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1087 full-text articles. Page 1 of 35.

Social Identity And Substance Abuse In The Lesbian Community, Molly Kerby 2017 Western Kentucky University

Social Identity And Substance Abuse In The Lesbian Community, Molly Kerby

Molly Kerby

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs) among members of the lesbian community. Additionally, the investigator attempted to determine if there was a relationship between negative social identity and low selfesteem that is reflected in higher rates of substance abuse. The data collection method employed in this study was a type of nonprobability sampling procedure referred to as a purposive sample. The questionnaire was derived from instruments used by other researchers and validated by an expert panel. In order to select respondents from the lesbian population to be included ...


Performance Indicator Analysis Of Proficiency Criteria In The Drug-Testing-Laboratory Certification Process Of The Dhhs, John M. Gleason, Darold T. Barnum 2017 University of New Hampshire

Performance Indicator Analysis Of Proficiency Criteria In The Drug-Testing-Laboratory Certification Process Of The Dhhs, John M. Gleason, Darold T. Barnum

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors highlight and propose remedies for problems in the proficiency criteria used in certifying laboratories for drug testing federal employees in the United States.


Pregnant Women And Substance Use: Overview Of Research & Policy In The United States, Darla Bishop, Liz Borkowski, Megan Couillard, Amy Allina, Susanna Baruch, Susan Wood 2017 George Washington University

Pregnant Women And Substance Use: Overview Of Research & Policy In The United States, Darla Bishop, Liz Borkowski, Megan Couillard, Amy Allina, Susanna Baruch, Susan Wood

Jacobs Institute of Women's Health

This paper examines the current literature and policy implications of substance use and substance use disorders among pregnant and parenting women. While this is not meant to serve as an exhaustive literature review on this topic, it seeks to describe: current research on health effects of substance use and substance use disorders on pregnant women1 and their children; policies and programs that help ensure that pregnant women who use substances have access to the highest quality healthcare, including prenatal care; the current barriers to accessing treatment for substance use disorders for pregnant women, including those who are incarcerated; and the ...


Drugs, Alcohol, And Suicide Represent Growing Share Of U.S. Mortality, Shannon M. Monnat 2017 Pennsylvania State University - Main Campus

Drugs, Alcohol, And Suicide Represent Growing Share Of U.S. Mortality, Shannon M. Monnat

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

In this brief, author Shannon Monnat identifies trends in mortality rates from drugs, alcohol, and suicide by race and sex for adults aged 25 to 54, from the years 2000 to 2014. She reports that—nationwide--the mortality rate from deaths involving drugs, alcohol, and suicide rose 52 percent from 2000 to 2014. Drug, alcohol, and suicide mortality rates are highest among middle-aged non-Hispanic white males and are growing fastest among non-Hispanic white females. Nearly half of all young white male deaths are caused by drugs, alcohol, or suicide. A little over a quarter of young Hispanic male deaths and 13 ...


E-Cigarette Specialty Retailers: Data To Assess The Association Between Retail Environment And Student E-Cigarette Use, Georgiana Bostean, Catherine M. Crespi, Patsornkarn Vorapharuek, William J. McCarthy 2017 Chapman University

E-Cigarette Specialty Retailers: Data To Assess The Association Between Retail Environment And Student E-Cigarette Use, Georgiana Bostean, Catherine M. Crespi, Patsornkarn Vorapharuek, William J. Mccarthy

Sociology Faculty Articles and Research

The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, “E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools,” by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016). We present data relating to e-cigarette specialty retailers in Orange County, California. We describe the data collection method (including the search methodology to identify e-cigarette specialty retailers ...


A Qualitative Study Of The Context Of Child And Adolescent Substance Use Initiation And Patterns Of Use In The First Year For Early And Later Initiators, Sharon Kingston, Maya Rose, Julian Cohen-Serrins, Emily Knight 2017 Dickinson College

A Qualitative Study Of The Context Of Child And Adolescent Substance Use Initiation And Patterns Of Use In The First Year For Early And Later Initiators, Sharon Kingston, Maya Rose, Julian Cohen-Serrins, Emily Knight

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants’ first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use ...


Effects Of A Text Message-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention On Cigarette Smoking In College Students., Anna Jorayeva 2016 University of Louisville

Effects Of A Text Message-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention On Cigarette Smoking In College Students., Anna Jorayeva

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the effects of a novel text message-based motivational interviewing intervention on cigarette smoking behavior in college students. Three manuscripts comprised this dissertation and included: a state of the science review of motivational interviewing and text message-based smoking behavior interventions in adolescents and young adults; a critical review and analysis of instruments used to measure nicotine dependence in young adults; and a quasi-experimental study testing the effects of a novel text message-based motivational interviewing intervention on cigarette smoking behavior in college students. Background: Cigarette smoking is the number one preventable cause of ...


Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora Health Care

Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Since 2003, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have grown in popularity. E-cigs are often marketed as a safer, healthier alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes or as an aid for smoking cessation. However, the risks and benefits of e-cig use, as well as the beliefs that influence use or avoidance, are poorly understood.

Purpose: To assess our patient population’s perception or beliefs as they relate to e-cig use.

Methods: A 13-question survey regarding nicotine and e-cig use was distributed to English-speaking adult patients at Aurora St. Luke’s Family Practice Clinic from August 2015 to January 2016. Questions assessed patient demographics ...


Prevalence Of Prescription Opioid Abuse In Patients With Pain, Samuel Godana, Ankoor Biswas, Nebiyu Biru, Abraham Getenet, Biana Leybishkis 2016 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Prevalence Of Prescription Opioid Abuse In Patients With Pain, Samuel Godana, Ankoor Biswas, Nebiyu Biru, Abraham Getenet, Biana Leybishkis

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Studies showed that 20% to 30% of opioid analgesic drugs prescribed for chronic pain in the United States are misused, while the rate of opioid addiction is approximately 10%. The study describes methods to identify high-risk behavior and forward recommendations to decrease opioid abuse.

Purpose: To assess prevalence and correlate multiple variables with opioid abuse and to forward appropriate recommendation to decrease the prevalence of opioid abuse in the primary care setting.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted at a primary health care clinic, Aurora Sinai Medical Center (Milwaukee, WI). Over 6 months, a total of 49 consecutive patients ...


Impact Of A Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System On Smoking Cessation: The Perspect Randomized Experiment, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Erin M. Borglund, Roy Adams, Benjamin M. Marlin, Thomas K. Houston 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Impact Of A Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System On Smoking Cessation: The Perspect Randomized Experiment, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Erin M. Borglund, Roy Adams, Benjamin M. Marlin, Thomas K. Houston

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

BACKGROUND: Outside health care, content tailoring is driven algorithmically using machine learning compared to the rule-based approach used in current implementations of computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) systems. A special class of machine learning systems ("recommender systems") are used to select messages by combining the collective intelligence of their users (ie, the observed and inferred preferences of users as they interact with the system) and their user profiles. However, this approach has not been adequately tested for CTHC.

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare, in a randomized experiment, a standard, evidence-based, rule-based CTHC (standard CTHC) to a novel machine learning CTHC ...


Chemical Reactions: Marijuana, Opioids, And Our Families, Denise A. Hines Ph.D, Staci Gruber Ph.D, John F. Kelly Ph.D, Kathleen M. Palm Reed, Hilary Smith Connery M.D., Ph.D. 2016 Clark University

Chemical Reactions: Marijuana, Opioids, And Our Families, Denise A. Hines Ph.D, Staci Gruber Ph.D, John F. Kelly Ph.D, Kathleen M. Palm Reed, Hilary Smith Connery M.D., Ph.D.

Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise

Chemical Reactions: Marijuana, Opioids, and Our Families is the seventh Massachusetts Family Impact Seminar. This seminar was designed to emphasize a family perspective in policymaking on issues related to the legalization of marijuana and managing the opioid abuse crisis in the Commonwealth. In general, Family Impact Seminars analyze the consequences an issue, policy, or program may have for families.


How Medicaid And Other Public Policies Affect Use Of Tobacco Cessation Therapy, United States, 2010-2014., Leighton Ku, Erin Brantley, Tyler Bysshe, Erika Steinmetz, Brian K. Bruen 2016 George Washington University

How Medicaid And Other Public Policies Affect Use Of Tobacco Cessation Therapy, United States, 2010-2014., Leighton Ku, Erin Brantley, Tyler Bysshe, Erika Steinmetz, Brian K. Bruen

Health Policy and Management Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: State Medicaid programs can cover tobacco cessation therapies for millions of low-income smokers in the United States, but use of this benefit is low and varies widely by state. This article assesses the effects of changes in Medicaid benefit policies, general tobacco policies, smoking norms, and public health programs on the use of cessation therapy among Medicaid smokers.

METHODS: We used longitudinal panel analysis, using 2-way fixed effects models, to examine the effects of changes in state policies and characteristics on state-level use of Medicaid tobacco cessation medications from 2010 through 2014.

RESULTS: Medicaid policies that require patients to ...


Can Tobacco Dependence Provide Insights Into Other Drug Addictions, Joseph R. DiFranza 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Can Tobacco Dependence Provide Insights Into Other Drug Addictions, Joseph R. Difranza

Open Access Articles

Within the field of addiction research, individuals tend to operate within silos of knowledge focused on specific drug classes. The discovery that tobacco dependence develops in a progression of stages and that the latency to the onset of withdrawal symptoms after the last use of tobacco changes over time have provided insights into how tobacco dependence develops that might be applied to the study of other drugs. As physical dependence on tobacco develops, it progresses through previously unrecognized clinical stages of wanting, craving and needing. The latency to withdrawal is a measure of the asymptomatic phase of withdrawal, extending from ...


Academic Medicine Responds To The Opioid Crisis, John Prescott 2016 Association of American Medical Colleges

Academic Medicine Responds To The Opioid Crisis, John Prescott

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Opioid dependence has devastated communities across the nation particularly in rural states and academic medicine has responded in a variety of ways. Through its tripartite mission of education, research, and clinical care, creative solutions are being implanted. Medical schools and teaching hospitals are partnering with public health and law enforcement agencies, as well as local healthcare providers to address the clinical, social, and rehabilitative challenges. Academic medicine continues to adapt to the needs of the nation and teach, train, and prepare the next generation of physicians to be at their best when things are at their worst.


Book Review, Jennifer L. Frizzell 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Jennifer L. Frizzell

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the following: THOMAS SZASZ, OUR RIGHT TO DRUGS: THE CASE FOR A FREE MARKET. (Praeger 1992) [164 pp.] Notes, bibliography, name index, notes, preface, subject index. LC: 91-30378; ISBN: 0-275-94216-3. [Cloth $19.95. P.O. Box 5007, Westwood CT 06881-9990.]


The Supreme Court As Risk Manager: An Analysis Of Skinner, Todd F. Volyn, James F. Mogan, Lisa M. White 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Supreme Court As Risk Manager: An Analysis Of Skinner, Todd F. Volyn, James F. Mogan, Lisa M. White

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Examining a recent case in which the U.S. Supreme Court approved the collection of blood and urine samples from railroad employees, the authors conclude that, in attempting to improve railroad safety, both majority and minority opinions reflected undue emphasis on technical issues and inadequate attention to the intangible social values underlying traditional Constitutional rights to privacy.


Sexual Dimorphism In Alcohol Induced Adipose Inflammation Relates To Liver Injury, Melissa A. Fulham, Pranoti Mandrekar 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sexual Dimorphism In Alcohol Induced Adipose Inflammation Relates To Liver Injury, Melissa A. Fulham, Pranoti Mandrekar

Open Access Articles

Alcoholic liver disease occurs due to chronic, heavy drinking and is driven both by metabolic alterations and immune cell activation. Women are at a higher risk than men for developing alcohol induced liver injury and this dimorphism is reflected in animal models of alcoholic liver disease. The importance of adipose tissue in alcoholic liver disease is emerging. Chronic alcohol consumption causes adipose tissue inflammation, which can influence liver injury. Sex differences in body fat composition are well known. However, it is still unclear if alcohol-induced adipose tissue inflammation occurs in a sex-dependent manner. Here we have employed the clinically relevant ...


Book Review, John M. Gleason 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, John M. Gleason

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the following book: ROBERT THOMPSON, JR., SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND EMPLOYEE REHABILITATION (BNA Books 1990) [485 pp.] Appendices, bibliography, index, table of cases. LC-90-2629; ISBN 0-87179-649-X


Predictive Probabilities In Employee Drug-Testing, John M. Gleason, Darold T. Barnum 2016 University of New Hampshire

Predictive Probabilities In Employee Drug-Testing, John M. Gleason, Darold T. Barnum

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Substance abuse in the U.S. has been estimated to cost $99 billion annually through lower productivity. Yet the authors urge caution in attempting to reduce these costs and health and safety Risks. In doing so, they cite commonly high frequencies of false negatives and false positives in employee drug tests - the latter having the potential to do great injustice to many drug-free employees.


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Videoconferencing Smoking Cessation Intervention For Korean American Women: Preliminary Findings, Sun S. Kim, Somporn Sitthisongkram, Kunsook Bernstein, Hua (Julia) Fang, Won S. Choi, Douglas M. Ziedonis 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Videoconferencing Smoking Cessation Intervention For Korean American Women: Preliminary Findings, Sun S. Kim, Somporn Sitthisongkram, Kunsook Bernstein, Hua (Julia) Fang, Won S. Choi, Douglas M. Ziedonis

Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations

Introduction: Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking.

Methods: This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention. Women of Korean ethnicity were recruited nationwide in the United States and ...


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