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Do Exercise Motives Predict Obligatory Exercise?, Mary Pritchard, Jessica L. Beaver 2011 Boise State University

Do Exercise Motives Predict Obligatory Exercise?, Mary Pritchard, Jessica L. Beaver

Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Few studies have examined whether factors predicting obligatory exercise differ by gender. 303 participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and the Reason for Exercise Inventory. All variables correlated significantly. However, the correlation between exercising for fitness and obligatory exercise was significantly stronger in women than men. In women, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, fitness, and to enhance mood; in men, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, enjoyment, and perceived attractiveness. Implications for treatment are discussed.


Biomechanics Of Rehabilitation, Joseph Weigel, Greg Arnold, David Hicks, Darryl Millis 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Biomechanics Of Rehabilitation, Joseph Weigel, Greg Arnold, David Hicks, Darryl Millis

Darryl L. Millis

Biomechanics may be defined as the application of the discipline of mechanics to biologic systems. Rehabilitation is a practice dedicated to the restoration of function to a body impaired by injury or disease. Because rehabilitation is focused on the form and motion of a system of interrelated parts, an appreciation for biomechanical theory and application is appropriate. This application provides a basis for understanding diagnostic and evaluation methods, treatment modalities, and pathologic effects of the affected musculoskeletal system. This article presents applicable mechanical theory, including the concepts of moment and lever systems; linear kinetics of ground reaction forces (GRFs), linear ...


Kinematic Analysis Of The Pelvic Limbs Of Healthy Dogs During Stair And Decline Slope Walking, R. Millard, Jason Headrick, Darryl Millis 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Kinematic Analysis Of The Pelvic Limbs Of Healthy Dogs During Stair And Decline Slope Walking, R. Millard, Jason Headrick, Darryl Millis

Darryl L. Millis

Objectives: To evaluate range of motion (ROM) of the pelvic limb in healthy dogs descending stairs compared with decline slope walking. Methods: Reflective spheres were placed on the skin over the joints of the right pelvic limb of seven adult, hound-type dogs with no clinical signs of orthopaedic or neurologic disease. Five trials of stair and ramp descent of each dog were recorded using four 60 Hz digital infrared cameras. Two-dimensional kinematic data were collected as dogs walked down stairs and on a continuous decline of equivalent slope. Maximum and minimum joint angles and ROM were calculated for the coxofemoral ...


The Use Of Cyclosporine-A In Dogs With Chronic Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study, C. de Mello Souza, Jason Headrick, Joseph Weigel, Darryl Millis 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Use Of Cyclosporine-A In Dogs With Chronic Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study, C. De Mello Souza, Jason Headrick, Joseph Weigel, Darryl Millis

Darryl L. Millis

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of cyclosporine-A in dogs with radiographic and physical evidence of chronic stifle osteoarthritis. Materials and methods: Ten hound-type dogs with osteoarthritis induced by surgical transection of a cranial cruciate ligament followed by immediate stabilization of the stifle four years prior to study start were randomized to two groups. Cyclosporine-A was administered orally once daily at 5 mg/kg to one group for one month while the other group served as control. After a two week wash-out period during which the animals were not treated, and the degree of lameness was allowed to return to baseline ...


Nitric Oxide-Mediated Inhibition Of Hdm2-P53 Binding, Christopher Schonhoff, Marie-Claire Daou, Stephen Jones, Celia Schiffer, Alonzo Ross 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Nitric Oxide-Mediated Inhibition Of Hdm2-P53 Binding, Christopher Schonhoff, Marie-Claire Daou, Stephen Jones, Celia Schiffer, Alonzo Ross

Celia A. Schiffer

It has become increasingly evident that nitric oxide exerts its effects, in part, by S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. We tested in vitro whether nitric oxide may indirectly control p53 by S-nitrosylation and inactivation of the p53 negative regulator, Hdm2. Treatment of Hdm2 with a nitric oxide donor inhibits Hdm2-p53 binding, a critical step in Hdm2 regulation of p53. The presence of excess amounts of cysteine or dithiothreitol blocks this inhibition of binding. Moreover, nitric oxide inhibition of Hdm2-p53 binding was found to be reversible. Sulfhydryl sensitivity and reversibility are consistent with nitrosylation. Finally, we have identified a critical cysteine residue ...


Co-Evolution Of Nelfinavir-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease And The P1-P6 Substrate, Madhavi Kolli, Stephane Lastere, Celia Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Co-Evolution Of Nelfinavir-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease And The P1-P6 Substrate, Madhavi Kolli, Stephane Lastere, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The selective pressure of the competitive protease inhibitors causes both HIV-1 protease and occasionally its substrates to evolve drug resistance. We hypothesize that this occurs particularly in substrates that protrude beyond the substrate envelope and contact residues that mutate in response to a particular protease inhibitor. To validate this hypothesis, we analyzed substrate and protease sequences for covariation. Using the chi2 test, we show a positive correlation between the nelfinavir-resistant D30N/N88D protease mutations and mutations at the p1-p6 cleavage site as compared to the other cleavage sites. Both nelfinavir and the substrate p1-p6 protrude beyond the substrate envelope and ...


Crystal Structure Of Lysine Sulfonamide Inhibitor Reveals The Displacement Of The Conserved Flap Water Molecule In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Madhavi Nalam, Anik Peeters, Tim Jonckers, Inge Dierynck, Celia Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Crystal Structure Of Lysine Sulfonamide Inhibitor Reveals The Displacement Of The Conserved Flap Water Molecule In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Madhavi Nalam, Anik Peeters, Tim Jonckers, Inge Dierynck, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease has been continuously evolving and developing resistance to all of the protease inhibitors. This requires the development of new inhibitors that bind to the protease in a novel fashion. Most of the inhibitors that are on the market are peptidomimetics, where a conserved water molecule mediates hydrogen bonding interactions between the inhibitors and the flaps of the protease. Recently a new class of inhibitors, lysine sulfonamides, was developed to combat the resistant variants of HIV protease. Here we report the crystal structure of a lysine sulfonamide. This inhibitor binds to the active site ...


Structural Basis For Coevolution Of A Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleocapsid-P1 Cleavage Site With A V82a Drug-Resistant Mutation In Viral Protease, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Nancy M. King, Celia A. Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Structural Basis For Coevolution Of A Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleocapsid-P1 Cleavage Site With A V82a Drug-Resistant Mutation In Viral Protease, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Nancy M. King, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Maturation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the processing of Gag and Pol polyproteins by the viral protease, making this enzyme a prime target for anti-HIV therapy. Among the protease substrates, the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) sequence is the least homologous, and its cleavage is the rate-determining step in viral maturation. In the other substrates of HIV-1 protease, P1 is usually either a hydrophobic or an aromatic residue, and P2 is usually a branched residue. NC-p1, however, contains Asn at P1 and Ala at P2. In response to the V82A drug-resistant protease mutation, the P2 alanine of NC-p1 mutates to valine ...


New Approaches To Hiv Protease Inhibitor Drug Design Ii: Testing The Substrate Envelope Hypothesis To Avoid Drug Resistance And Discover Robust Inhibitors, Madhavi Nalam, Celia Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

New Approaches To Hiv Protease Inhibitor Drug Design Ii: Testing The Substrate Envelope Hypothesis To Avoid Drug Resistance And Discover Robust Inhibitors, Madhavi Nalam, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug resistance results when the balance between the binding of inhibitors and the turnover of substrates is perturbed in favor of the substrates. Resistance is quite widespread to the HIV-1 protease inhibitors permitting the protease to process its 10 different substrates. This processing of the substrates permits the virus HIV-1 to mature and become infectious. The design of HIV-1 protease inhibitors that closely fit within the substrate-binding region is proposed to be a strategy to avoid drug resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Cocrystal structures of HIV-1 protease with its substrates define an overlapping substrate-binding region or substrate envelope. Novel ...


Mechanism Of Substrate Recognition By Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Variants Revealed By A Novel Structural Intermediate, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Keith Romano, Celia A. Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mechanism Of Substrate Recognition By Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Variants Revealed By A Novel Structural Intermediate, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Keith Romano, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease processes and cleaves the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins, allowing viral maturation, and therefore is an important target for antiviral therapy. Ligand binding occurs when the flaps open, allowing access to the active site. This flexibility in flap geometry makes trapping and crystallizing structural intermediates in substrate binding challenging. In this study, we report two crystal structures of two HIV-1 protease variants bound with their corresponding nucleocapsid-p1 variant. One of the flaps in each of these structures exhibits an unusual "intermediate" conformation. Analysis of the flap-intermediate and flap-closed crystal structures reveals that the intermonomer ...


Point Mutants Of Ehec Intimin That Diminish Tir Recognition And Actin Pedestal Formation Highlight A Putative Tir Binding Pocket, Hui Liu, Padhma Radhakrishnan, Loranne Magoun, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Kenneth Campellone, Pamela Savage, Feng He, Celia Schiffer, John Leong 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Point Mutants Of Ehec Intimin That Diminish Tir Recognition And Actin Pedestal Formation Highlight A Putative Tir Binding Pocket, Hui Liu, Padhma Radhakrishnan, Loranne Magoun, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Kenneth Campellone, Pamela Savage, Feng He, Celia Schiffer, John Leong

Celia A. Schiffer

Attachment to host cells by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is associated with the formation of a highly organized cytoskeletal structure containing filamentous actin, termed an attaching and effacing (AE) lesion. Intimin, an outer membrane protein of EHEC, is required for the formation of AE lesions, as is Tir, a bacterial protein that is translocated into the host cell to function as a receptor for intimin. We established a yeast two-hybrid assay for intimin-Tir interaction and, after random mutagenesis, isolated 24 point mutants in intimin, which disrupted Tir recognition in this system. Analysis of 11 point mutants revealed a correlation between ...


Substrate Envelope And Drug Resistance: Crystal Structure Of Ro1 In Complex With Wild-Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Nancy M. King, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Gabrielle Heilek-Snyder, Nick Cammack, Celia A. Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Substrate Envelope And Drug Resistance: Crystal Structure Of Ro1 In Complex With Wild-Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Nancy M. King, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Gabrielle Heilek-Snyder, Nick Cammack, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

In our previous crystallographic studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease-substrate complexes, we described a conserved "envelope" that appears to be important for substrate recognition and the selection of drug-resistant mutations. In this study, the complex of HIV-1 protease with the inhibitor RO1 was determined and comparison with the substrate envelope provides a rationale for mutational patterns.


Structural And Thermodynamic Basis For The Binding Of Tmc114, A Next-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor, Nancy King, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen Nalivaika, Piet Wigerinck, Marie-Pierre de Bethune, Celia Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Structural And Thermodynamic Basis For The Binding Of Tmc114, A Next-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor, Nancy King, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen Nalivaika, Piet Wigerinck, Marie-Pierre De Bethune, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

TMC114, a newly designed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor, is extremely potent against both wild-type (wt) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. Although chemically similar to amprenavir (APV), the potency of TMC114 is substantially greater. To examine the basis for this potency, we solved crystal structures of TMC114 complexed with wt HIV-1 protease and TMC114 and APV complexed with an MDR (L63P, V82T, and I84V) protease variant. In addition, we determined the corresponding binding thermodynamics by isothermal titration calorimetry. TMC114 binds approximately 2 orders of magnitude more tightly to the wt enzyme ...


Lack Of Synergy For Inhibitors Targeting A Multi-Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease, Nancy King, Laurence Melnick, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen Nalivaika, Shiow-Shong Yang, Yun Gao, Xiaoyi Nie, Charles Zepp, Donald Heefner, Celia Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Lack Of Synergy For Inhibitors Targeting A Multi-Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease, Nancy King, Laurence Melnick, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen Nalivaika, Shiow-Shong Yang, Yun Gao, Xiaoyi Nie, Charles Zepp, Donald Heefner, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The three-dimensional structures of indinavir and three newly synthesized indinavir analogs in complex with a multi-drug-resistant variant (L63P, V82T, I84V) of HIV-1 protease were determined to approximately 2.2 A resolution. Two of the three analogs have only a single modification of indinavir, and their binding affinities to the variant HIV-1 protease are enhanced over that of indinavir. However, when both modifications were combined into a single compound, the binding affinity to the protease variant was reduced. On close examination, the structural rearrangements in the protease that occur in the tightest binding inhibitor complex are mutually exclusive with the structural ...


Hydrophobic Sliding: A Possible Mechanism For Drug Resistance In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Jennifer Foulkes-Murzycki, Walter Scott, Celia Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hydrophobic Sliding: A Possible Mechanism For Drug Resistance In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Jennifer Foulkes-Murzycki, Walter Scott, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Hydrophobic residues outside the active site of HIV-1 protease frequently mutate in patients undergoing protease inhibitor therapy; however, the mechanism by which these mutations confer drug resistance is not understood. From analysis of molecular dynamics simulations, 19 core hydrophobic residues appear to facilitate the conformational changes that occur in HIV-1 protease. The hydrophobic core residues slide by each other, exchanging one hydrophobic van der Waal contact for another, with little energy penalty, while maintaining many structurally important hydrogen bonds. Such hydrophobic sliding may represent a general mechanism by which proteins undergo conformational changes. Mutation of these residues in HIV-1 protease ...


Viability Of A Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Variant: Structural Insights For Better Antiviral Therapy, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Nancy M. King, Celia A. Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Viability Of A Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Variant: Structural Insights For Better Antiviral Therapy, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Nancy M. King, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Under the selective pressure of protease inhibitor therapy, patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often develop drug-resistant HIV strains. One of the first drug-resistant mutations to arise in the protease, particularly in patients receiving indinavir or ritonavir treatment, is V82A, which compromises the binding of these and other inhibitors but allows the virus to remain viable. To probe this drug resistance, we solved the crystal structures of three natural substrates and two commercial drugs in complex with an inactive drug-resistant mutant (D25N/V82A) HIV-1 protease. Through structural analysis and comparison of the protein-ligand interactions, we found that Val82 interacts ...


Role Of Invariant Thr80 In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Structure, Function, And Viral Infectivity, Jennifer E. Foulkes-Murzycki, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Deyna Cooper, Gavin J. Henderson, Janera Harris, Ronald I. Swanstrom, Celia A. Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of Invariant Thr80 In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Structure, Function, And Viral Infectivity, Jennifer E. Foulkes-Murzycki, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Deyna Cooper, Gavin J. Henderson, Janera Harris, Ronald I. Swanstrom, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Sequence variability associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is useful for inferring structural and/or functional constraints at specific residues within the viral protease. Positions that are invariant even in the presence of drug selection define critically important residues for protease function. While the importance of conserved active-site residues is easily understood, the role of other invariant residues is not. This work focuses on invariant Thr80 at the apex of the P1 loop of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus protease. In a previous study, we postulated, on the basis of a molecular dynamics simulation of the unliganded ...


Contribution Of Ser386 And Ser396 To Activation Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3, Weijun Chen, Hema Srinath, Suvana Lam, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Contribution Of Ser386 And Ser396 To Activation Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3, Weijun Chen, Hema Srinath, Suvana Lam, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin

Celia A. Schiffer

IRF-3, a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, functions in innate immune defense against viral infection. Upon infection, host cell IRF-3 is activated by phosphorylation at its seven C-terminal Ser/Thr residues: (385)SSLENTVDLHISNSHPLSLTS(405). This phosphoactivation triggers IRF-3 to react with the coactivators, CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, to form a complex that activates target genes in the nucleus. However, the role of each phosphorylation site for IRF-3 phosphoactivation remains unresolved. To address this issue, all seven Ser/Thr potential phosphorylation sites were screened by mutational studies, size-exclusion chromatography, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Using purified ...


Competition Between Ski And Creb-Binding Protein For Binding To Smad Proteins In Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Signaling, Weijun Chen, Suvana Lam, Hema Srinath, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Competition Between Ski And Creb-Binding Protein For Binding To Smad Proteins In Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Signaling, Weijun Chen, Suvana Lam, Hema Srinath, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin

Celia A. Schiffer

The family of Smad proteins mediates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in cell growth and differentiation. Smads repress or activate TGF-beta signaling by interacting with corepressors (e.g. Ski) or coactivators (e.g. CREB-binding protein (CBP)), respectively. Specifically, Ski has been shown to interfere with the interaction between Smad3 and CBP. However, it is unclear whether Ski competes with CBP for binding to Smads and whether they can interact with Smad3 at the same binding surface on Smad3. We investigated the interactions among purified constructs of Smad, Ski, and CBP in vitro by size-exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry, and mutational ...


Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Hiv-1 Vif Reveals An Increase In Ordered Structure Upon Oligomerization In Regions Necessary For Viral Infectivity, Jared Auclair, Karin Green, Shivender Shandilya, James Evans, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Hiv-1 Vif Reveals An Increase In Ordered Structure Upon Oligomerization In Regions Necessary For Viral Infectivity, Jared Auclair, Karin Green, Shivender Shandilya, James Evans, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

HIV-1 Vif, an accessory protein in the viral genome, performs an important role in viral pathogenesis by facilitating the degradation of APOBEC3G, an endogenous cellular inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. In this study, intrinsically disordered regions are predicted in HIV-1 Vif using sequence-based algorithms. Intrinsic disorder may explain why traditional structure determination of HIV-1 Vif has been elusive, making structure-based drug design impossible. To characterize HIV-1 Vif's structural topology and to map the domains involved in oligomerization we used chemical cross-linking, proteolysis, and mass spectrometry. Cross-linking showed evidence of monomer, dimer, and trimer species via denaturing gel analysis and an ...


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