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Immunohistochemical Mapping Of Hypoxia In Ischemic Mouse Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle, Emily Deckert 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Immunohistochemical Mapping Of Hypoxia In Ischemic Mouse Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle, Emily Deckert

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

The study of blood vessel growth and remodeling is a complex endeavor. Hypoxia, the lack of oxygen in a tissue, is known to stimulate angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels), and have little effect on arteriogenesis (the enlargement of existing blood vessels). However, the role of hypoxia in vessel function is unknown, but may be determined using the results and methods developed in this experiment.

Supplied by the bloodstream, oxygen is required by all cells and tissues to remain healthy. If the bloodstream supplying a certain tissue with blood is disrupted, the tissue becomes ischemic, often leading to hypoxia ...


Avian-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strains Are Similar To Neonatal Meningitis E. Coli Strains And Are Able To Cause Meningitis In The Rat Model Of Human Disease, Kelly A. Tivendale, Catherine M. Logue, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Dianna Jordan, Ashraf Hussein, Ganwu Li, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Lisa K. Nolan 2010 Iowa State University

Avian-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strains Are Similar To Neonatal Meningitis E. Coli Strains And Are Able To Cause Meningitis In The Rat Model Of Human Disease, Kelly A. Tivendale, Catherine M. Logue, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Dianna Jordan, Ashraf Hussein, Ganwu Li, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Escherichia coli strains causing avian colibacillosis and human neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, and septicemia are collectively known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Characterization of ExPEC strains using various typing techniques has shown that they harbor many similarities, despite their isolation from different host species, leading to the hypothesis that ExPEC may have zoonotic potential. The present study examined a subset of ExPEC strains: neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) strains and avian-pathogenic E. coli(APEC) strains belonging to the O18 serogroup. The study found that they were not easily differentiated on the basis of multilocus sequence typing, phylogenetic typing ...


Tissue Differentiation In An In Vivo Bioreactor: In Silico Investigations Of Scaffold Stiffness., Hanifeh Khayyeri, Sara Checa, Magnus Tägil, Fergal J. O'Brien, Patrick J. Prendergast 2010 Trinity College Dublin

Tissue Differentiation In An In Vivo Bioreactor: In Silico Investigations Of Scaffold Stiffness., Hanifeh Khayyeri, Sara Checa, Magnus Tägil, Fergal J. O'Brien, Patrick J. Prendergast

Anatomy Articles

Scaffold design remains a main challenge in tissue engineering due to the large number of requirements that need to be met in order to create functional tissues in vivo. Computer simulations of tissue differentiation within scaffolds could serve as a powerful tool in elucidating the design requirements for scaffolds in tissue engineering. In this study, a lattice-based model of a 3D porous scaffold construct derived from micro CT and a mechano-biological simulation of a bone chamber experiment were combined to investigate the effect of scaffold stiffness on tissue differentiation inside the chamber. The results indicate that higher scaffold stiffness, holding ...


Development And Characterisation Of A Collagen Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffold For Bone Tissue Engineering., Grainne M. Cunniffe, Glenn R. Dickson, Sonia Partap, Kenneth T. Stanton, Fergal J. O'Brien 2010 Queen's University - Belfast

Development And Characterisation Of A Collagen Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffold For Bone Tissue Engineering., Grainne M. Cunniffe, Glenn R. Dickson, Sonia Partap, Kenneth T. Stanton, Fergal J. O'Brien

Anatomy Articles

Bone regeneration requires scaffolds that possess suitable mechanical and biological properties. This study sought to develop a novel collagen-nHA biocomposite scaffold via two new methods. Firstly a stable nHA suspension was produced and added to a collagen slurry (suspension method), and secondly, porous collagen scaffolds were immersed in nHA suspension after freeze-drying (immersion method). Significantly stronger constructs were produced using both methods compared to collagen only scaffolds, with a high porosity maintained (>98.9%). It was found that Coll-nHA composite scaffolds produced by the suspension method were up to 18 times stiffer than the collagen control (5.50 +/- 1.70 ...


Setting Us Up To Fail: Pulmonary Dendritic Cells Promote Immunopathology During Mycoplasma Respiratory Disease, Nicole A. Dobbs 2010 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Setting Us Up To Fail: Pulmonary Dendritic Cells Promote Immunopathology During Mycoplasma Respiratory Disease, Nicole A. Dobbs

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Diverse Immune Responses Mediated By Beta-Adrenergic And Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors In A Model Of Pneumococcal Sepsis, Byung-Jin Kim 2010 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Diverse Immune Responses Mediated By Beta-Adrenergic And Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors In A Model Of Pneumococcal Sepsis, Byung-Jin Kim

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Transcriptional Suppression Of Mir-29b-1/Mir-29a Promoter By C-Myc, Hedgehog, And Nf-Kappab., Justin L. Mott, Satoshi Kurita, Sophie C. Cazanave, Steven F. Bronk, Nathan W. Werneburg, Martin E. Fernandez-Zapico 2010 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Transcriptional Suppression Of Mir-29b-1/Mir-29a Promoter By C-Myc, Hedgehog, And Nf-Kappab., Justin L. Mott, Satoshi Kurita, Sophie C. Cazanave, Steven F. Bronk, Nathan W. Werneburg, Martin E. Fernandez-Zapico

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

MicroRNAs regulate pathways contributing to oncogenesis, and thus the mechanisms causing dysregulation of microRNA expression in cancer are of significant interest. Mature mir-29b levels are decreased in malignant cells, and this alteration promotes the malignant phenotype, including apoptosis resistance. However, the mechanism responsible for mir-29b suppression is unknown. Here, we examined mir-29 expression from chromosome 7q32 using cholangiocarcinoma cells as a model for mir-29b downregulation. Using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, the transcriptional start site was identified for this microRNA locus. Computational analysis revealed the presence of two putative E-box (Myc-binding) sites, a Gli-binding site, and four NF-kappaB-binding sites ...


A Smac Mimetic Reduces Tnf Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (Trail)-Induced Invasion And Metastasis Of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells., Christian D. Fingas, Boris R.A. Blechacz, Rory L. Smoot, Maria E. Guicciardi, Justin L. Mott, Steve F. Bronk, Nathan W. Werneburg, Alphonse E. Sirica, Gregory J. Gores 2010 Mayo Clinic

A Smac Mimetic Reduces Tnf Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (Trail)-Induced Invasion And Metastasis Of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells., Christian D. Fingas, Boris R.A. Blechacz, Rory L. Smoot, Maria E. Guicciardi, Justin L. Mott, Steve F. Bronk, Nathan W. Werneburg, Alphonse E. Sirica, Gregory J. Gores

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

UNLABELLED: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells paradoxically express tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand that, failing to kill CCA cells, instead promotes their tumorigenicity and especially the metastatic behaviors of cell migration and invasion. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (smac) mimetics are promising cancer therapeutic agents that enhance proapoptotic death receptor signaling by causing cellular degradation of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Our aim was to examine the in vitro and in vivo effects of the smac mimetic JP1584 in CCA. Despite JP1584-mediated loss of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (cIAP-1) and cIAP-2, TRAIL failed to induce apoptosis in KMCH-1 ...


Letter To The Editor, Charlotte Johnston Molloy, Clare Corish, John Kearney, Noirin Hayes, Corina Glennon Slattery 2010 Dublin Institute of Technology

Letter To The Editor, Charlotte Johnston Molloy, Clare Corish, John Kearney, Noirin Hayes, Corina Glennon Slattery

Articles

No abstract provided.


Modeling Sporadic Tumor Formation Driven By Telomere Dysfunction In The Gastrointestinal Tract, Suzanne S. Chan 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Modeling Sporadic Tumor Formation Driven By Telomere Dysfunction In The Gastrointestinal Tract, Suzanne S. Chan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer is a complex disease that is thought to arise when cells accumulate mutations that allow for uncontrolled growth. There are several recognized mechanisms for generating such mutations in sporadic colon cancer; one of which is chromosomal instability (CIN). One hypothesized driver of CIN in cancer is the improper repair of dysfunctional telomeres. Telomeres comprise the linear ends of chromosomes and play a dual role in cancer. Its length is maintained by the ribonucleoprotein, telomerase, which is not a normally expressed in somatic cells and as cells divide, telomeres continuously shorten. Critically shortened telomeres are considered dysfunctional as they ...


Improving Quantitative Treatment Response Monitoring With Deformable Image Registration, Blake A. Cannon 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Improving Quantitative Treatment Response Monitoring With Deformable Image Registration, Blake A. Cannon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Quantitative imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT has the potential to provide an in vivo assessment of response to radiotherapy (RT). However, comparing tissue tracer uptake in longitudinal studies is often confounded by variations in patient setup and potential treatment induced gross anatomic changes. These variations make true response monitoring for the same anatomic volume a challenge, not only for tumors, but also for normal organs-at-risk (OAR). The central hypothesis of this study is that more accurate image registration will lead to improved quantitation of tissue response to RT with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Employing an in-house developed “demons” based deformable image ...


Direct Inputs To Off Α And G9 Ganglion Cells From Aii Amacrine Cells In Rabbit Retina, Wei-Li Liu 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Direct Inputs To Off Α And G9 Ganglion Cells From Aii Amacrine Cells In Rabbit Retina, Wei-Li Liu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In the mammalian retina, AII amacrine cells are essential in the rod pathway for dark-adapted vision. But they also have a “day job”, to provide inhibitory inputs to certain OFF ganglion cells in photopic conditions. This is known as crossover inhibition. Physiological evidence from several different labs implies that AII amacrine cells provide direct input to certain OFF ganglion cells. However, previous EM analysis of the rabbit retina suggests that the dominant output of the AII amacrine cell in sublamina a goes to OFF cone bipolar cells (Strettoi et al., 1992).

Two OFF ganglion cell types in the rabbit retina ...


Identification Of The Causative Bacteria In Musculoskeletal Infections Using 16s Rdna - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis, Karen Gomez 2010 University Of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Identification Of The Causative Bacteria In Musculoskeletal Infections Using 16s Rdna - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis, Karen Gomez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Musculoskeletal infections are infections of the bone and surrounding tissues. They are currently diagnosed based on culture analysis, which is the gold standard for pathogen identification. However, these clinical laboratory methods are frequently inadequate for the identification of the causative agents, because a large percentage (25-50%) of confirmed musculoskeletal infections are false negatives in which no pathogen is identified in culture. My data supports these results. The goal of this project was to use PCR amplification of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene to test an alternative approach for the identification of these pathogens and to assess the diversity ...


Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Innate immune recognition of extracellular host-derived self-DNA and self-RNA is prevented by endosomal seclusion of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the dendritic cells (DCs). However, in psoriasis plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been found to be able to sense self-DNA molecules in complex with the endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which are internalized into the endosomal compartments and thus can access TLR9. We investigated whether this endogenous peptide can also interact with extracellular self-RNA and lead to DC activation. We found that LL37 binds self-RNA as well as self-DNA going into an electrostatic interaction; forms micro-aggregates of nano-scale particles protected from ...


A Bayesian Approach To Dose-Response Assessment And Drug-Drug Interaction Analysis: Application To In Vitro Studies, Violeta G. Hennessey 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

A Bayesian Approach To Dose-Response Assessment And Drug-Drug Interaction Analysis: Application To In Vitro Studies, Violeta G. Hennessey

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The considerable search for synergistic agents in cancer research is motivated by the therapeutic benefits achieved by combining anti-cancer agents. Synergistic agents make it possible to reduce dosage while maintaining or enhancing a desired effect. Other favorable outcomes of synergistic agents include reduction in toxicity and minimizing or delaying drug resistance. Dose-response assessment and drug-drug interaction analysis play an important part in the drug discovery process, however analysis are often poorly done. This dissertation is an effort to notably improve dose-response assessment and drug-drug interaction analysis.

The most commonly used method in published analysis is the Median-Effect Principle/Combination Index ...


Dynamic Chemical Shift Imaging For Image-Guided Thermal Therapy, Brian A. Taylor 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Dynamic Chemical Shift Imaging For Image-Guided Thermal Therapy, Brian A. Taylor

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) is recognized as a noninvasive means to provide temperature imaging for guidance in thermal therapies. The most common method of estimating temperature changes in the body using MR is by measuring the water proton resonant frequency (PRF) shift. Calculation of the complex phase difference (CPD) is the method of choice for measuring the PRF indirectly since it facilitates temperature mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) techniques can provide the PRF directly with high sensitivity to temperature changes while minimizing artifacts commonly seen in CPD techniques. However, CSI techniques are currently limited by ...


Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The immuno-regulatory functions displayed by NK and iNKT cells have highlighted their importance as key lymphocytes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Therefore, understanding the dynamics influencing the generation of NK and iNKT cells is extremely important. IL-15 has been shown to provide a critical signal throughout the development and homeostasis of NK and iNKT cells; however, the cellular source of IL-15 has remained unclear. In this investigation, I provide evidence that the cell-type providing IL-15 to NK and iNKT cells via trans-presentation is determined by the tissue site and the maturation status of NK and iNKT cells. For NK ...


Thoracic Target Volume Delineation Using Various Maximum-Intensity Projection Computed Tomography Image Sets For Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, David A. Zamora 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Thoracic Target Volume Delineation Using Various Maximum-Intensity Projection Computed Tomography Image Sets For Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, David A. Zamora

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The motion of lung tumors during respiration makes the accurate delivery of radiation therapy to the thorax difficult because it increases the uncertainty of target position. The adoption of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) has allowed us to determine how a tumor moves with respiration for each individual patient. Using information acquired during a 4D-CT scan, we can define the target, visualize motion, and calculate dose during the planning phase of the radiotherapy process. One image data set that can be created from the 4D-CT acquisition is the maximum-intensity projection (MIP). The MIP can be used as a starting point to ...


Evaluation Of The Quantitative Accuracy Of A Commercially-Available Positron Emission Mammography Scanner, Adam Springer 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Evaluation Of The Quantitative Accuracy Of A Commercially-Available Positron Emission Mammography Scanner, Adam Springer

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Objective: The PEM Flex Solo II (Naviscan, Inc., San Diego, CA) is currently the only commercially-available positron emission mammography (PEM) scanner. This scanner does not apply corrections for count rate effects, attenuation or scatter during image reconstruction, potentially affecting the quantitative accuracy of images. This work measures the overall quantitative accuracy of the PEM Flex system, and determines the contributions of error due to count rate effects, attenuation and scatter.

Materials and Methods: Gelatin phantoms were designed to simulate breasts of different sizes (4 – 12 cm thick) with varying uniform background activity concentration (0.007 – 0.5 μCi/cc), cysts ...


An Implantable Mosfet Dosimeter Modified To Act As A Fiducial Marker, Joseph S. Dick 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

An Implantable Mosfet Dosimeter Modified To Act As A Fiducial Marker, Joseph S. Dick

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In external beam radiation therapy, it is imperative that the prescribed dose is administered to the correct location and in the correct amount. Though several ex vivo methods of quality assurance are currently employed to achieve this goal, verifying that the correct dose is received within the patient in situ is impossible without the capability of measuring dose inside the patient. Recently, a method of measuring dose delivered within the patient has been developed, an implantable MOSFET dosimeter. This dosimeter is implanted within the patient and records the dose received. Since the dosimeter is implanted in the patient, it could ...


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