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A Cancer-Targeted Gold Nanoparticle-Based Mri Contrast Agent., Nagwa El-Baz 2018 University of Louisville

A Cancer-Targeted Gold Nanoparticle-Based Mri Contrast Agent., Nagwa El-Baz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In oncology, imaging plays a major role in terms of early detection and treatment of most types of cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is mostly used for cancer diagnosis due to its excellent contrast resolution. However, MRI for cancer diagnosis is somewhat limited by its sensitivity. In this thesis, we assessed the ability of theranostic platform consisting of gold nanoparticles functionalized with a cancer targeting aptamer; AS1411 and gadolinium chelate (Dotarem thiol derivative; Gd (III)-DO3A) as a MRI contrast agent to target malignant tumors by enhancing the MRI contrast of the detected tumor. The proposed technology is a novel ...


Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller 2018 University of Louisville

Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inherent heterogeneity of tumor tissue presents a major challenge to nanoparticle-medicated drug delivery. This heterogeneity spans from the molecular to the cellular (cell types) and to the tissue (vasculature, extra-cellular matrix) scales. Here we employ computational modeling to evaluate therapeutic response as a function of vascular-induced tumor tissue heterogeneity. Using data with three-layered gold nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin, nanotherapy is simulated with different levels of tissue heterogeneity, and the treatment response is measured in terms of tumor regression. The results show that tumor vascular density non-trivially influences the nanoparticle uptake and washout, and the associated tissue response. The drug ...


The Development Of Hydrogels And Nanoparticles For Drug And Cell Delivery To The Distal Airways, Christina Payne 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Development Of Hydrogels And Nanoparticles For Drug And Cell Delivery To The Distal Airways, Christina Payne

PhD theses

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major public health issue, affecting 64 million people globally. COPD is defined as a lung disease characterised by chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible. This obstruction is due to a combination of airway and parenchymal damage, associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response to noxious particles present in tobacco smoke. Despite the significant evolution of medical treatment options for COPD in the last two decades, it is still an incurable disease. Current interventions include pharmacological agents, which primarily aim for symptomatic control, and lung ...


Lipopolysaccharide Induced Map Kinase Activation In Raw 264.7 Cells Attenuated By Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles, Vellaisamy Selvaraj, Niraj Nepa, Steven Rogers, Nandini D.P.K. Manne, Ravi K. Arvapalli, Kevin M. Rice, Shinichi Asano, Erin Fankenhanel, J. Y. Ma, Tolou Shokuhfar, Mani Maheshwari, Eric R. Blough 2018 Marshall University

Lipopolysaccharide Induced Map Kinase Activation In Raw 264.7 Cells Attenuated By Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles, Vellaisamy Selvaraj, Niraj Nepa, Steven Rogers, Nandini D.P.K. Manne, Ravi K. Arvapalli, Kevin M. Rice, Shinichi Asano, Erin Fankenhanel, J. Y. Ma, Tolou Shokuhfar, Mani Maheshwari, Eric R. Blough

Mani Maheshwari

High mortality rates are associated with the life threatening disease of sepsis. Improvements in septic patient survivability have failed to materialize with currently available treatments. This article represents data regarding a study published in biomaterials (Vellaisamy et al., Biomaterials, 2015, in press). with the purpose of evaluating whether severe sepsis mortality and associated hepatic dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be prevented by cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) treatment in male Sprague Dawley rats. Here we provide the information about the method and processing of raw data related to our study publish in Biomaterials and Data in Brief (Vellaisamy et al ...


Investigating The Role Of Gold Nanoparticle Shape And Size In Their Toxicities To Fungi, Kangze Liu, Zhonglei He, Hugh Byrne, James Curtin, Furong Tian 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Investigating The Role Of Gold Nanoparticle Shape And Size In Their Toxicities To Fungi, Kangze Liu, Zhonglei He, Hugh Byrne, James Curtin, Furong Tian

Articles

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications, and such they are being released in greater quantities into the environment. Consequently, the environmental effects of GNPs, especially toxicities to living organisms, have drawn great attention. However, their toxicological characteristics still remain unclear. Fungi, as the decomposers of the ecosystem, interact directly with the environment and critically control the overall health of the biosphere. Thus, their sensitivity to GNP toxicity is particularly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GNP shape and size in their toxicities to fungi, which could help ...


Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, transfer endogenous RNAs between neurons over short and long distances. We have explored EVs for siRNA delivery to brain. (1) We optimized siRNA chemical modifications and siRNA conjugation to lipids for EV-mediated delivery. (2) We developed a GMP-compatible, scalable method to manufacture active EVs in bulk. (3) We characterized lipid and protein content of EVs in detail. (4) We established how protein and lipid composition relates to siRNA delivering activity of EVs, and we reverse engineered natural exosomes (small EVs) into artificial exosomes based on these data.

We established that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs passively associate ...


Toxicological Assessment Of Nanomaterials: The Role Of In Vitro Raman Microspectroscopic Analysis, Esen Efeoglu, Marcus Maher, Alan Casey, Hugh Byrne 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Toxicological Assessment Of Nanomaterials: The Role Of In Vitro Raman Microspectroscopic Analysis, Esen Efeoglu, Marcus Maher, Alan Casey, Hugh Byrne

Articles

The acceleration of nanomaterials research has brought about increased demands for rapid analysis of their bioactivity, in a multi-parametric fashion, to minimise the gap between potential applications and knowledge of their toxicological properties. The potential of Raman microspectroscopy for the analysis of biological systems with the aid of multivariate analysis techniques has been demonstrated. In this study, an overview of recent efforts towards establishing a ‘label-free high content nanotoxicological assessment technique’ using Raman microspectroscopy is presented. The current state of the art for cellular toxicity assessment and the potential of Raman microspectroscopy are discussed, and the spectral markers of the ...


Hyperpolarization Of Silicon Nanoparticles With Tempo Radicals, Jingzhe Hu, Nicholas Whiting, Pratip Bhattacharya 2018 University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Hyperpolarization Of Silicon Nanoparticles With Tempo Radicals, Jingzhe Hu, Nicholas Whiting, Pratip Bhattacharya

Nicholas Whiting

Silicon-based particles can be hyperpolarized via dynamic nuclear polarization to enhance 29Si magnetic resonance signals. Application of this technique to nanoscale silicon particles has been limited because of the low signal enhancements achieved; it is hypothesized that this is due to the low number of endogenous electronic defects inherent to the particles. We introduce a method of incorporating exogenous radicals into silicon nanoparticle suspensions in order to improve the hyperpolarization of 29Si nuclear spins to levels sufficient for in vivo MR imaging. Calibration of radical concentrations and polarization times are reported for a variety of silicon particle sizes (30−200 ...


Preparation And Physical Properties Of Functional Barium Carbonate Nanostructures By A Facile Composite-Hydroxide-Mediated Route, Tauseef Shahid, Muhammad Arfan, Aurang Zeb, Tayyaba BiBi, Taj Muhammad Khan 2018 Department of Applied Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Preparation And Physical Properties Of Functional Barium Carbonate Nanostructures By A Facile Composite-Hydroxide-Mediated Route, Tauseef Shahid, Muhammad Arfan, Aurang Zeb, Tayyaba Bibi, Taj Muhammad Khan

Articles

In recent years, nanotechnology has given birth to numerous nanomaterials due to their increased use in various sectors of research and development. To produce these nanomaterials, nanotechnology further has opened several rooms for the potential novel methods. Composite-hydroxide-mediated (CHM) method is one of the recent chemical synthesis routes that have gained considerable importance in research due to their effortlessness and versatile nature, covering a broad range of nanomaterials to prepare.


Dual Radiosensitization And Anti-Stat3 Anti-Proliferative Strategy Based On Delivery Of Gold Nanoparticle - Oligonucleotide Nanoconstructs To Head And Neck Cancer Cells, Surong Zhang, Suresh Gupta, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Alexei A. Bogdanov Jr. 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dual Radiosensitization And Anti-Stat3 Anti-Proliferative Strategy Based On Delivery Of Gold Nanoparticle - Oligonucleotide Nanoconstructs To Head And Neck Cancer Cells, Surong Zhang, Suresh Gupta, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Alexei A. Bogdanov Jr.

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) factor is an important therapeutic target in head and neck cancer (HNC). Despite early promising results, a reliable systemic delivery system for STAT3- targeted oligonucleotide (ODN) drugs is still needed for future clinical translation of anti-STAT3 therapies. We engineered and tested a novel ODN duplex/gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based system carrying a therapeutic STAT3 decoy (STAT3d) payload. This strategy is two-pronged because of the additive STAT3 antagonism and radiosensitizing properties of AuNP. The specificity to head and neck cancer cell surface was imparted by using a nucleolin aptamer (NUAP) that ...


Multimodal Noncontact Diffuse Optical Reflectance Imaging Of Blood Flow And Fluorescence Contrasts, Daniel Irwin 2018 University of Kentucky

Multimodal Noncontact Diffuse Optical Reflectance Imaging Of Blood Flow And Fluorescence Contrasts, Daniel Irwin

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

In this study we design a succession of three increasingly adept diffuse optical devices towards the simultaneous 3D imaging of blood flow and fluorescence contrasts in relatively deep tissues. These metrics together can provide future insights into the relationship between blood flow distributions and fluorescent or fluorescently tagged agents. A noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) device was firstly developed to recover flow by mechanically scanning a lens-based apparatus across the sample. The novel flow reconstruction technique and measuring boundary curvature were advanced in tandem. The establishment of CCD camera detection with a high sampling density and flow recovery by speckle ...


Hyperthermia As A Cancer Treatment- From Theory To Practice, Graham Fullerton 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Hyperthermia As A Cancer Treatment- From Theory To Practice, Graham Fullerton

CMC Senior Theses

Using iron super-paramagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles composed of Fe3O4 molecules, scientists analyze the effectiveness and practicality of this new treatment theory, hyperthermia. The problems of magnetic particle density, isothermal barriers/cellular cooling thresholds, and nanoparticle specific targeting are addressed in this review.

Iron magnetic nanoparticles were chosen due to their relatively low biological reactivates and lack of subsequent cellular toxicity. However, there are significant heating problems associated with these magnetic nanoparticles due to their relative size and short thermal time constants or thermal half-lives. Effectively, these aforementioned issues create a phenomenon where cancerous cells, surrounded by unheated ...


Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu 2018 Old Dominion University

Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) and the low efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) possess a high surface-area-to-volume ratio and size-dependent plasmonic optical properties, enabling them to serve both as imaging probes to study sized-dependent MDR and as potential drug carriers to circumvent MDR and enhance therapeutic efficacy. To this end, in this study, we synthesized three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), 2.4 ± 0.7, 13.0 ± 3.1, and 92.6 ± 4.4 nm, functionalized their surface with a monolayer of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT), and covalently conjugated them with ...


Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed 2017 The Universty of Western Ontario

Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fast diminishing of fossil fuels in the near future, as well as the global warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases have motivated the urgent quest to develop advanced materials as cost-effective photoanodes for solar light harvesting and many other photocatalytic applications. Recently, titania nanotube arrays (TNTAs) fabricated by anodization process has attracted great interest due to their excellent properties such as: high surface area, vertically oriented, highly organized, one-dimensional, nanotubular structure, photoactivity, chemical stability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of excellent properties makes TNTAs an excellent photoanode for solar light harvesting. However, the relatively wide band gap energy of ...


Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery/Treatment Methods For Ischemic Heart Diseases, Jason E. Brant 2017 University of Wyoming

Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery/Treatment Methods For Ischemic Heart Diseases, Jason E. Brant

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Ischemic heart conditions are some of the most prevalent disorders in the United States. These diseases also cause a significant number of mortalities each year. Despite considerable advances in treatment of the ischemic and infarct heart, many patients still develop complications and often progress to heart failure. These outcomes are typically related to factors such as the inability to deliver medication to the affected area, lack of successful stem cell implantation, improper tissue regeneration, and additional damage caused after reperfusion to ischemic tissues. The use of nanotechnology in the treatment of the ischemic and infarct heart has shown promising results ...


Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, Nisha Sharma 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, Nisha Sharma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Design and fabrication of the scaffold is an important part of the tissue engineering process. Nanofibrous scaffolds based on proteins are gaining increasing acceptance due to its structural similarity to the extracellular matrix. Making use of the electrospinning technique, rat tail collagen type I nanofibers were produced using a collagen in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) solution. In addition to optimizing the electrospinning process parameters, the effect of humidity on fiber morphology and diameter was investigated for fiber size control for particular tissue engineering applications. A generalized humidity effect on polymer fiber diameter of the polymer solution electrospinning process was developed. The as ...


Development Of Self-Assembling Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery Applications, Young Chan Kim, Craig Sweet, Helen Margaret Flynn, David H. Thompson 2017 Purdue University

Development Of Self-Assembling Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery Applications, Young Chan Kim, Craig Sweet, Helen Margaret Flynn, David H. Thompson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world, and occurs in nearly four percent of all men. Although many cases are diagnosed as early stage cancer and the tumor can be removed by surgery, reoccurrence rates are high making treatment difficult and thus one of the most expensive cancers. To address this problem, drugs are injected intravesically after tumor removal to kill any residual cancer that may cause reoccurrence. While this was a significant improvement over surgery alone, high toxicity along with short residence times in the bladder limited its effectiveness. To combat these shortcomings, we will ...


Therapeutic Efficacy Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Against Sepsis Induced Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome In Sprague Dawley Rats, Nandini Durga Prasanna Kumar Manne 2017 Selected Works

Therapeutic Efficacy Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Against Sepsis Induced Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome In Sprague Dawley Rats, Nandini Durga Prasanna Kumar Manne

Nandini Manne

Sepsis is a generalized term that signifies the presence of a pathogen in the blood stream to which the body responds by eliciting a systemic inflammatory response. Although sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-coronary intensive care units in United States, there are currently no FDA approved therapeutic drugs to treat this disorder. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) have been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties both in vitro and in vivo. Whether CeO2 nanoparticles can be used for the treatment of sepsis is currently unclear. To investigate whether CeO2 nanoparticles can be used to treat moderate ...


Influence Of Silver Nanoparticle Surface Charge On Cytotoxic Efficacy Against Cancer Cells, Elliot Christian Frey 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Influence Of Silver Nanoparticle Surface Charge On Cytotoxic Efficacy Against Cancer Cells, Elliot Christian Frey

Materials Engineering

Silver and silver-based products are known to cause cytotoxic effects to both microbes and eukaryotic cells. Because of this property, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being studied for their potential in targeted tumor treatments. Previous studies with microbes suggest that AgNPs with cationic capping agents possess enhanced cytotoxicity by virtue of Coulombic attraction between the nanoparticle and the negatively-charged cell wall. Since animal cells possess similar negatively-charged plasma membranes, this research hypothesized that human cells would be more susceptible to positively-charged AgNPs than to negatively-charged AgNPs. To investigate this theory, cancerous cervical cells (HeLa) and healthy fibroblast cells (3T3) were subjected ...


Polymeric Nanoparticles For Targeted Combination Treatment Of Temozolomide Resistant Glioblastoma Multiforme (Gbm), Praveena Velpurisiva, Brandon Piel, Jack Lepine, Prakash Rai 2017 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Polymeric Nanoparticles For Targeted Combination Treatment Of Temozolomide Resistant Glioblastoma Multiforme (Gbm), Praveena Velpurisiva, Brandon Piel, Jack Lepine, Prakash Rai

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive cancer that originates from astrocytes and spreads to spinal cord and other parts of the brain. Increase in replication of glial cells leads to advantageous mutations in the tumor. According to the cancer statistics from 2015 about 15,320 deaths were reported due to GBM. Five-year survival is less than 5% making GBM a dreadful form of cancer. Current treatment involves complex invasive surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation. The goal of this study is to develop a combination therapy to treat GBM using Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles encapsulated with two drugs namely ...


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