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Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function In Guinea Pig Airway Nerves Via Indirect Mechanisms, Becky J. Proskocil, Donald A. Bruun, Charles M. Thompson, Allison D. Fryer, Pamela J. Lein 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function In Guinea Pig Airway Nerves Via Indirect Mechanisms, Becky J. Proskocil, Donald A. Bruun, Charles M. Thompson, Allison D. Fryer, Pamela J. Lein

Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on ...


The Significance Of A Triple Flexion Reflex In The Acute Spinal Cord Injured Patient: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, S. K. Fetouh, S. Kolli, R. J. Marino, N. D. Martin, A. L. Schreiber 2010 Thomas Jefferson University

The Significance Of A Triple Flexion Reflex In The Acute Spinal Cord Injured Patient: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, S. K. Fetouh, S. Kolli, R. J. Marino, N. D. Martin, A. L. Schreiber

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine Faculty Papers

The TFR is a sign of upper motor neuron impairment. It does not typically appear for several days after an injury but in patients with pre-existing myelopathy, an early onset exaggerated Babinski response exhibited as a TFR may occur. It is important not to misinterpret such responses as volitional movements, particularly in patients with cognitive dysfunction where the history and physical examination may be limited. Failure to immobilize the spine and to administer adjunct steroid therapy may be detrimental to the patient. Education of initial response physicians may prevent overlooking an acute SCI.


Female Condom Knowledge, Attributes And Behavior: Barriers To Use And Potential For Acceptance Among Sexually Active Undergraduate Students, Paige Nuzzolillo 6368479 2010 University of Connecticut

Female Condom Knowledge, Attributes And Behavior: Barriers To Use And Potential For Acceptance Among Sexually Active Undergraduate Students, Paige Nuzzolillo 6368479

Honors Scholar Theses

Minimal research has been conducted on the acceptability of the female condom among college populations despite its existence in the world market since 1992. The FC2, an improved version of FC1, has recently been released in the United States, thus prompting the need for further acceptability studies. Due to increasingly high rates of STDs among those aged 15-24, every method of protection against STDs/HIV and pregnancy must be utilized. This study involved a campus-wide survey which examined University of Connecticut (Uconn) main campus (Storrs) undergraduate students’ knowledge of the female condom, perceptions of and attitudes towards the female condom ...


Calling On Science: Making “Alternatives” The New Gold Standard, Melvin E. Andersen 2010 The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences

Calling On Science: Making “Alternatives” The New Gold Standard, Melvin E. Andersen

in Vitro Research Models Collection

All of life’s great journeys start with a goal in mind! The 2007 NAS report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century – A Vision and A Strategy, has proposed a clear goal. This report envisions a not-so-distant future where all routine toxicity testing for environmental agents will be conducted in human cells in vitro evaluating perturbations of cellular responses in a suite of toxicity pathway assays. Dose response modeling would utilize computational systems biology models of the circuitry underlying each toxicity pathway; in vitro to in vivo extrapolations would use pharmacokinetic models, ideally physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, to predict human ...


Are Violence-Tolerant Individuals More Susceptible To Involvement In Violent/Risky Behaviors?, Justine Egan 2010 University of Rhode Island

Are Violence-Tolerant Individuals More Susceptible To Involvement In Violent/Risky Behaviors?, Justine Egan

Senior Honors Projects

The Center for Nonviolence and Peace Studies at the University of Rhode Island’s mission is to promote nonviolence at the national/international level through the use of education and training. This occurs through the involvement of projects which provide understanding to people on nonviolence theory and practice. Embracing this mission, my study examined individual views on violent behaviors and whether this correlated to their involvement in violent/risky behaviors.

Participants were 348 students, 120 males and 254 females from a general psychology course at the University of Rhode Island. The sample was similar in characteristics to the smaller sample ...


The Lived Experience Of College Sudents Who Have Been Medicated With Antidepressants, Pamela Joan Aselton 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Lived Experience Of College Sudents Who Have Been Medicated With Antidepressants, Pamela Joan Aselton

Open Access Dissertations

Increasingly in the last two decades college students have been diagnosed with depression, with estimates of major depression higher than the general population (American Psychiatric Association {APA}, 2005). According to the literature, the stresses of college life along with increased rates of substance abuse, and binge drinking have contributed to the rise in depression in this population. In a large survey of American college students, over half reported some depression since entering college (National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse {NCASA}, 2003). Correspondingly, the percentage of young people treated with antidepressants has grown over the past decade, and there is ...


The Relationship Of Clinical Quality, Performance Improvement, And Internal Risk Scores In Nursing Homes, Svea Emerson 2010 Olivet Nazarene University

The Relationship Of Clinical Quality, Performance Improvement, And Internal Risk Scores In Nursing Homes, Svea Emerson

Ed.D. Dissertations

A clinical quality review (CQR) assessing high-risk areas as staffing, change in condition, and pressure ulcers (PU) was completed in 31 nursing homes. Scores between the assigned clinician and the researcher were analyzed using paired t-tests and Pearson r correlations. Average scores for staffing were reliable, while the PU and change in condition scores were significantly different. Individual staffing, 6 of 9 change in condition, and 9 of 18 PU questions were reliable and consistent. Multiple regressions compared relationships between performance improvement (PI), internal risk, and CQR scores with various results. The internal risk and PI scores were inversely related ...


Improving Sexual Health, P.U.L.S.E., And E.R.O.S. At California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Megan (Meg) Rust 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Improving Sexual Health, P.U.L.S.E., And E.R.O.S. At California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Megan (Meg) Rust

Psychology and Child Development

This project is designed to update and refine EROS educators’ knowledge of sexual health and to gain insight into Cal Poly students’ general knowledge of sexual health. Educators are given extensive training during the entire quarter before they begin their positions, but information is constantly changing. This project intends to initiate up to date informational tools that can be revised as new psychological or medical discoveries are made in the realm of sexuality and sexual health.


The Design And Synthesis Of Novel Antimicrobial Agents For Use In The Battle Against Bacterial Resistance, Joshua Randal Brown 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Design And Synthesis Of Novel Antimicrobial Agents For Use In The Battle Against Bacterial Resistance, Joshua Randal Brown

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

There is an ever increasing need to develop new antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms of action. These new agents will help to combat the steady rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria which are becoming more and more difficult to treat due to the dwindling number of antibiotics available to treat such organisms. This body of work brings to light the many ways in which medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents. Chapter 1 is an introduction into antimicrobial agents. It provides a brief history of the discovery of antimicrobial agents, and delves into reasons why new ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Azole antifungal resistance has emerged as a significant problem in the management of infections caused by fungi including Candida species. In recent years, Candida glabrata has become the second most common cause of mucosal and invasive fungal infections in humans second to Candida albicans. Not only are systemic C. glabrata infections characterized by high mortality rates, treatment failures to the azole class of antifungals, the most widely used antifungal for treatment of Candida infections, have been reported. Contributing to this problem, C. glabrata exhibits intrinsic reduced susceptibility to the azole antifungals, and the development of high-level azole resistance during ...


Robotic Simulation Of Disc Arthroplasty Surgery: Influence Of Surgical Placement On Motion Segment Dynamics, Braham K. Dhillon 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Robotic Simulation Of Disc Arthroplasty Surgery: Influence Of Surgical Placement On Motion Segment Dynamics, Braham K. Dhillon

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

A variety of total disc replacement (TDR) designs exist for the treatment of disc pathologies. A key design parameter for a constrained ball and socket device is the location of the fixed center of rotation (COR). A previous study demonstrated that intact motion segment unit (MSU) mechanics and range of motion (ROM) were sensitive to the location of a prescribed sagittal plane rotational axis. Mal-alignment between the implant COR and the COR of the MSU may lead to an overloaded or over constrained condition.

Two paradigms exist for the placement of a fixed COR TDR device relative to MSU anatomy ...


Evaluating The Impact Of The Guatemalan Nursing Program On Staff, Organizational, And Clinical Outcomes, Sara Williamson Day 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Evaluating The Impact Of The Guatemalan Nursing Program On Staff, Organizational, And Clinical Outcomes, Sara Williamson Day

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

There is great disparity between the outcome of childhood cancer in developed and developing countries. Nurses, who comprise the largest group of health care professionals globally, are essential to successful treatment. Pediatric oncology education is generally unavailable for nurses in developing countries. This lack of education is likely to contribute to the disparity in survival rates, as undereducated nurses are unable to meet the demands of pediatric cancer care. A second critical problem in developing countries is the workload of the nurse, with a patient nurse ratio reported as high as 30 patients per one nurse.

In 2006, the quality ...


H5n1 Influenza Virus Induces A Parkinsonian Pathology, Haeman Jang 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

H5n1 Influenza Virus Induces A Parkinsonian Pathology, Haeman Jang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The greatest threat for an influenza pandemic at this time is posed by the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. To date, 63% of the 436 known human cases of H5N1 infection have proven fatal. Animals infected by H5N1 viruses have demonstrated acute neurological signs ranging from mild encephalitis to motor disturbances and coma. However, no studies have examined the longer-term neurologic consequences of H5N1 infection. We show that this virus travels from the peripheral nervous system into the central nervous system (CNS) to higher levels of the neuroaxis, using C57BL/6J mice that are infected by the A/VN ...


Preosteoblast Behavior On A Synthetic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold Coated With Cell Derived Matrix, Daniel A. Young 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Preosteoblast Behavior On A Synthetic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold Coated With Cell Derived Matrix, Daniel A. Young

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Bone grafts are commonly used for the treatment of large bone defects. Biodegradable, synthetic bone grafts combined with cells and growth factors as a tissue engineered construct can provide benefits over the common autografts and allografts currently used. Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials offer high biocompatibility and chemical similarity to natural bone tissue. Biodegradable beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds with an interconnected porous network have been created to promote tissue ingrowth and regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Extracellular matrix (ECM) coated on titanium and polymer scaffolds has been shown to improve cell response to those material surfaces. Here, we attempted to ...


A National Survey Of Oral Health Curriculum In All U.S. Allopathic And Osteopathic Medical Schools, Ashley Ferullo, Hugh Silk, Judith A. Savageau 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A National Survey Of Oral Health Curriculum In All U.S. Allopathic And Osteopathic Medical Schools, Ashley Ferullo, Hugh Silk, Judith A. Savageau

Senior Scholars Program

Background:Oral Health (OH) is an important topic and area of medicine that all physicians should understand and that has become a more pressing issue in the last decade. OH is clearly tied to overall health and a number of systemic diseases, such as diabetes, immune disorders and infectious diseases, are known to have oral manifestations. Likewise, a number of oral diseases have systemic manifestations. (Migliorati, 2007). Oral disease and oral health issues affect all ages from infancy through adulthood. Childhood caries affect up to 25% of children in the U.S. and can lead to a lifetime of other ...


Ophthalmology Education In Medical School Curriculum Design: Assessing The Home Front, Teri T. Kleinberg, Shalesh Kaushal, George Asdourian 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ophthalmology Education In Medical School Curriculum Design: Assessing The Home Front, Teri T. Kleinberg, Shalesh Kaushal, George Asdourian

Senior Scholars Program

Background:As medical education moves towards integrated programs, ophthalmology is being increasingly pushed towards the sidelines. It is important for all future physicians, and especially those going into primary care, to have competency in examining the eye and identifying basic pathology in order to better serve their patients.

Objectives:The purpose of this study was to assess the self-perceived competence in the basic eye exam by medical students at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The secondary purpose was to compare this assessment to medical education content from nationwide medical schools.

Methods:The study sample consisted of 273 University of ...


The Utility Of Complete Skin Examinations, Erik Domingues, Dori Goldberg, Leah Belazarian, Jeffrey D. Mailhot 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Utility Of Complete Skin Examinations, Erik Domingues, Dori Goldberg, Leah Belazarian, Jeffrey D. Mailhot

Senior Scholars Program

Background:

Complete skin examinations (CSE’s), also known as full body skin examinations (FBSE’s), are routinely performed on new patients presenting to dermatology clinics with the goal of detecting pre-malignant and malignant cutaneous lesions, resulting in decreased morbidity and mortality. Current literature is limited, focusing solely on neoplasm detection. One recent retrospective study demonstrated the utility of FBSE’s in the early detection of melanoma in a private practice setting.(1) Data combining the discovery of incidental cutaneous neoplasms and premalignancies on CSE by a dermatologist is not readily available.

Currently, groups such as the United States Preventive Forces ...


Gestational Weight Gain: How To “Institute” New Guidelines, Gina M. Tassone, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Robert E. Berry, Jr, Xun Liao 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gestational Weight Gain: How To “Institute” New Guidelines, Gina M. Tassone, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Robert E. Berry, Jr, Xun Liao

Senior Scholars Program

Presented as part of the Senior Scholars Program at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, May 3, 2010.


Tetrahydroisoquinoline Neurotoxins In Parkinson Disease, Michael G. DeCuypere 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Tetrahydroisoquinoline Neurotoxins In Parkinson Disease, Michael G. Decuypere

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The goal of this dissertation work was to (1) determine the distribution of several tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) derivatives in rodent, normal human and Parkinson disease (PD) brain, (2) quantify the levels of these TIQ derivatives in common food sources in an effort to link specific food intake patterns with the development of PD and (3) examine the neurotoxicity of select TIQ derivatives in human dopaminergic cell culture. The TIQs are a family of monoamine alkaloids that share structural homology with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyrdropyridine (MPTP), can be formed from dopamine or its oxidized metabolites and may be involved in the pathogenesis ...


Tdiscovery And Development Of Novel Therapeutic Agents For Advanced Melanoma, Zhao Wang 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Tdiscovery And Development Of Novel Therapeutic Agents For Advanced Melanoma, Zhao Wang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer and accounts for about 75% of skin cancer deaths. Once diagnosed at the metastatic stage, it has a very poor prognosis with a median survival rate of 6 months and a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. In addition, melanoma has become an important public health hazard owing to its rising incidence, which has been well documented over the past 50 years. Currently there is no effective way to treat melanoma. It is highly resistant to existing chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. Over the past 30 years, only two drugs ...


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