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Caffeinated Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee And Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study Among Us Postmenopausal Women, Ayush Giri, Susan R. Sturgeon, Nicole Luisi, Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, Raji Balasubramanianemail, Katherine Reeves 2011 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Caffeinated Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee And Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study Among Us Postmenopausal Women, Ayush Giri, Susan R. Sturgeon, Nicole Luisi, Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, Raji Balasubramanianemail, Katherine Reeves

Katherine Reeves

There is plausible biological evidence as well as epidemiologic evidence to suggest coffee consumption may lower endometrial cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between self-reported total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee, and endometrial cancer risk using the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study Research Materials obtained from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Biological Specimen and Data Repository Coordinating Center. Our primary analyses included 45,696 women and 427 incident endometrial cancer cases, diagnosed over a total of 342,927 person-years of follow-up. We used Cox-proportional hazard models to evaluate coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk. Overall, we ...


Secondary Prevention Of Stroke And Transient Ischaemic Attack, Maggie Lawrence, Hazel Fraser, Charlotte Woods, Jon McCall 2011 Glasgow Caledonian University

Secondary Prevention Of Stroke And Transient Ischaemic Attack, Maggie Lawrence, Hazel Fraser, Charlotte Woods, Jon Mccall

Dr. Maggie Lawrence

Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) and stroke are clinical syndromes characterised by acute neurological deficits with vascular causes. People experiencing TIA or first stroke are at significant risk of subsequent stroke. Risk factors, which are associated with 90% of risk of all stroke, have been identified, and include factors associated with lifestyle i.e. tobacco use, diet, obesity, alcohol consumption, physical activity and stress. Targeted therapeutic interventions have the potential to substantially reduce the burden of stroke. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current evidence base relating to these lifestyle risk factors. Health promotion theories ...


Nice But Needy: English Guidance On Managing Alcohol Dependence Is Not Backed Up By Government Alcohol Policy, Laura Williamson 2011 Glasgow Caledonian University

Nice But Needy: English Guidance On Managing Alcohol Dependence Is Not Backed Up By Government Alcohol Policy, Laura Williamson

Dr Laura Williamson

No abstract provided.


Subtype Distribution Of Human Papillomavirus In Hiv-Infected Women With Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Stages 2 And 3 In Botswana, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Cindy M. McGrath, Kurt T. Barnhart, Harvey M. Friedman, Nicola M. Zetola 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Subtype Distribution Of Human Papillomavirus In Hiv-Infected Women With Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Stages 2 And 3 In Botswana, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Cindy M. Mcgrath, Kurt T. Barnhart, Harvey M. Friedman, Nicola M. Zetola

Botswana-UPenn Scholarly Publications

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines containing types 16 and 18 are likely to be effective in preventing cervical cancer associated with these HPV types. No information currently exists in Botswana concerning the HPV types causing precancerous or cancerous lesions. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of HPV types associated with precancerous cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) stages 2 and 3 in HIV-infected women in Gaborone, Botswana. HIV-infected women referred to our clinic with high-grade intraepithelial lesion on the Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was only performed if the histopathology results showed CIN stage 2 or 3 disease ...


Who Listens To Our Advice? A Secondary Analysis Of Data From A Clinical Trial Testing An Intervention Designed To Decrease Delay In Seeking Treatment For Acute Coronary Syndrome, Barbara Riegel, Angelo Elmi, Debra K. Moser, Sharon McKinley, Hendricka Meischke, Lynn V. Doering, Patricia Davidson, Michele Pelter, Heather Baker, Kathleen Dracup 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Who Listens To Our Advice? A Secondary Analysis Of Data From A Clinical Trial Testing An Intervention Designed To Decrease Delay In Seeking Treatment For Acute Coronary Syndrome, Barbara Riegel, Angelo Elmi, Debra K. Moser, Sharon Mckinley, Hendricka Meischke, Lynn V. Doering, Patricia Davidson, Michele Pelter, Heather Baker, Kathleen Dracup

School of Nursing Departmental Papers

Objective

Prolonged prehospital delay in persons experiencing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a problem. Understanding which patients respond best to particular interventions designed to decrease delay time would provide mechanistic insights into the process by which interventions work.

Methods

In the PROMOTION trial, 3522 at-risk patients were enrolled from 5 sites in the United States (56.4%), Australia and New Zealand; 490 (N = 272 intervention, N = 218 control) had an acute event within 2 years. Focusing on these 490, we (1) identified predictors of a rapid response to symptoms, (2) identified intervention group subjects with a change in these predictors ...


Functional Characterization And Analgesic Effects Of Mixed Cannabinoid Receptor/T-Type Channel Ligands, Haitao You, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Ravil R. Petrov, Gerald W. Zamponi, Philippe Diaz 2011 University of Montana - Missoula

Functional Characterization And Analgesic Effects Of Mixed Cannabinoid Receptor/T-Type Channel Ligands, Haitao You, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Ravil R. Petrov, Gerald W. Zamponi, Philippe Diaz

Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Both T-type calcium channels and cannabinoid receptors modulate signalling in the primary afferent pain pathway. Here, we investigate the analgesics activities of a series of novel cannabinoid receptor ligands with T-type calcium channel blocking activity. Results: Novel compounds were characterized in radioligand binding assays and in vitro functional assays at human and rat CB1 and CB2 receptors. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on transient expressed human T-type calcium channels were examined in tsA-201 cells using standard whole-cell voltage clamp techniques, and their analgesic effects in response to various administration routes (intrathecally, intraplantarly, intraperitoneally) assessed in the formalin model ...


Social And Clinical Predictors Of Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions Among Men In South Carolina, Sara E. Wagner, Bettina F. Drake, Keith Elder, James R. Hébert 2011 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Social And Clinical Predictors Of Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions Among Men In South Carolina, Sara E. Wagner, Bettina F. Drake, Keith Elder, James R. Hébert

Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE:

To assess social and clinical influences of prostate cancer treatment decisions among white and black men in the Midlands of South Carolina.

METHODS:

We linked data collected on treatment decision making in men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1996 through 2002 with clinical and sociodemographic factors collected routinely by the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry (SCCCR). Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess social and clinical influences on treatment decision.

RESULTS:

A total of 435 men were evaluated. Men of both races who chose surgery (versus radiation) were more likely to be influenced by their physician and by family ...


A Randomized Trial Of A Diet And Exercise Intervention For Overweight And Obese Women From Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action For Real Success (Stars), Sarah Wilcox, Patricia A. Sharpe, Deborah Parra-Medina, Michelle L. Granner, Brent E. Hutto 2011 University of South Carolina - Columbia

A Randomized Trial Of A Diet And Exercise Intervention For Overweight And Obese Women From Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action For Real Success (Stars), Sarah Wilcox, Patricia A. Sharpe, Deborah Parra-Medina, Michelle L. Granner, Brent E. Hutto

Faculty Publications

Background - Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population.

Objectives - STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Design - A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes.

Methods - Participants 25-50 years who had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm were recruited from ...


The Association Between The Type, Context, And Levels Of Physical Activity Amongst Adolescents, Harriet Koorts, Calum Mattocks, Andy R. Ness, Kevin Deere, Steven N. Blair, Russell R. Pate, Chris Riddoch 2011 University of South Carolina - Columbia

The Association Between The Type, Context, And Levels Of Physical Activity Amongst Adolescents, Harriet Koorts, Calum Mattocks, Andy R. Ness, Kevin Deere, Steven N. Blair, Russell R. Pate, Chris Riddoch

Faculty Publications

Background: Little is known about how the type and context of physical activity behaviors varies among adolescents with differing activity levels. The aim of this study was to assess differences in the type and context of physical activity behaviors in adolescents by level of objectively measured physical activity. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 2728 adolescents (1299 males, 1429 females) participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The mean (SD) age was 13.8 (+0.1) years. Physical activity was measured using an Actigraph over 7 days. Adolescents were categorized into tertiles of activity (less, moderately, highly active ...


Aamc Question Of The Year - Presentation, Mary Moore PhD 2011 University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

Aamc Question Of The Year - Presentation, Mary Moore Phd

Faculty Research, Publications, and Presentations

In November 2011 at the AAMC meeting, Dr. Kanter announced there had been over 120 responses to the question. Of those, 15 were selected for publication and an additional 15 appear in the online version of the journal. Seven responses were selected for presentation at the AAMC meeting in Denver. Dr. Moore shares her AAMC QOTY presentation


Effects Of A Smoke-Free Law In Parks And Beaches On Smoking Behaviour: Methods To Determine Effectiveness, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Andrew Johnson, Amanda Fallin, Ann Pederson, Anna Liwander 2011 University of Kentucky

Effects Of A Smoke-Free Law In Parks And Beaches On Smoking Behaviour: Methods To Determine Effectiveness, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Andrew Johnson, Amanda Fallin, Ann Pederson, Anna Liwander

Nursing Presentations

As part of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control,smoke free laws have resulted in reductions of indoor air pollution, improvements in respiratory and cardiovascular health, reduction of smoking uptake by youth, and increasing tobacco use cessation in various jurisdictions. Although many studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of smoke-free policies in indoor spaces (e.g., restaurants, bars, workplaces, hospital settings, etc.), little is known about the effectiveness of such policies in outdoor public spaces. On September 1st, 2010, Vancouver’s smoke-free by-law for the city’s parks, beaches, and facilities came into effect. The aims of this study are ...


Smoking On The Margins? Assessing The Health Equity Effects Of A Smoke-Free Law In Parks And Beaches, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Ann Pederson, Steve Chasey, Wendy Rice, Phoebe M. Long, Lorraine Greaves, Joan L. Bottorff, Nancy Poole, Natalie Hemsing 2011 University of Kentucky

Smoking On The Margins? Assessing The Health Equity Effects Of A Smoke-Free Law In Parks And Beaches, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Ann Pederson, Steve Chasey, Wendy Rice, Phoebe M. Long, Lorraine Greaves, Joan L. Bottorff, Nancy Poole, Natalie Hemsing

Nursing Presentations

Policies which aim to limit secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure by restricting spaces where people can smoke have been shown to improve population health and garner a high level of support from the public, health professionals and policy makers. Following local, national and international examples, Vancouver’s Board of Parks and Recreation approved a smoke-free by-law for the city’s parks, beaches, and facilities effective September 1, 2010. Research suggests that such smoke-free by-laws, when enacted indoors, may affect men and women in different ways, but little research has examined the effects of such outdoor smoking bans on women and men ...


Smoking And Breast Cancer: Girls’ And Boys’ Reactions To Tailored, Internet Delivered Messages, Joan L. Bottorff, Chris G. Richardson, Rebecca Haines-Saah, John Oliff, Peter Hutchinson, Pamela A. Ratner, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Carolyn Gotay, Kenneth Johnson 2011 University of British Columbia – Okanagan Campus, Canada

Smoking And Breast Cancer: Girls’ And Boys’ Reactions To Tailored, Internet Delivered Messages, Joan L. Bottorff, Chris G. Richardson, Rebecca Haines-Saah, John Oliff, Peter Hutchinson, Pamela A. Ratner, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Carolyn Gotay, Kenneth Johnson

Nursing Presentations

Background

  • Active smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are causally linked to premenopausal breast cancer (BC).
  • To date, there have been few efforts to raise awareness of active smoking and SHS as risk factors for BC.

Purpose

  • To develop and evaluate messages for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adolescent girls and boys to raise awareness about tobacco exposure as a risk factor for BC.


Outcomes Of An Intensive Smoking Cessation Program For Individuals With Substance Use Disorders, Milan Khara, Lindsay Killam, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli 2011 Vancouver Coastal Health Mental Health and Addictions Services, Canada

Outcomes Of An Intensive Smoking Cessation Program For Individuals With Substance Use Disorders, Milan Khara, Lindsay Killam, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli

Nursing Presentations

BACKGROUND: Individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) are disproportionately affected by tobacco use morbidity and mortality. Yet, with adequate intervention, such individuals can be successful in their smoking cessation efforts. The Tobacco Dependence Clinic (TDC) provides tobacco dependence treatment using combined behavioural counseling and pharmacotherapy for clients through the Mental Health and Addiction Services of the Vancouver Coastal Health Authority, British Columbia, Canada.

OBJECTIVES: To a) provide smoking cessation outcomes of participants accessing the TDC b) examine predictors of program completion and smoking cessation of participants of the TDC.

METHODS: Participants of the TDC receive a structured 8 week group ...


Tobacco Use Dependence And Approaches To Treatment, Audrey Darville, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli 2011 University of Kentucky

Tobacco Use Dependence And Approaches To Treatment, Audrey Darville, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli

Nursing Presentations

Counseling Demonstrates a Dose-Response Effect/Comes in Many Forms

  • Brief advice during a “window of opportunity” can increase quit attempts by 40%
  • Medication combined with counseling doubles the success rate
  • Quitlines: proactive fax to quitline most effective
  • Online (becomeanex.org, smokefree.gov, mylastdip.com)
  • Cooper Clayton Classes at many local health departments; schedules and provision of medication varies
  • I-Phone apps/text to quit

Tailoring NRT to the tobacco user

  • Studies show efficacy in smokers and smokeless tobacco users (Ebbert, et al, 2010)
  • Combining patch with shorter acting form of NRT has been shown to be safe and effective (Stead, et ...


An Evidence-Based Approach To Address Tobacco Dependence Treatment In Mental Health And Addictions Settings, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli 2011 University of Kentucky

An Evidence-Based Approach To Address Tobacco Dependence Treatment In Mental Health And Addictions Settings, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli

Nursing Presentations

Purpose: To examine the program completion and smoking cessation outcomes of a tobacco dependence treatment program for individuals with a history of substance use (SUD) and/or psychiatric disorders (PD). Despite the steady decline in the overall smoking prevalence in North America during the last decade some subsets of the population continue to smoke at high rates, particularly individuals with a SUD and/or PD. Among clinical samples, an estimated 75% of individuals with SUD and up to 90% of individuals with PD concurrently smoke. Such findings have prompted the need for tailored tobacco dependence treatment approaches in this population ...


Cardiovascular Emotional Dampening: The Relationship Between Blood Pressure And Recognition Of Emotion, James A. McCubbin, Marcellus M. Merritt, John J. Sollers III, Michele K. Evans, Alan B. Zonderman, Richard D. Lane, Julian F. Thayer 2011 Clemson University

Cardiovascular Emotional Dampening: The Relationship Between Blood Pressure And Recognition Of Emotion, James A. Mccubbin, Marcellus M. Merritt, John J. Sollers Iii, Michele K. Evans, Alan B. Zonderman, Richard D. Lane, Julian F. Thayer

Publications

Objective—Persons with elevated blood pressure show dampened emotional responses to affectladen stimuli. We sought to further examine cardiovascular emotional dampening by examination of the relationship between resting hemodynamic measures and recognition of emotion in an African-American community-based sample.

Methods—Participants were 106 African American men and women (55 female; mean age 52.8 years), mainly low in socioeconomic status and part of the Healthy Aging in Nationally Diverse Longitudinal Samples (HANDLS-Pilot) Pilot Study. Participants evaluated emotional expressions in faces and in sentences using the Perception of Affect Test (PAT). Resting blood pressure, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac output and ...


Interferons As Therapeutic Agents In Infectious Diseases, McKenzie C. Ferguson, Scott Bergman, Cathy Santanello 2011 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Interferons As Therapeutic Agents In Infectious Diseases, Mckenzie C. Ferguson, Scott Bergman, Cathy Santanello

Pharmacy Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

This article explains the rationale for development of interferons as therapeutic agents, and describes commercial products available today. It also provides a summary of studies that have been performed with interferons for use as exogenous biological response modifiers in viral infections. Overall, the best data exist for treatment of viral hepatitis B and C, for which interferons are a cornerstone of therapy. Although infections with human papillomavirus and common cold viruses sometimes respond favorably to interferons, their outcomes are far from ideal. Finally, the role of interferons as vaccine adjuvants is still being explored but could be promising.


The Effects Of Focus On Performance: Evidence From California Hospitals, Diwas Singh KC, Christian Terwiesch 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Effects Of Focus On Performance: Evidence From California Hospitals, Diwas Singh Kc, Christian Terwiesch

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We use hospital-level discharge data from cardiac patients in California to estimate the effects of focus on operational performance. We examine focus at three distinct levels of the organization—at the firm level, at the operating unit level, and at the process flow level. We find that focus at each of these levels is associated with improved outcomes, namely, faster services at higher levels of quality, as indicated by lower lengths of stay (LOS) and reduced mortality rates. We then analyze the extent to which the superior operational outcome is driven by focused hospitals truly excelling in their operations or ...


Medical Spending Reform And The Fiscal Future Of The United States, Mark V. Pauly 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Medical Spending Reform And The Fiscal Future Of The United States, Mark V. Pauly

Health Care Management Papers

The rate of growth in medical spending in the United States and most other developed countries is high most of the time, and is commonly higher (over the long term) than the rate of growth in GDP. Because much of medical spending affects and is affected by government spending and taxation, the growth in this share of consumption expenditures is both more important for fiscal policy and raises more potential problems than consumer spending growth in other sectors of the economy. Given the growing importance of the major federal programs Medicare and Medicaid in the US budget, and the impending ...


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