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Family Response To A Child's Chronic Illness: A Description Of Major Defining Themes, K. Knafl, A. Gallo, B. Breitmayer, L. Zoeller, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Family Response To A Child's Chronic Illness: A Description Of Major Defining Themes, K. Knafl, A. Gallo, B. Breitmayer, L. Zoeller, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


Qualitative Research Proposals -- Part I: Posing The Problem, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Qualitative Research Proposals -- Part I: Posing The Problem, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


Qualitative Research Proposals-Part V: Rigor In Data Analysis, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Qualitative Research Proposals-Part V: Rigor In Data Analysis, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


Stories Of Family Caregiving: Case Studies In Moral Reasoning, S. Poirier, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Stories Of Family Caregiving: Case Studies In Moral Reasoning, S. Poirier, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


Managing Large Qualitative Data Sets In Family Research, K. Knafl, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Managing Large Qualitative Data Sets In Family Research, K. Knafl, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

The authors describe two complementary data management techniques -- family case summaries and computer generated matrices -- and their contribution to the analytic goals of a study of family response to childhood chronic illness. Family case summaries enabled the investigators to reduce a large qualitative data set in a way that preserved the family focus of the research. The use of a database management software system contributed to the efficient display and manipulation of thematically coded data in a way that fostered constant comparison of the data and analytic insights. The importance of using the two techniques in a way that supports ...


Stigma Associated With Ghanaian Caregivers Of Aids Patients - Commentary By Ayres, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Stigma Associated With Ghanaian Caregivers Of Aids Patients - Commentary By Ayres, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


Internal Working Models Of Parenting: Motivations Of Parents Of Infants With A Congenital Heart Defect, K. Pridham, T. Harrison, M. Krolikowski, M. Bathum, Lioness Ayres, J. Winters 2011 University of Iowa

Internal Working Models Of Parenting: Motivations Of Parents Of Infants With A Congenital Heart Defect, K. Pridham, T. Harrison, M. Krolikowski, M. Bathum, Lioness Ayres, J. Winters

Lioness Ayres

Drawing on attachment-caregiving theory, we interviewed parents of 24 infants with a complex congenital heart defect (CCHD) about parenting motivations through the first year. Using directed content analysis, 8 categories of motivations, focused either on the baby, the parent-infant relationship, family, self, or tasks were identified at 1, 4 or 6, and 12 months. A matrix of motivations by parent showed family and infant age variations. Motivations illustrated for 5 parents at 1 month suggest that specification of expectations and intentions and clustering of motivations mentioned by a parent would advance study of linkages of parenting internal working models with ...


Qualitative Research Proposals -- Part Iii: Sampling And Data Collection, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Qualitative Research Proposals -- Part Iii: Sampling And Data Collection, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


Implications Of Utility And Deontology For The Clinical Nurse Specialist, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Implications Of Utility And Deontology For The Clinical Nurse Specialist, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

Faced with prospective payment plans and personnel shortages nurses in advanced clinical practice are under pressure to find practical solutions. These solutions may reflect the institutional philosophy of utility rather than the traditional nursing ethic of deontology, illustrating the need to examine the differences between utilitarian and deontological principles as they affect nursing practice. This paper discusses deontology and utility as they apply to nursing practice, considers how these different philosophical positions may affect advanced practitioners, and describes the current status of ethics in nursing.


The Copyright Act And Keeping Up To Date, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

The Copyright Act And Keeping Up To Date, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


Narratives Of Family Caregiving: Four Story Types, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Narratives Of Family Caregiving: Four Story Types, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: This study used a combination of across-case, thematic analysis and within-case, narrative analysis to develop a typology of stories for family caregivers. Both researchers and clinicians can benefit from interpretive methods that offer access s into the processes and products of making meaning though stories. It is often easier to see the possibilities for reinterpretation from outside a story than from within it. It may be that nurses will also be uniquely able to help clients who are in the process of "getting the story straight" to find new, more sustaining meanings and even to live more happily ...


Sibling Perspectives On Schizophrenia And The Family, L. Gerace, D. Camilleri, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Sibling Perspectives On Schizophrenia And The Family, L. Gerace, D. Camilleri, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

Intensive audiotaped interviews with 14 adult siblings of schizophrenia patients were used to explore their experiences. Interviews focused on the ways adult siblings define and experience their sibling's mental illness and their participation in illness management. Cross-case analysis revealed that recognition of schizophrenia in a brother or sister was characterized by a pivotal, reorganizing event that redefined behavior previously viewed as difficult or different. Subjects' approach to the sibling's illness reflected three distinct patterns: collaborative, crisis-oriented, and detached. The impact of a mentally ill brother or sister on subjects' lives ranged from pervasive to discrete and was seen ...


Focus On Qualitative Methods. "Not As Bad As It Could Have Been": Assessing And Mitigating Harm During Research Interviews On Sensitive Topics, K. Kavanaugh, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Focus On Qualitative Methods. "Not As Bad As It Could Have Been": Assessing And Mitigating Harm During Research Interviews On Sensitive Topics, K. Kavanaugh, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

OBJECTIVE: NA. DESIGN: NA. SETTING: NA. POPULATION: NA. INTERVENTIONS: NA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): NA. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Nurse investigators insist that their research not inflict needless suffering on participants during any phase of a study. When a study involves a sensitive topic such as loss, such suffering is of particular concern. Evaluating the impact of sensitive research simply by looking at decontextualized comments made throughout the interview may provide misleading data about participants' responses to a study. The importance of assessment of risk from psychological distress during all phases of the study cannot be minimized. Knowing strategies that researchers can ...


Charting The Chart + The Medical Record Viewed As A Multivocal Novel - An Exercise In Interpretations, S. Poirier, L. Rosenblum, Lioness Ayres, D. Brauner, B. Sharf, A. Stanford 2011 University of Iowa

Charting The Chart + The Medical Record Viewed As A Multivocal Novel - An Exercise In Interpretations, S. Poirier, L. Rosenblum, Lioness Ayres, D. Brauner, B. Sharf, A. Stanford

Lioness Ayres

No abstract provided.


'I'M Like You': Establishing And Protecting A Common Ground In Focus Groups With Huntington Disease Caregivers... With Review By Spencer L, Janet Williams, Lioness Ayres, L. Spencer 2011 University of Iowa

'I'M Like You': Establishing And Protecting A Common Ground In Focus Groups With Huntington Disease Caregivers... With Review By Spencer L, Janet Williams, Lioness Ayres, L. Spencer

Lioness Ayres

Focus group research reflects content contributed by participants and the influence of interactions among participants. Analysis of interactions provides insights into focus group dynamics and the contextual meaning of focus group topics. The aim of this report is to analyse interactions that establish or protect a common ground in focus groups of family members caring for adults with Huntington disease (HD). HD tends to stigmatise persons with the disease, as well as their families. Thus, many of the topics in these groups were sensitive. Establishing a common ground was of paramount importance to group members. Participants used interactional processes that ...


Defining And Managing Family Caregiving In Chronic Illness: Expectations, Explanations, And Strategies, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Defining And Managing Family Caregiving In Chronic Illness: Expectations, Explanations, And Strategies, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

Study findings identified the process by which caregivers made meaning out of their situations. This process was called the caregiving hermeneutic and consisted of the expectations, explanations, and strategies caregivers used in interpreting caregiving. The study also identified the kinds of meaning caregivers made out of their situations. The resulting four kinds of meaning were called metanarrative types. Metanarrative types consisted of stories of ideal lives, stories of ordinary lives, stories of compromised lives, and stories that were ambiguous. Caregivers who told compromised stories scored higher on measures of tension and depression and lower on measures of esteem for caregiving ...


Virtual Text And The Growth Of Meaning In Qualitative Analysis, Lioness Ayres, S. Poirier 2011 University of Iowa

Virtual Text And The Growth Of Meaning In Qualitative Analysis, Lioness Ayres, S. Poirier

Lioness Ayres

OBJECTIVE: NA DESIGN: NA SETTING: NA POPULATION: NA INTERVENTIONS: NA MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): NA RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The virtual text, whose roots extend into the ground of both artistic and aesthetic texts, gives rise to analysis that flourishes in the light of rigorous scrutiny. The virtual text serves to describe the linkage between the research interview and the research report. We construct the virtual text from its artistic origins in the interview transcript and its aesthetic origins in the mind of the researcher. Nurses whose research of practice includes the elicitation, analysis, or transmission of stories may find reader-response theory ...


Learning From Stories: Parents' Accounts Of The Pathway To Diagnosis, K. Knafl, Lioness Ayres, A. Gallo, L. Zoeller, B. Brietmayer 2011 University of Iowa

Learning From Stories: Parents' Accounts Of The Pathway To Diagnosis, K. Knafl, Lioness Ayres, A. Gallo, L. Zoeller, B. Brietmayer

Lioness Ayres

Although the diagnosis of a child's chronic illness is typically a stressful time for parents, the events leading up to it vary considerably across families. As part of a larger study that addressed the experience of living with chronic illness, an analysis was undertaken to identify major themes in parental reports of the events preceding their child's diagnosis of chronic illness. Data are based on accounts given by parents in 63 families from three health science centers in the midwestern United States. Narrative analysis techniques were used to identify 5 major pathways to diagnosis (direct, delay, detour, quest ...


Narratives Of Family Caregiving: The Process Of Making Meaning, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Narratives Of Family Caregiving: The Process Of Making Meaning, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Further research is clearly indicated to measure, rather than just describe, the components of caregivers' expectations, explanations, and strategies. Such research could identify explanations associated with flexible expectations and successful, good quality strategies, as well as provide clinicians with tools to predict those caregivers at risk for difficulty. Knowledge about caregivers could then be incorporated into interventions for caregivers at risk. Nursing interventions could help caregivers discover new expectations, explain their situations more positively, or find new strategies that both provide more satisfaction and are more consistent with good quality care. Nursing research has particular promise in illuminating ...


Endings, Secrets, And Silences: Overreading In Narrative Inquiry, S. Poirier, Lioness Ayres 2011 University of Iowa

Endings, Secrets, And Silences: Overreading In Narrative Inquiry, S. Poirier, Lioness Ayres

Lioness Ayres

OBJECTIVE: NA DESIGN: NA SETTING: NA POPULATION: NA INTERVENTIONS: NA MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): NA RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative researchers use memos, audit trails, and research teams to guard against gross misrepresentation or the imposition of bias, but the impossibility of a purely objective recounting of another's story must always be acknowledged. In narrative inquiry the ultimately, unavoidably, subjective nature of interpretation is foregrounded. Interpretation is always qualified. Narrative inquiry entails "overreading", a sensitivity to unspoken or indirect statement, which is central to interpretation. What, though, are the obligations of the overreading researcher, alone at last with a printed transcript ...


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