonstrates sedative efficacy similar to BZs and has become a main treatment of insomnia in lieu of BZs. Zolpidem replaced BZs due to lower incidences of ...


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