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Using The Stages Of Change Model To Choose An Optimal Health Marketing Target, Paula Diehr, Peggy A. Hannon, Barbara Pizacani, Mark Forehand, Jeffrey Harris, Hendrika Meischke, Susan J. Curry, Diane P. Martin, Marcia R. Weaver 2010 University of Washington

Using The Stages Of Change Model To Choose An Optimal Health Marketing Target, Paula Diehr, Peggy A. Hannon, Barbara Pizacani, Mark Forehand, Jeffrey Harris, Hendrika Meischke, Susan J. Curry, Diane P. Martin, Marcia R. Weaver

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Background: In the transtheoretical model of behavior change, “stages of change” are defined as Precontemplation (not even thinking about changing), Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance (maintaining the behavior change). Marketing principles suggest that efforts should be targeted at persons most likely to “buy the product.”

Objectives: To examine the effect of intervening at different stages in populations of smokers, with various numbers of people in each “stage of change.” One type of intervention would increase by 10% the probability of a person moving to the next higher stage of change, such as from Precontemplation to Contemplation. The second type would ...


Use Of Parthenolide Derivatives As Antileukemic And Cytotoxic Agents, Peter A. Crooks, Craig T. Jordan, Xiaochen Wei 2010 University of Kentucky

Use Of Parthenolide Derivatives As Antileukemic And Cytotoxic Agents, Peter A. Crooks, Craig T. Jordan, Xiaochen Wei

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Patents

To view this abstract, please download this patent.


Theta-Activity In Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Task Rules And Their Adjustments Following Errors, Thilo Womelsdorf, Kevin Johnston, Martin Vinck, Stefan Everling 2010 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5K8,Canada

Theta-Activity In Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Task Rules And Their Adjustments Following Errors, Thilo Womelsdorf, Kevin Johnston, Martin Vinck, Stefan Everling

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

Accomplishing even simple tasks depend on neuronal circuits to configure how incoming sensory stimuli map onto responses. Controlling these stimulus-response (SR) mapping rules relies on a cognitive control network comprising the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Single neurons within the ACC convey information about currently relevant SR mapping rules and signal unexpected action outcomes, which can be used to optimize behavioral choices. However, its functional significance and the mechanistic means of interaction with other nodes of the cognitive control network remain elusive and poorly understood. Here, we report that core aspects of cognitive control are encoded by rhythmic theta-band activity within ...


Maternal Autonomy As A Protective Factor In Child Nutritional Outcome In Tanzania, Hannah Murphy Ross-Suits 2010 Georgia State University

Maternal Autonomy As A Protective Factor In Child Nutritional Outcome In Tanzania, Hannah Murphy Ross-Suits

Public Health Theses

Child malnutrition is a problem in all countries and centers in poorer communities. Biological and socioeconomic factors alike contribute to malnutrition with recent studies focusing on aspects of maternal autonomy as an influencing factor. In this study, maternal autonomy is defined as the independence in her actions and control over resources a mother has within her household and is made up of several factors, including decision-making power, opinion of domestic abuse, and financial independence. Child nutritional outcomes were operationalized using the anthropometric measures height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ), and weight-for-age (WAZ). For this study, the 2004-2005 Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey ...


Eicosapentaenoic Acid Preserves Diaphragm Force Generation Following Endotoxin Administration, Gerald S. Supinski, Jonas Vanags, Leigh Ann Callahan 2010 University of Kentucky

Eicosapentaenoic Acid Preserves Diaphragm Force Generation Following Endotoxin Administration, Gerald S. Supinski, Jonas Vanags, Leigh Ann Callahan

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Infections produce severe respiratory muscle weakness, which contributes to the development of respiratory failure. An effective, safe therapy to prevent respiratory muscle dysfunction in infected patients has not been defined. This study examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an immunomodulator that can be safely administered to patients, on diaphragm force generation following endotoxin administration.

METHODS: Rats were administered the following (n = 5/group): (a) saline, (b) endotoxin, 12 mg/kg IP, (c) endotoxin + EPA (1.0 g/kg/d), and (d) EPA alone. Diaphragms were removed and measurements made of the diaphragm force-frequency curve, calpain activation, caspase activation ...


The N400 Event-Related Potential In Children Across Sentence Type And Ear Condition, Laurie Anne Hansen 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

The N400 Event-Related Potential In Children Across Sentence Type And Ear Condition, Laurie Anne Hansen

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the neurophysiology of semantic language processing in children, ages 5 to 12 years. A well-established marker of semantic processing, the N400 event related potential (ERP), was analyzed within and across child age groups. Child N400s were recorded in response to correct sentences, semantically incorrect sentences, and syntactically incorrect sentences. N400s were also recorded across ear condition to examine potential processing differences. Children across all age groups consistently demonstrated N400s in the semantic error condition. N400s were also regularly observed in the syntactic error condition; especially, for younger children. Younger children also demonstrated N400s even in response to ...


Trends In Salmonella Enteric Serovar Typhi In Nairobi, Kenya From 2004 To 2006, Doris M. Mengo1, Sam Kariuki, Ann W. T. Muigai, Gunturu Revathi 2010 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

Trends In Salmonella Enteric Serovar Typhi In Nairobi, Kenya From 2004 To 2006, Doris M. Mengo1, Sam Kariuki, Ann W. T. Muigai, Gunturu Revathi

Pathology, East Africa

Background: Typhoid fever is a global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the current annual global burden of typhoid is approximately 22 million new cases, 5% of which are fatal.

Methodology: To assess the trends in antibiotic resistance in 100 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains were isolated from the blood of patients in Nairobi, Kenya, from 2004 to 2006. All isolates were tested against ampicilin, chloramphenic, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefriaxone, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, tetracycline and gentamycin. Susceptibility and resistance were determined using MIC and disk diffusion tests.

Results: From 2004 to 2006 a total of ...


Engagement In Mental Health Treatment Among Veterans Returning From Iraq, Tracy Stecker, John Fortney, Francis Hamilton, Cathy D. Sherbourne, Icek Ajzen 2010 Dartmouth College

Engagement In Mental Health Treatment Among Veterans Returning From Iraq, Tracy Stecker, John Fortney, Francis Hamilton, Cathy D. Sherbourne, Icek Ajzen

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq.

Methods: Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder ...


Differential Effects Of Out-Of-Home Day Care In Improving Child Nutrition And Augmenting Maternal Income Among Those With And Without Childcare Support: A Prospective Before–After Comparison Study In Pokhara, Nepal, Shinji Nakahara, Krishna Poudel, Milan Lopchan, Om Raj Poudel, Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Masao Ichikawa 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Differential Effects Of Out-Of-Home Day Care In Improving Child Nutrition And Augmenting Maternal Income Among Those With And Without Childcare Support: A Prospective Before–After Comparison Study In Pokhara, Nepal, Shinji Nakahara, Krishna Poudel, Milan Lopchan, Om Raj Poudel, Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Masao Ichikawa

Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar

Objectives: We examined (1) whether attending out-of-home day care centres (DCCs) has differential effects on improvement of child nutrition and facilitation of maternal employment
depending on availability of non-institutionalised childcare support and (2) whether attendance increases infectious diseases.
Methods: In a prospective before–after comparison study at public DCCs in Pokhara, Nepal, we compared weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) among children
attending DCCs between at admission, after 6 months, and after 1 year and determined differential changes in these measures between those with and without appropriate childcare support. We used repeated measures analysis of variance with interaction terms ...


The Prevalence And Causes Of Vision Loss In Indigenous Australians: The National Indigenous Eye Health Survey, Hugh R. Taylor, Jing Xie, Sarah Fox, Ross A. Dunn, Anna-Lena Arnold, Jill E. Keeffe 2010 Western University

The Prevalence And Causes Of Vision Loss In Indigenous Australians: The National Indigenous Eye Health Survey, Hugh R. Taylor, Jing Xie, Sarah Fox, Ross A. Dunn, Anna-Lena Arnold, Jill E. Keeffe

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

Aim: To determine the prevalence and causes of vision loss in Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants: A national, stratified, random cluster sample was drawn from 30 communities across Australia that each included about 300 Indigenous people of all ages. A sample of non-Indigenous adults aged 􏱄 40 years was also tested at several remote sites for comparison. Participants were examined using a standardised protocol that included a questionnaire (self-administered or completed with the help of field staff), visual acuity (VA) testing on presentation and after correction, visual field testing, trachoma grading, and fundus and lens photography. The data were collected ...


Animal Health Matters, Russ Daly, David H. Zeman 2010 South Dakota State University

Animal Health Matters, Russ Daly, David H. Zeman

Animal Health MATTERS Newsletter

[Page] 1- Iraqi Veterinarian Brings Veterinary-and Life-Experiences to ADRDL [Page] 2- Director's Message — Tomorrow’s Veterinarians and the NAVMEC [Page] 2- Veterinarians with Current USDA Accreditation: Note Program Changes [Page] 4- The Virology Section at SDSU’s ADRDL [Page] 5- Fish Health and Diagnostics Update Pieces and Parts [Page] 6- VSD Faculty Members Honored at SDSU Faculty Recognition Event [Page] 6- ADRDL Assists AIB in Bovine Tuberculosis Diagnostics [Page] 6- 2010 Bailey Herd Health Conference a Success [Page] 6- Faculty Members Attend “Animal Welfare in Veterinary Education and Research” Symposium [Page] 7- Calf Scours Submission Reminders [Page] 7- Calendar ...


Opportunity Now For Paralympics To Grab N. American Spotlight, Rick Burton, Norm O'Relly 2010 Syracuse University

Opportunity Now For Paralympics To Grab N. American Spotlight, Rick Burton, Norm O'Relly

Sport Management

No abstract provided.


Ethics In Conduct Of Trials In Developing Countries, Charles Weijer 2010 Selected Works

Ethics In Conduct Of Trials In Developing Countries, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Endogenous Small Rnas In The Drosophila Soma: A Dissertation, Megha Ghildiyal 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endogenous Small Rnas In The Drosophila Soma: A Dissertation, Megha Ghildiyal

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNAs have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate.

Historically, siRNAs were believed to arise only from exogenous double-stranded RNA triggers in organisms lacking RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, the discovery of endogenous siRNAs in flies expanded the biological significance of siRNAs beyond viral defense. By high throughput sequencing we identified Drosophila endosiRNAs as 21 nt small RNAs, bearing a 2´-O ...


Bold Signal In Both Ipsilateral And Contralateral Retinotopic Cortex Modulates With Perceptual Fading, Po-Jang Hsieh, Peter U. Tse 2010 Dartmouth College

Bold Signal In Both Ipsilateral And Contralateral Retinotopic Cortex Modulates With Perceptual Fading, Po-Jang Hsieh, Peter U. Tse

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

Under conditions of visual fixation, perceptual fading occurs when a stationary object, though present in the world and continually casting light upon the retina, vanishes from visual consciousness. The neural correlates of the consciousness of such an object will presumably modulate in activity with the onset and cessation of perceptual fading.

Method: In order to localize the neural correlates of perceptual fading, a green disk that had been individually set to be equiluminant with the orange background, was presented in one of the four visual quadrants; Subjects indicated with a button press whether or not the disk was subjectively visible ...


Glycemic Control: Risk Factors, Quality Of Life, Workforce Participation, And Mortality Among Us Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Evelyn P. Davila 2010 Florida International University

Glycemic Control: Risk Factors, Quality Of Life, Workforce Participation, And Mortality Among Us Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Evelyn P. Davila

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite research showing the benefits of glycemic control, it remains suboptimal among adults with diabetes in the United States. Possible reasons include unaddressed risk factors as well as lack of awareness of its immediate and long term consequences. The objectives of this study were to, using cross-sectional data, 1) ascertain the association between suboptimal (Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥7%), borderline (HbA1c 7-8.9%), and poor (HbA1c ≥9%) glycemic control and potentially new risk factors (e.g. work characteristics), and 2) assess whether aspects of poor health and well-being such as poor health related quality of life (HRQOL), unemployment, and missed-work are ...


Spontaneous Contractions Of The Pig Urinary Bladder: The Effect Of Atp-Sensitive Potassium Channels And The Role Of The Mucosa, Hironobu Akino, Christopher Chapple, Neil McKay, Rebecca Cross, Shigetaka Murakami, Osamu Yokoyama, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Sellers 2010 Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK

Spontaneous Contractions Of The Pig Urinary Bladder: The Effect Of Atp-Sensitive Potassium Channels And The Role Of The Mucosa, Hironobu Akino, Christopher Chapple, Neil Mckay, Rebecca Cross, Shigetaka Murakami, Osamu Yokoyama, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Sellers

Donna Sellers

To investigate the influence of the mucosa on the inhibitory effects of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) opener, cromakalim, on the spontaneous contractions of pig bladder strips from the bladder dome and trigone. Little is known about the influence of the mucosa on spontaneous contractions and whether the nature of these contractions differs between the bladder dome and trigone.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Paired longitudinal strips of female pig bladders were isolated from the dome and trigone. The mucosa was removed from one strip per pair and tissues were set up in organ baths. Spontaneous activity was allowed to develop ...


Foxo1 Plays An Essential Role In Apoptosis Of Retinal Pericytes, Mani Alikhani, Sayon Roy, Dana T. Graves 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Foxo1 Plays An Essential Role In Apoptosis Of Retinal Pericytes, Mani Alikhani, Sayon Roy, Dana T. Graves

Departmental Papers (Dental)

Purpose: An early and significant event in diabetic retinopathy is the loss of retinal microvascular pericytes. Studies were performed to investigate pathways through which an advanced glycation endproduct and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulate apoptosis in retinal pericytes through the activation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1).

Methods: Human retinal pericytes were stimulated by carboxymethyllysine (CML)-collagen, an advanced glycation endproduct, or TNF-α in vitro. Apoptosis was assessed by measuring cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA. The role of FOXO1 was examined by RNA interference (RNAi), and specific inhibitors were used to investigate the role of p38 and Jun ...


The Ryan White Hiv/Aids Program, Jessamyn Taylor 2010 George Washington University

The Ryan White Hiv/Aids Program, Jessamyn Taylor

National Health Policy Forum

This publication describes the basics of the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, the largest federal program solely focused on treating people living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. The program funds cities, states, and community-based organizations to provide primary care, prescription drugs, and support services to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured people living with HIV/AIDS.


Magnetic Nanoformulation Of Azidothymidine 5’-Triphosphate For Targeted Delivery Across The Blood–Brain Barrier, Zainulabedin M. Saiyed, Nimisha H. Gandhi, Madhavan Nair 2010 Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University

Magnetic Nanoformulation Of Azidothymidine 5’-Triphosphate For Targeted Delivery Across The Blood–Brain Barrier, Zainulabedin M. Saiyed, Nimisha H. Gandhi, Madhavan Nair

HWCOM Faculty Publications

Despite significant advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence of neuroAIDS remains high. This is mainly attributed to inability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), thus resulting in insufficient drug concentration within the brain. Therefore, development of an active drug targeting system is an attractive strategy to increase the efficacy and delivery of ART to the brain. We report herein development of magnetic azidothymidine 5’-triphosphate (AZTTP) liposomal nanoformulation and its ability to transmigrate across an in vitro BBB model by application of an external magnetic field. We hypothesize that this magnetically guided ...


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