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The Role Of Adaptor Protein Complex-3 Delta-Mediated Hiv-1 Gag Trafficking In Hiv-1 Replication: A Dissertation, Adonia Lee Kim 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Adaptor Protein Complex-3 Delta-Mediated Hiv-1 Gag Trafficking In Hiv-1 Replication: A Dissertation, Adonia Lee Kim

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The process of HIV-1 particle production is a multi-step process directed by the viral structural protein Gag. As Gag is the only viral protein required to form virus-like particles, it presents a viable target for anti-viral therapeutics of which there are currently none. Although the functions of Gag during the particle assembly process have been well characterized, one of the least known parts of the assembly process is how Gag is targeted to the site of virus assembly.

Two main virus assembly sites have been identified in cells that support HIV-1 replication: the plasma membrane or multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However ...


The Impact Of Household Investments On Early Child Neurodevelopment And On Racial And Socioeconomic Developmental Gaps: Evidence From South America, Ann McCarthy 2012 University of Iowa

The Impact Of Household Investments On Early Child Neurodevelopment And On Racial And Socioeconomic Developmental Gaps: Evidence From South America, Ann Mccarthy

Ann Marie McCarthy

This paper assesses the effects of household investments through child educating activities on child neurodevelopment between the ages of 3 and 24 months, and evaluates whether investments explain racial and socioeconomic developmental gaps in South America. Quantile regression is used to evaluate the heterogeneity in investment effects by unobserved developmental endowments. The study finds large positive investment effects on early child neurodevelopment, with generally larger effects among children with low developmental endowments (children at the left margin of the development distribution). Investments explain part of the observed racial gaps and the whole socioeconomic developmental gap. Investments may compensate for low ...


Application Of Neurodevelopmental Screening To A Sample Of South American Infants: The Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (Bins), Anne McCarthy, G. Wehby, S. Barron, G. Aylward, E. Castilla, L. Javois, N. Goco, J. Murray 2012 University of Iowa

Application Of Neurodevelopmental Screening To A Sample Of South American Infants: The Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (Bins), Anne Mccarthy, G. Wehby, S. Barron, G. Aylward, E. Castilla, L. Javois, N. Goco, J. Murray

Ann Marie McCarthy

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS), standardized in the US, for South American infants, 3-24 months of age. METHODS: Thirty-five physicians administered the BINS to 2471 South American infants recruited during routine well-child visits, 578 (23%) from Brazil and 1893 (77%) from six other South American countries. The BINS was translated into Spanish and Portuguese and participating physicians were trained to administer the BINS. Physician inter-rater agreement with training tapes was 84.4%; test-retest reliability for age item sets ranged from 0.80 to 0.93 (Pearson's r). Infants were classified into being ...


Clinical Features And Outcomes Of 98 Children And Adults With Dense Deposit Disease, Der-Fa Lu, M. Moon, L. Lanning, Anne McCarthy, R. Smith 2012 University of Iowa

Clinical Features And Outcomes Of 98 Children And Adults With Dense Deposit Disease, Der-Fa Lu, M. Moon, L. Lanning, Anne Mccarthy, R. Smith

Ann Marie McCarthy

BACKGROUND: Dense deposit disease (DDD) is an ultra-rare renal disease. METHODS: In the study reported here, 98 patients and their families participated in a descriptive patient-centered survey using an online research format. Reports were completed by patients (38%) or their parents (62%). Age at diagnosis ranged from 1.9 to 38.9 years (mean 14 years). RESULTS: The majority of patients presented with proteinuria and hematuria; 50% had hypertension and edema. Steroids were commonly prescribed, although their use was not evidence-based. One-half of the patients with DDD for 10 years progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with young females having ...


The Impact Of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy On Early Child Neurodevelopment, G. L. Wehby, K. Prater, Anne Marie McCarthy, E. E. Castilla, J. C. Murray 2012 University of Iowa

The Impact Of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy On Early Child Neurodevelopment, G. L. Wehby, K. Prater, Anne Marie Mccarthy, E. E. Castilla, J. C. Murray

Ann Marie McCarthy

Early child neurodevelopment has major impacts on future human capital and health. However, not much is known about the impacts of prenatal risk factors on child neurodevelopment. This study evaluates the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment between 3 and 24 months of age and interactions with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from a unique sample of children from South America are employed. Smoking has large adverse effects on neurodevelopment, with larger effects in the low SES sample. The study results highlight the importance of early interventions beginning before and during pregnancy for enhancing child development and future ...


Researcher And Institutional Review Board Chair Perspectives On Incidental Findings In Genomic Research, Janet K. Williams, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Nancy R. Downing, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, C. Simon 2012 University of Iowa

Researcher And Institutional Review Board Chair Perspectives On Incidental Findings In Genomic Research, Janet K. Williams, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Nancy R. Downing, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, C. Simon

Janet K. Williams

Aims: Genomic research can produce findings unrelated to a study's aims. The purpose of this study was to examine researcher and Institutional Review Board (IRB) chair perspectives on genomic incidental findings (GIFs). Methods: Nineteen genomic researchers and 34 IRB chairs from 42 institutions participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Researchers and chairs described GIFs within their respective roles. Few had direct experience with disclosure of GIFs. Researchers favored policies where a case by case determination regarding whether GIF disclosure would be offered after discovery, whereas IRB chairs preferred policies where procedures for disclosure would be determined prior to approval of ...


Researcher And Institutional Review Board Chair Perspectives On Incidental Findings In Genomic Research, Janet Williams, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Nancy Downing, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, C. Simon 2012 University of Iowa

Researcher And Institutional Review Board Chair Perspectives On Incidental Findings In Genomic Research, Janet Williams, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Nancy Downing, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, C. Simon

Sandra Daack-Hirsch

Aims: Genomic research can produce findings unrelated to a study's aims. The purpose of this study was to examine researcher and Institutional Review Board (IRB) chair perspectives on genomic incidental findings (GIFs). Methods: Nineteen genomic researchers and 34 IRB chairs from 42 institutions participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Researchers and chairs described GIFs within their respective roles. Few had direct experience with disclosure of GIFs. Researchers favored policies where a case by case determination regarding whether GIF disclosure would be offered after discovery, whereas IRB chairs preferred policies where procedures for disclosure would be determined prior to approval of ...


Women With Knee Osteoarthritis Have More Pain And Poorer Function Than Men, But Similar Physical Activity Prior To Total Knee Replacement, S. M. Tonelli, Barbara A. Rakel, N. A. Cooper, W. L. Angstom, K. A. Sluka 2012 University of Iowa

Women With Knee Osteoarthritis Have More Pain And Poorer Function Than Men, But Similar Physical Activity Prior To Total Knee Replacement, S. M. Tonelli, Barbara A. Rakel, N. A. Cooper, W. L. Angstom, K. A. Sluka

Barbara A. Rakel

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men. Women also perform worse than men on function measures such as the 6-minute walk and timed up and go tests. Differences in pain sensitivity, pain during function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity levels are unclear. Further the ability of various biopsychosocial variables to explain physical activity, function and pain is unknown. METHODS: This study examined differences in pain, pain sensitivity, function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity ...


A Practical First Step To Integrating Genetics Into The Curriculum, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Elena Perkhounkova, R. Furukawa, A. Ramirez 2012 University of Iowa

A Practical First Step To Integrating Genetics Into The Curriculum, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Elena Perkhounkova, R. Furukawa, A. Ramirez

Sandra Daack-Hirsch

We conducted a systematic literature review to identify tools that could be used to measure faculty and undergraduate nursing students' genetic literacy, and we assessed the utility of one of those tools, the Genetic Literacy Assessment Instrument (GLAI), with faculty and students at a college of nursing in a large public university. No significant differences were noted between faculty and students in terms of their overall scores on the GLAI. On average, faculty answered 76% of the questions correctly and students answered 73% of the questions correctly. Both groups scored highest in the genetics and society domain (93% and 85 ...


Researcher And Institutional Review Board Chair Perspectives On Incidental Findings In Genomic Research, Janet K. Williams, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Nancy R. Downing, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, C. Simon 2012 University of Iowa

Researcher And Institutional Review Board Chair Perspectives On Incidental Findings In Genomic Research, Janet K. Williams, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack, Nancy R. Downing, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, C. Simon

Sandra Daack-Hirsch

Aims: Genomic research can produce findings unrelated to a study's aims. The purpose of this study was to examine researcher and Institutional Review Board (IRB) chair perspectives on genomic incidental findings (GIFs). Methods: Nineteen genomic researchers and 34 IRB chairs from 42 institutions participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Researchers and chairs described GIFs within their respective roles. Few had direct experience with disclosure of GIFs. Researchers favored policies where a case by case determination regarding whether GIF disclosure would be offered after discovery, whereas IRB chairs preferred policies where procedures for disclosure would be determined prior to approval of ...


Informed Consent And Genomic Incidental Findings: Irb Chair Perspectives, C. Simon, Janet Williams, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack 2012 University of Iowa

Informed Consent And Genomic Incidental Findings: Irb Chair Perspectives, C. Simon, Janet Williams, L. Shinkunas, D. Brandt, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Martha Driessnack

Sandra Daack-Hirsch

It is unclear how genomic incidental finding (GIF) prospects should be addressed in informed consent processes. An exploratory study on this topic was conducted with 34 purposively sampled Chairs of institutional review boards (IRBs) at centers conducting genome-wide association studies. Most Chairs (96%) reported no knowledge of local IRB requirements regarding GIFs and informed consent. Chairs suggested consent processes should address the prospect of, and study disclosure policy on, GIFs; GIF management and follow-up; potential clinical significance of GIFs; potential risks of GIF disclosure; an opportunity for participants to opt out of GIF disclosure; and duration of the researcher's ...


Prolonged Ulcerative Laryngitis, Barbara Rakel, J. Spiegel, R. Sataloff 2012 University of Iowa

Prolonged Ulcerative Laryngitis, Barbara Rakel, J. Spiegel, R. Sataloff

Barbara A. Rakel

No abstract provided.


Effectiveness Of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Postoperative Pain With Movement, Barbara Rakel, Rita Frantz 2012 University of Iowa

Effectiveness Of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Postoperative Pain With Movement, Barbara Rakel, Rita Frantz

Barbara A. Rakel

This study tested the effectiveness of episodic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a supplement to pharmacologic analgesia on pain with movement and at rest after abdominal surgery and evaluated whether its use during walking and vital capacity maneuvers enhances performance of these activities. TENS, with a modulated frequency, intensity as high as the subject could tolerate, and electrodes placed on either side and parallel to the incision, was compared to placebo TENS and pharmacologic analgesia alone (control) by using a crossover design. Self-report of pain intensity, walking function, and vital capacity were assessed on 33 subjects. TENS resulted in ...


The Relationship Between Pain And Physical Function In Older Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis, N. Blodgett, Barbara Rakel, C. Vance, A. Amendola, D. Walsh, K. Sluka 2012 University of Iowa

The Relationship Between Pain And Physical Function In Older Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis, N. Blodgett, Barbara Rakel, C. Vance, A. Amendola, D. Walsh, K. Sluka

Barbara A. Rakel

No abstract provided.


Hypoalgesia In Response To Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (Tens) Depends On Stimulation Intensity, F. Moran, T. Leonard, S. Hawthorne, C. Hughes, E. McCrum-Gardner, M. Johnson, Barbara Rakel, K. Sluka, D. Walsh 2012 University of Iowa

Hypoalgesia In Response To Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (Tens) Depends On Stimulation Intensity, F. Moran, T. Leonard, S. Hawthorne, C. Hughes, E. Mccrum-Gardner, M. Johnson, Barbara Rakel, K. Sluka, D. Walsh

Barbara A. Rakel

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is an electrophysical modality used for pain management. This study investigated the dose response of different TENS intensities on experimentally induced pressure pain. One hundred and thirty TENS naive healthy individuals (18-64 years old; 65 males, 65 females) were randomly allocated to 5 groups (n = 26 per group): Strong Non Painful TENS; Sensory Threshold TENS; Below Sensory Threshold TENS; No Current Placebo TENS; and Transient Placebo TENS. Active TENS (80 Hz) was applied to the forearm for 30 minutes. Transient Placebo TENS was applied for 42 seconds after which the current amplitude automatically reset to ...


Committee Meetings: An Electronic Alternative, Barbara Rakel 2012 University of Iowa

Committee Meetings: An Electronic Alternative, Barbara Rakel

Barbara A. Rakel

All too often, meetings are called without much thought as to whether or not they are necessary, wasting the staff's time and the organization's money. Sharing information and gathering input through electronic mail eliminates unproductive meetings and increases member productivity.


Redesigning The Rn And Na Roles, R. Gould, R. Thompson, Barbara Rakel, J. Jensen, E. Hasselman, L. Young 2012 University of Iowa

Redesigning The Rn And Na Roles, R. Gould, R. Thompson, Barbara Rakel, J. Jensen, E. Hasselman, L. Young

Barbara A. Rakel

No abstract provided.


An Investigation Of The Development Of Analgesic Tolerance To Tens In Humans, R. Liebano, B. Rakel, C. Vance, D. Walsh, K. Sluka 2012 University of Iowa

An Investigation Of The Development Of Analgesic Tolerance To Tens In Humans, R. Liebano, B. Rakel, C. Vance, D. Walsh, K. Sluka

Barbara A. Rakel

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive modality used to control pain. Animal models show that repeated TENS application produces analgesic tolerance and cross-tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. The aim of the present investigation was to examine whether repeated application of TENS produces analgesic tolerance in humans. One hundred healthy subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control, placebo, low-frequency (4Hz) or high-frequency (100Hz) TENS. TENS was applied daily for 5days to the nondominant upper limb; pressure-pain threshold (PPT) measurements were recorded before and after TENS. Temporal summation to mechanical stimulation was recorded on days 1 and ...


Nonpharmacologic Treatment Of Pain, M. Titler, B. Rakel 2012 University of Iowa

Nonpharmacologic Treatment Of Pain, M. Titler, B. Rakel

Barbara A. Rakel

Nonpharmacologic interventions for pain treatment are important complementary therapies but are not substitutes for pharmacologic management of pain. Use of nonpharmacologic pain treatments in critical care settings is helpful to decrease pain, but the challenge remains for nurses to have the knowledge, time, and skill to use these interventions in a busy daily practice with severely ill patients. Although numerous studies testing the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic interventions for pain management are available, the varying methods and interventions used in these studies make it difficult to draw conclusions. Further research on the use of these interventions for pain reduction is necessary ...


A New Transient Sham Tens Device Allows For Investigator Blinding While Delivering A True Placebo Treatment, Barbara Rakel, N. Cooper, H. Adams, B. Messer, L. Frey Law, D. Dannen, C. Miller, A. Polehna, R. Ruggle, C. Vance, D. Walsh, K. Sluka 2012 University of Iowa

A New Transient Sham Tens Device Allows For Investigator Blinding While Delivering A True Placebo Treatment, Barbara Rakel, N. Cooper, H. Adams, B. Messer, L. Frey Law, D. Dannen, C. Miller, A. Polehna, R. Ruggle, C. Vance, D. Walsh, K. Sluka

Barbara A. Rakel

This study compared a new transient sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that delivers current for 45 seconds to an inactive sham and active TENS to determine the degree of blinding and influence on pain reduction. Pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), heat-pain thresholds (HPT), and pain intensities to tonic heat and pressure were measured in 69 healthy adults before and after randomization. Allocation investigators and subjects were asked to identify the treatment administered. The transient sham blinded investigators 100% of the time and 40% of subjects compared to the inactive sham that blinded investigators 0% of the time and 21% of subjects ...


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